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A novel is a longer work of narrative fiction compared to a novella, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian: novella for "new," "news," or "short story of something new," itself from the Latin: novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new." The novel revives the tradition of the romance. "Romances" are works of fiction whose main emphasis is on marvelous or unusual incidents, and should not be confused with the romance novel, a type of genre fiction that focuses on romantic love.
The exact origin of the modern novel is in dispute. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji, an early eleventh-century Japanese text, has sometimes been described as the world's first novel based on its early use of the experience of intimacy in a narrative form, but there is considerable debate over this — there were certainly long fictional prose works that preceded it. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and Qing dynasty (1616-1911). An early example from Europe was written in Muslim Spain by the Sufi writer Ibn Tufayl entitled Hayy ibn Yaqdhan. Later developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote (the first part of which was published in 1605), is frequently cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Literary historian Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel (1957), argued that the modern novel was born in the early eighteenth century.
Recent technological developments have led to many novels also being published in non-print media: this includes audio books, web novels, and ebooks. Another non-traditional fiction format can be found in some graphic novels. While these comic book versions of works of fiction have their origins in the nineteenth century, they have only become popular more recently.
Defining the genre
A novel is a long, fictional narrative. The novel in the modern era usually makes use of a literary prose style. The development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, and the introduction of cheap paper in the fifteenth century.
Several characteristics of a novel might include:
- Fictional narrative: Fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However, throughout the early modern period (1400-1500) authors of historical narratives would often include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would also invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social, political and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Several novels, for example Ông cố vấn written by Hữu Mai, were designed to be and defined as a "non-fiction" novel which purposefully recorded historical facts in the form of a novel.
- Literary prose: While prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France, especially those by Chrétien de Troyes (late twelfth century), and in Middle English (Geoffrey Chaucer's (c. 1343 – 1400) The Canterbury Tales). Even in the nineteenth century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan (1824), Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin (1833), and Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh (1856), competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate (1986), composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel.
- Experience of intimacy: Both in eleventh-century Japan and fifteenth-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading opportunities. Harold Bloom characterizes Lady Murasaki's use of intimacy and irony in The Tale of Genji as "having anticipated Cervantes as the first novelist." On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct," and "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance.
- Length: The novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the seventeenth century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, however, not possible. The philosopher and literary critic György Lukács argued that the requirement of length is connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the totality of life.
According to Margaret Doody, the novel has "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years," with its origins in the Ancient Greek and Roman novel, in Chivalric romance, and in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. The ancient romance form was revived by Romanticism, especially the historical romances of Walter Scott and the Gothic novel. Some, including M. H. Abrams and Walter Scott, have argued that a novel is a fiction narrative that displays a realistic depiction of the state of a society, while the romance encompasses any fictitious narrative that emphasizes marvelous or uncommon incidents.
This distinction was not embraced by all novelists. Some novelists, including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Ann Radcliffe, John Cowper Powys, preferred the term "romance" to describe their novels.
East Asian definition
East Asian countries, like China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, use the word 小說 (pinyin: xiǎoshuō), which literally means "small talks," to refer works of fiction of whatever length. In Chinese, Japanese and Korean cultures, the concept of novel as it is known in the Western/Anglophone world was and still is termed as "long length small talk" (長篇小說), novella as “medium length small talk” (中篇小說), and short stories as "short length small talk" (短篇小說). However, in Vietnamese culture, the term 小說 exclusively refers to 長篇小說 (long-length small talk), i.e. standard novel, while different terms are used to refer to novella and short stories.
Such terms originated from ancient Chinese classification of literature works into "small talks" (tales of daily life and trivial matters) and "great talks" ("sacred" classic works of great thinkers like Confucius). The ancient definition of "small talks" merely refer to trivial affairs, trivial facts, and can be different from the Western concept of novel. According to Lu Xun, the word "small talks" first appeared in the works of Zhuang Zhou, who coined such term. Later scholars also provided similar definitions. Han dynasty historian Ban Gu categorized all the trivial stories and gossips collected by local government magistrates as "small talks." Hồ Nguyên Trừng classified his memoir collection Nam Ông mộng lục as "small talks" clearly with the meaning of "trivial facts" rather than the Western definition of novel. Such classification also left a strong legacy in several East Asian interpretations of the Western definition of novel at the time when Western literature was first introduced to East Asian countries. For example, Thanh Lãng and Nhất Linh classified the epic poems such as The Tale of Kiều as a "novel," while Trần Chánh Chiếu emphasized the feature that it "belongs to the commoners," or "trivial daily talks" as an aspect in one of his works.
The earliest novels include classical Greek and Latin prose narratives from the first century B.C.E. to the second century C.E., such as Chariton's Callirhoe (mid first century), which is "arguably the earliest surviving Western novel," as well as Petronius' Satyricon, Lucian's True Story, Apuleius' The Golden Ass, and the anonymous Aesop Romance and Alexander Romance. The style of these works was later adapted in Byzantine novels such as Hysimine and Hysimines by Eustathios Makrembolites Narrative forms were also developed in Classical Sanskrit in the 5th through 8th centuries CE, such as Vasavadatta by Subandhu, Daśakumāracarita and Avantisundarīkathā by Daṇḍin, Kadambari by Banabhatta.
Urbanization and the spread of printed books in Song Dynasty (960–1279) China led to the evolution of oral storytelling into fictional novels by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). Parallel European developments did not occur until after the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439. The rise of the publishing industry over a century later allowed for similar opportunities.
Medieval period 1100–1500
Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe. They were marvel-filled adventures, often of a knight-errant with heroic qualities, who undertakes a quest, yet it is "the emphasis on heterosexual love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the chanson de geste and other kinds of epic, which involve heroism." In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a marked tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love.
Originally, romance literature was written in Old French, Anglo-Norman and Occitan, later, in English, Italian and German. During the early thirteenth century C.E., romances were increasingly written as prose.
The shift from verse to prose dates from the early thirteenth century. The Prose Lancelot or Vulgate Cycle includes passages from that period. This collection indirectly led to Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur of the early 1470s. Prose became increasingly attractive because it enabled writers to associate popular stories with serious histories traditionally composed in prose, and could also be more easily translated.
Popular literature also drew on themes of romance, but with ironic, satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends, fairy tales, and history, but by about 1600 they were out of fashion, and Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in Don Quixote (1605). The modern European novel is often said to have begun with Don Quixote. Still, the modern image of the medieval is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, and the word "medieval" evokes knights, distressed damsels, dragons, and such tropes.
The term "novel" originates from the production of short stories, or novella that remained part of a European oral culture of storytelling into the late nineteenth century. Fairy tales, jokes, and humorous stories designed to make a point in a conversation, and the exemplum a priest would insert in a sermon belong to this tradition. Written collections of such stories circulated in a wide range of products from practical compilations of examples designed for the use of clerics to compilations of various stories such as Boccaccio's Decameron (1354) and Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1386–1400). The Decameron was a compilation of one hundred novelle told by ten people—seven women and three men—fleeing the Black Death by escaping from Florence to the Fiesole hills in 1348.
Renaissance period: 1500–1700
The modern distinction between history and fiction did not exist in the early sixteenth century. Many historical accounts found in the early modern print market contain clearly fictional content. William Caxton's 1485 edition of Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur (1471) was sold as a true history, though the story unfolded in a series of magical incidents and historical improbabilities. Sir John Mandeville's Voyages, written in the fourteenth century, but circulated in printed editions throughout the eighteenth century, was filled with natural wonders, which were accepted as fact, like the one-footed Ethiopians who use their extremity as an umbrella against the desert sun. Both works eventually came to be viewed as works of fiction.
In the 16th and 17th centuries two factors led to the separation of history and fiction. The invention of printing immediately created a new market of comparatively cheap entertainment and knowledge in the form of chapbooks. The more elegant production of this genre by seventeenth- and eighteenth-century authors were belles lettres—that is, a market that would be neither low nor academic. The second major development was the first best-seller of modern fiction, the Spanish Amadis de Gaula, by García Montalvo. It was not accepted as an example of belles lettres. The Amadis eventually became the archetypical romance, in contrast with the modern novel which began to be developed in the seventeenth century.
A chapbook is an early type of popular literature printed in early modern Europe. Produced cheaply, chapbooks were commonly small, paper-covered booklets, usually printed on a single sheet folded into books of 8, 12, 16 and 24 pages. They were often illustrated with crude woodcuts, which sometimes bore no relation to the text. When illustrations were included in chapbooks, they were considered popular prints. The tradition arose in the sixteenth century, as soon as printed books became affordable, and rose to its height during the 17th and 18th centuries. Many different kinds of ephemera and popular or folk literature were published as chapbooks, such as almanacs, children's literature, folk tales, nursery rhymes, pamphlets, poetry, and political and religious tracts.
The term "chapbook" for this type of literature was coined in the nineteenth century. The corresponding French and German terms are bibliothèque bleue (blue book) and Volksbuch, respectively. The principal historical subject matter of chapbooks was abridgements of ancient historians, popular medieval histories of knights, stories of comical heroes, religious legends, and collections of jests and fables. The new printed books reached the households of urban citizens and country merchants who visited the cities as traders. Cheap printed histories were, in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially popular among apprentices and younger urban readers of both sexes.
The early modern market, from the 1530s and 1540s, divided into low chapbooks and high market expensive, fashionable, elegant belles lettres. The Amadis and Rabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel were important publications in this divide. Both books specifically addressed the new customers of popular histories, rather than readers of belles lettres. The Amadis was a multi–volume fictional history of style, arousing a debate about style and elegance as it became the first best-seller of popular fiction. On the other hand, Gargantua and Pantagruel adopted the form of modern popular history, but satirized that genre's stylistic achievements. The division, between low and high literature, became especially visible with books that appeared on both the popular and belles lettres markets in the course of the 17th and 18th centuries: low chapbooks included abridgments of books such as Don Quixote.
The term "chapbook" is also in use for present-day publications, commonly short, inexpensive booklets.
Heroic Romance is a genre of imaginative literature, which flourished in the seventeenth century, principally in France.
The beginnings of modern fiction in France took a pseudo-bucolic form, and the celebrated L'Astrée, (1610) of Honore d'Urfe (1568–1625), which is the earliest French novel, is properly styled a pastoral. Although its action was, in the main, languid and sentimental, there was a side of the Astree which encouraged that extravagant love of glory, that spirit of "panache," which was now rising to its height in France. That spirit animated Marin le Roy de Gomberville (1603–1674), who was the inventor of what have since been known as the Heroical Romances. In these the reader experienced a violent recrudescence of the old medieval elements of romance, the impossible valor devoted to a pursuit of the impossible beauty, but clothed in the language and feeling and atmosphere of the age in which the books were written. In order to give point to the chivalrous actions of the heroes, it was always hinted that they were well-known public characters of the day in a romantic disguise.
Stories of witty cheats were an integral part of the European novella with its tradition of fabliaux. Significant examples include Till Eulenspiegel (1510), Lazarillo de Tormes (1554), Grimmelshausen's Simplicissimus Teutsch (1666–1668) and in England Richard Head's The English Rogue (1665). The tradition that developed with these titles focused on a hero and his life. The adventures led to satirical encounters with the real world with the hero either becoming the pitiable victim or the rogue who exploited the vices of those he met.
A second tradition of satirical romances can be traced back to Heinrich Wittenwiler's Ring (c. 1410) and to François Rabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532–1564), which parodied and satirized heroic romances, and did this mostly by dragging them into the low realm of the burlesque. Don Quixote modified the satire of romances: its hero lost contact with reality by reading too many romances in the Amadisian tradition.
Other important works of the tradition are Paul Scarron's Roman Comique (1651–57), the anonymous French Rozelli with its satire on Europe's religions, Alain-René Lesage's Gil Blas (1715–1735), Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews (1742) and Tom Jones (1749), and Denis Diderot's Jacques the Fatalist (1773, printed posthumously in 1796).
A market of literature in the modern sense of the word, that is, a separate market for fiction and poetry, did not exist until the late seventeenth century. All books were sold under the rubric of "History and politicks" in the early eighteenth century, including pamphlets, memoirs, travel literature, political analysis, serious histories, romances, poetry, and novels.
That fictional histories shared the same space with academic histories and modern journalism had been criticized by historians since the end of the Middle Ages: fictions were "lies" and therefore hardly justifiable at all. The climate, however, changed in the 1670s.
The romance format of the quasi–historical works of Madame d'Aulnoy, César Vichard de Saint-Réal, Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras, and Anne-Marguerite Petit du Noyer, allowed the publication of histories that dared not risk an unambiguous assertion of their truth. The literary market-place of the late 17th and early eighteenth century employed a simple pattern of options whereby fictions could reach out into the sphere of true histories. This permitted its authors to claim they had published fiction, not truth, if they ever faced allegations of libel.
Prefaces and title pages of seventeenth and early eighteenth century fiction acknowledged this pattern: histories could claim to be romances, but threaten to relate true events, as in the Roman à clef. Other works could, conversely, claim to be factual histories, yet earn the suspicion that they were wholly invented. A further differentiation was made between private and public history: Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe was, within this pattern, neither a "romance" nor a "novel." It smelled of romance, yet the preface stated that it should most certainly be read as a true private history.
Cervantes and the modern novel
The rise of the modern novel as an alternative to the chivalric romance began with the publication of Miguel de Cervantes' Novelas Exemplares (1613). It continued with Scarron's Roman Comique (the first part of which appeared in 1651), whose heroes noted the rivalry between French romances and the new Spanish genre.
Late seventeenth-century critics looked back on the history of prose fiction, proud of the generic shift that had taken place, leading towards the modern novel and novella. The first perfect works in French were those of Scarron and Madame de La Fayette's "Spanish history" Zayde (1670). The development finally led to her Princesse de Clèves (1678), the first novel with what would become characteristic French subject matter.
Europe witnessed the generic shift in the titles of works in French published in Holland, which supplied the international market and English publishers exploited the novel/romance controversy in the 1670s and 1680s. Contemporary critics listed the advantages of the new genre: brevity, a lack of ambition to produce epic poetry in prose; the style was fresh and plain; the focus was on modern life, and on heroes who were neither good nor bad. The novel's potential to become the medium of urban gossip and scandal fueled the rise of the novel and novella. Stories were offered as allegedly true recent histories, not for the sake of scandal but strictly for the moral lessons they gave. Fictionalized names were used with the true names in a separate key. The Mercure Gallant set the fashion in the 1670s. Collections of letters and memoirs appeared, and were filled with the intriguing new subject matter. The epistolary novel grew from this tradition, leading to the first full blown example of scandalous fiction in Aphra Behn's Love-Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister (1684/ 1685/ 1687). Before the rise of the literary novel, reading novels had only been a form of entertainment.
However, one of the earliest English novels, Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719), has elements of the romance because of its exotic setting and story of survival in isolation. Crusoe lacks almost all of the elements found in these new novels: wit, a fast narration evolving around a group of young fashionable urban heroes, along with their intrigues, a scandalous moral, gallant talk to be imitated, and a brief, concise plot. The new developments did, however, lead to Eliza Haywood's epic length novel, Love in Excess (1719/20) and to Samuel Richardson's Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1741). Some literary historians date the beginning of the English novel with Richardson's Pamela, rather than Crusoe.
The idea of the "rise of the novel" in the eighteenth century is especially associated with Ian Watt's influential study The Rise of the Novel. In Watt's conception, a rise in fictional realism during the eighteenth century came to distinguish the novel from earlier prose narratives.
The rising status of the novel in the eighteenth century can be seen in the development of philosophical and experimental novels.
Philosophical fiction was not exactly new. Plato's dialogues were embedded in fictional narratives and his Republic is an early example of a Utopia. Ibn Tufail's twelfth century Philosophus Autodidacticus with its story of a human outcast surviving on an island, and the thirteenth century response by Ibn al-Nafis, Theologus Autodidactus are both didactic narrative works that can be thought of as early examples of a philosophical and a theological novel, respectively.
The tradition of works of fiction that were also philosophical texts continued with Thomas More's Utopia (1516) and Tommaso Campanella's City of the Sun (1602). However, the actual tradition of the philosophical novel came into existence in the 1740s with new editions of More's work under the title Utopia: or the happy republic; a philosophical romance (1743). Voltaire wrote in this genre in Micromegas: a comic romance, which is a biting satire on philosophy, ignorance, and the self-conceit of mankind (1752, English 1753). His Zadig (1747) and Candide (1759) became central texts of the French Enlightenment and of the modern novel.
Laurence Sterne's The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (1759–1767), with its rejection of continuous narration, exemplifies the experimental novel. The author not only addresses readers in his preface but speaks directly to them in his fictional narrative. In addition to Sterne's narrative experiments, there has visual experiments, such as a marbled page, a black page to express sorrow, and a page of lines to show the plot lines of the book. The novel as a whole focuses on the problems of language, with constant regard to John Locke's theories in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
The romance genre
The rise of the word novel at the expense of its rival, the romance, remained a Spanish and English phenomenon, and though readers all over Western Europe had welcomed the novel(la) or short history as an alternative in the second half of the seventeenth century, only the English and the Spanish had openly discredited the romance.
The change of taste was brief and Fénelon's Telemachus [Les Aventures de Télémaque] (1699/1700) already exploited a nostalgia for the old romances with their heroism and professed virtue. In 1715 Jane Barker explicitly advertised her Exilius as "A new Romance", "written after the Manner of Telemachus." Robinson Crusoe spoke of his own story as a "romance," though in the preface to the third volume, published in 1720, Defoe attacks all who said "that [...] the Story is feign'd, that the Names are borrow'd, and that it is all a Romance; that there never were any such Man or Place."
The late eighteenth century brought an answer with the Romantic Movement's readiness to reclaim the word romance, with the gothic romance and the historical novels of Walter Scott. Robinson Crusoe now became a "novel" in this period, that is, a work of the new realistic fiction created in the eighteenth century.
The sentimental novel
Sentimental novels relied on emotional responses, and feature scenes of distress and tenderness. The plot is arranged to advance emotions rather than action. The result is a valorization of "fine feeling," displaying the characters as models of refined, sensitive emotional affect. The ability to display such feelings was thought to show character and experience, and to help shape positive social life and relationships.
Samuel Richardson's Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740), composed "to cultivate the Principles of Virtue and Religion in the Minds of the Youth of Both Sexes," focuses on a potential victim, a heroine that has all the modern virtues and who is vulnerable because her low social status and her occupation as servant of a libertine who falls in love with her. She ultimately triumphs, reforming her antagonist.
Male heroes adopted the new sentimental character traits in the 1760s. Laurence Sterne's Yorick, the hero of the Sentimental Journey (1768) did so with an enormous amount of humor. Oliver Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield (1766) and Henry Mackenzie's Man of Feeling (1771) produced the far more serious role models.
These works inspired a sub- and counterculture of pornographic novels, for which Greek and Latin authors in translations had provided elegant models from the previous century. Pornography includes John Cleland's Fanny Hill (1748), which offered an almost exact reversal of the plot of novels that emphasized virtue. The prostitute Fanny Hill learns to enjoy her work and establishes herself as a free and economically independent individual, in editions one could only expect to buy under the counter.
Less virtuous protagonists can also be found in satirical novels, like Richard Head's English Rogue (1665), that feature brothels, while women authors like Aphra Behn had offered their heroines alternative careers as precursors of the nineteenth-century femmes fatales.
The genre evolved in the 1770s with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). The hero can not integrate into the new conformist society, ultimately committing suicide. Pierre Choderlos de Laclos in Les Liaisons dangereuses (1782) depicts a group of aristocrats playing games of intrigue and amorality.
Changing cultural status
By around 1700, fiction was no longer a predominantly aristocratic entertainment, and printed books had soon gained the power to reach readers of almost all classes, though the reading habits differed and to follow fashions remained a privilege. Spain was a trendsetter into the 1630s but French authors superseded Cervantes, de Quevedo, and Alemán in the 1640s. As Huet was to note in 1670, the change was one of manners. The new French works taught a new, and on the surface freer, gallant exchange between the sexes as the essence of life at the French court.
The situation changed again from 1660s into the 1690s when works by French authors were published in Holland out of the reach of French censors. Dutch publishing houses pirated fashionable books from France and created a new market of political and scandalous fiction. This led to a market of European rather than French fashions in the early eighteenth century.
By the 1680s fashionable political European novels had inspired a second wave of private scandalous publications and generated new productions of local importance. Women authors reported on politics and on their private love affairs in The Hague and in London. German students imitated them, boasting of their private amours in fiction. The London, the anonymous international market of the Netherlands, publishers in Hamburg and Leipzig generated new public spheres. Once private individuals, such as students in university towns and daughters of London's upper class began to write novels based on questionable reputations, the public began to call for a reformation of manners.
New journals like The Spectator and The Tatler that reviewed novels were an important development in Britain at the beginning of the century. In Germany Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's Briefe, die neuste Literatur betreffend (1758) appeared in the middle of the century with reviews of art and fiction. By the 1780s such reviews played had an important role in introducing new works of fiction to the public.
Influenced by the new journals, reform became the main goal of the second generation of eighteenth century novelists. The Spectator Number 10 had stated that the aim was now "to enliven morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality […] to bring philosophy out of the closets and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffeehouses." Constructive criticism of novels had until then been rare. The first treatise on the history of the novel was a preface to Marie de La Fayette's novel Zayde (1670).
A much later development was the introduction of novels into school and later university curricula.
Acceptance of novels as literature
In the early eighteenth century the French churchman and scholar Pierre Daniel Huet's Traitté de l'origine des romans (1670) laid the ground for a greater acceptance of the novel as literature that is comparable to the classics. The theologian had not only dared to praise fictions, but he had also explained techniques of theological interpretation of fiction, which was a novelty. Furthermore, readers of novels and romances could gain insight not only into their own culture, but also that of distant, exotic countries.
When the decades around 1700 saw the appearance of new editions of the classical authors Petronius, Lucian, and Heliodorus of Emesa, the publishers equipped them with prefaces that referred to Huet's treatise and the canon it had established. Exotic works of Middle Eastern fiction also entered the market, gaving insight into Islamic culture. The Book of One Thousand and One Nights was first published in Europe from 1704 to 1715 in French, and then translated immediately into English and German, and was seen as a contribution to Huet's history of romances.
The English, Select Collection of Novels in six volumes (1720–22), is a milestone in this development of the novel's prestige. It included Huet's Treatise, along with the European tradition of the modern novel of the day: the novella from Machiavelli's to Marie de La Fayette's masterpieces. Aphra Behn's novels had appeared in the 1680s but became classics when reprinted in collections. Fénelon's Telemachus (1699/1700) became a classic three years after its publication. New authors entering the market were now ready to use their personal names rather than pseudonyms, including Eliza Haywood, who in 1719 following in the footsteps of Aphra Behn used her name with unprecedented pride.
The very word romanticism is connected to the idea of romance, and the romance genre experienced a revival at the end of the eighteenth century with gothic fiction, beginning in 1764 with Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto, subtitled (in its second edition) "A Gothic Story". Subsequent important gothic works are Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and 'Monk' Lewis's The Monk (1795).
The new romances challenged the idea that the novel involved a realistic depiction of life, and destabilized the difference the critics had been trying to establish between serious classical art and popular fiction. Gothic romances exploited the grotesque, and some critics thought that their subject matter deserved less credit than the worst medieval tales of Arthurian knighthood.
The authors of this new type of fiction were accused of exploiting all available topics to thrill, arouse, or horrify their audience. These new romantic novelists, however, claimed that they were exploring the entire realm of fictionality. Psychological interpreters, in the early nineteenth century, read these works as encounters with the deeper hidden truth of the human imagination: this included sexuality, anxieties, and insatiable desires. Under such readings, novels were described as exploring deeper human motives, and it was suggested that such artistic freedom would reveal what had not previously been openly visible.
The romances of de Sade, Les 120 Journées de Sodome (1785), Poe's Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (1840), Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (1818), and E.T.A. Hoffmann, Die Elixiere des Teufels (1815), would later attract twentieth-century psychoanalysts and supply the images for 20th- and twenty-first-century horror films, love romances, fantasy novels, role-playing computer games, and the surrealists.
The historical romance was also important at this time. But, while earlier writers of these romances paid little attention to historical reality, Walter Scott's historical novel Waverley (1814) broke with this tradition, and he invented "the true historical novel." At the same time he was influenced by gothic romance, and had collaborated in 1801 with 'Monk' Lewis on Tales of Wonder. With his Waverley novels Scott "hoped to do for the Scottish border" what Goethe and other German poets "had done for the Middle Ages," "and make its past live again in modern romance." Scott's novels "are in the mode he himself defined as romance, 'the interest of which turns upon marvelous and uncommon incidents.'" He used his imagination to re-evaluate history by rendering things, incidents and protagonists in the way only the novelist could do. His work remained historical fiction, yet it questioned existing historical perceptions. The use of historical research was an important tool. Scott, the novelist, resorted to documentary sources as any historian would have done, but as a romantic he gave his subject a deeper imaginative and emotional significance. By combining research with "marvelous and uncommon incidents," Scott attracted a far wider market than any historian could, and was the most famous novelist of his generation throughout Europe.
The Victorian period: 1837–1901
Major British writers such as Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy were influenced by the romance genre tradition of the novel, which had been revitalized during the Romantic period. The Brontë sisters were notable mid-ninetenth-century authors in this tradition, with Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights. Publishing at the very end of the nineteenth century, Joseph Conrad has been called "a supreme 'romancer.'" In America "the romance ... proved to be a serious, flexible, and successful medium for the exploration of philosophical ideas and attitudes." Notable examples include Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick.
A number of European novelists were similarly influenced during this period by the earlier romance tradition, along with the Romanticism, including Victor Hugo, with novels like The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831) and Les Misérables (1862), and Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov with A Hero of Our Time (1840).
The Rise of Realism
In the nineteenth century the relationship between authors, publishers, and readers changed. Authors originally had only received payment for their manuscript, however, changes in copyright laws, which began in 18th and continued into the nineteenth century promised royalties on all future editions. Another change in the nineteenth century was that novelists began to read their works in theaters, halls, and bookshops. Also during the nineteenth century the market for popular fiction grew, and competed with works of literature. New institutions like the circulating library created a new market with a mass reading public.
Another difference was that novels began to deal with more difficult subjects, including current political and social issues, that were discussed in newspapers and magazines. The idea of social responsibility became a key subject, whether of the citizen, or of the artist, with the theoretical debate concentrating on questions around the moral soundness of the modern novel. Questions about artistic integrity, as well as aesthetics, including, for example. the idea of "art for art's sake", proposed by writers like Oscar Wilde and Algernon Charles Swinburne, were also important.
Many nineteenth-century authors dealt with significant social matters.Writers like Honore de Balzac and Gustave Flaubert wrote novels about the mundane lives of ordinary people using the technique of realistic depiction of the physical environment as an expression of the lives of its characters. Realism would give way by century's end to the school of Naturalism. Émile Zola's Naturalistic novels depicted the world of the working classes, which Marx and Engels's non-fiction explores.
In the United States slavery and racism became topics of far broader public debate thanks to Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), which dramatizes topics that had previously been discussed mainly in the abstract. Charles Dickens' novels led his readers into contemporary workhouses, and provided first-hand accounts of child labor. The treatment of the subject of war changed with Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace (1868/69), where he questions the facts provided by historians. Similarly the treatment of crime is very different in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment (1866), told from the point of view of a criminal. Women authors had dominated fiction from the 1640s into the early eighteenth century, but few before George Eliot so openly questioned the role, education, and status of women in society.
As the novel became a platform of modern debate, national literatures were developed that link the present with the past in the form of the historical novel. Alessandro Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi (1827) did this for Italy, while novelists like Tolstoy and Ivan Turgenev in Russia and the surrounding Slavonic countries, as well as Scandinavia, did likewise.
Along with this new appreciation of history, the future also became a topic for fiction. This had been done earlier in works like Samuel Madden's Memoirs of the Twentieth Century (1733) and Mary Shelley's The Last Man (1826), a work whose plot culminated in the catastrophic last days of a mankind extinguished by the plague. Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1887) and H.G. Wells's The Time Machine (1895) were concerned with technological and biological developments. Industrialization, Darwin's theory of evolution and Marx's theory of class divisions shaped these works and turned historical processes into a subject of wide debate. Bellamy's Looking Backward became the second best-selling book of the nineteenth century after Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Such works led to the development of a whole genre of popular science fiction as the twentieth century approached.
- See also: Modernism and Postmodernism
Modernism and post-modernism
James Joyce's Ulysses (1922) had a major influence on modern novelists. It replaced the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century narrator with a text that attempted to record inner thoughts, or a "stream of consciousness". This term was first used by William James in 1890 and, along with the related technique interior monologue, is used by modernists like Dorothy Richardson, Marcel Proust, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner. At the same time expressionist Alfred Döblin went in a different direction with Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929), with interspersed non-fictional text fragments existing alongside the fictional material to create another new form of realism which differs from that of stream-of-consciousness.
Later works like Samuel Beckett's trilogy Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951) and The Unnamable (1953), as well as Julio Cortázar's Rayuela (1963) and Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow (1973) all make use of the stream-of-consciousness technique. On the other hand, Robert Coover is an example of those authors who, in the 1960s, fragmented their stories and challenged time and sequential narrative as fundamental structural concepts.
The twentieth century novel deals with a wide range of subject matter. Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front (1928) focusses on a young German's experiences of World War I. The Jazz Age is explored by American F. Scott Fitzgerald, and the Great Depression by fellow American John Steinbeck. Totalitarianism is the subject of British writer George Orwell's most famous novels, especially 1984. Existentialism is the focus of two writers from France: Jean-Paul Sartre with Nausea (1938) and Albert Camus with The Stranger (1942). The counterculture of the 1960s, with its exploration of altered states of consciousness, led to revived interest in the mystical works of Hermann Hesse, such as Steppenwolf (1927), and produced iconic works of its own, for example Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow.
In recent decades novelists have also been interested in the subject of racial and gender identity. Jesse Kavadlo of Maryville University of St. Louis has described Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club (1996) as "a closeted feminist critique." Virginia Woolf, Simone de Beauvoir, Doris Lessing, Elfriede Jelinek were feminist voices during this period.
The major political and military confrontations of the 20th and 21st centuries have also influenced novelists. The events of World War II, from a German perspective, are dealt with by Günter Grass' The Tin Drum (1959) and an American by Joseph Heller's Catch-22 (1961). The subsequent Cold War influenced popular spy novels. Latin American self-awareness in the wake of the (failing) leftist revolutions of the 1960s and 1970s resulted in a "Latin American Boom," linked to the names of novelists Julio Cortázar, Mario Vargas Llosa, Carlos Fuentes and Gabriel García Márquez, along with the invention of a special brand of postmodern magic realism.
The sexual revolution, another major twentieth-century social event, is reflected in the modern novel. D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover had to be published in Italy in 1928 with British censorship only lifting its ban as late as 1960. Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer (1934) created a comparable scandal in the U.S. Transgressive fiction from Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita (1955) to Michel Houellebecq's Les Particules élémentaires (1998) pushed the boundaries, leading to the mainstream publication of explicitly erotic works such as Anne Desclos' Story of O (1954) and Anaïs Nin's Delta of Venus (1978).
In the second half of the twentieth century, Postmodern authors subverted serious debate with playfulness, claiming that art could never be original, that it always plays with existing materials. The idea that language is self-referential was already an accepted truth in the world of pulp fiction. A postmodernist re-reads popular literature as an essential cultural production. Novels from Thomas Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), to Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose (1980) and Foucault's Pendulum (1989) made use of intertextual references.
While the reader of so-called serious literature will follow public discussions of novels, popular fiction production employs more direct and short-term marketing strategies by openly declaring a work's genre. Popular novels are based entirely on the expectations for the particular genre, and this includes the creation of a series of novels with an identifiable brand name, such as the Sherlock Holmes series by Arthur Conan Doyle.
Popular literature holds a larger market share. Romance fiction had an estimated $1.375 billion share in the US book market in 2007. Inspirational literature/religious literature followed with $819 million, science fiction/fantasy with $700 million, mystery with $650 million and then classic literary fiction with $466 million.
Genre literature might be seen as the successor of the early modern chapbook. Both fields share a focus on readers who are in search of accessible reading satisfaction. The twentieth century love romance is a successor of the novels Madeleine de Scudéry, Marie de La Fayette, Aphra Behn, and Eliza Haywood wrote from the 1640s into the 1740s. The modern adventure novel goes back to Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719) and its immediate successors. Modern pornography has no precedent in the chapbook market but originates in libertine and hedonistic belles lettres, of works like John Cleland's Fanny Hill (1749) and similar eighteenth century novels. Ian Fleming's James Bond is a descendant of the anonymous yet extremely sophisticated and stylish narrator who mixed his love affairs with his political missions in La Guerre d'Espagne (1707). Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon is influenced by Tolkien, as well as Arthurian literature, including its nineteenth century successors. Modern horror fiction also has no precedent on the market of chapbooks but goes back to the elitist market of early nineteenth century Romantic literature. Modern popular science fiction has an even shorter history, from the 1860s.
The authors of popular fiction tend to advertise that they have exploited a controversial topic and this is a major difference between them and so-called elitist literature. Dan Brown, for example, discusses, on his website, the question whether his Da Vinci Code is an anti-Christian novel. Because authors of popular fiction have a fan community to serve, they can risk offending literary critics. However, the boundaries between popular and serious literature have blurred in recent years with the rise of postmodernism and post-structuralism, as well as by adaptation of popular literary classics by the film and television industries.
Crime became a major subject of twentieth and twenty-first century genre novelists and crime fiction reflects the realities of modern industrialized societies. Crime is both a personal and public subject: criminals each have their personal motivations; detectives, see their moral codes challenged. Patricia Highsmith's thrillers became a medium of new psychological explorations. Paul Auster's New York Trilogy (1985–1986) is an example of experimental postmodernist literature based on this genre.
Fantasy is another major area of commercial fiction. J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1954/55), a work originally written for young readers, became a major cultural artefact. Tolkien revived the tradition of European epic literature in the tradition of Beowulf, the North Germanic Edda and the Arthurian Cycles.
Science fiction is another important type of genre fiction and has developed in a variety of ways, ranging from the early, technological adventure Jules Verne had made fashionable in the 1860s, to Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) about Western consumerism and technology. George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) deals with totalitarianism and surveillance, among other matters, while Stanisław Lem, Isaac Asimov and Arthur C. Clarke produced modern classics which focus on the interaction between humans and machines. The surreal novels of Philip K Dick such as The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch explore the nature of reality, reflecting the widespread recreational experimentation with drugs and cold-war paranoia of the 60's and 70's. Writers such as Ursula K. Le Guin and Margaret Atwood explore feminist and broader social issues in their works. William Gibson, author of the cult classic Neuromancer (1984), is one of a new wave of authors who explore post-apocalyptic fantasies and virtual reality.
A major development in this century has been novels published as ebooks, and the growth of web fiction, which is available primarily or solely on the Internet. A common type is the web serial: unlike most modern novels, web fiction novels are frequently published in parts over time, bearing a similarity to the novels of the nineteenth century that were published in serial fashion with monthly installments in popular magazines and journals. Ebooks are often published with a paper version. Audio books (a recording of a book reading) have also become common this century.
Another non-traditional format, popular in the twenty-first century, is the graphic novel. A graphic novel may be a fictional story in comic-strip form published as a book, but it can also refer to non-fiction and collections of short works. While the term graphic novel was coined in the 1960s there were precursors in the nineteenth century. The author John Updike, when he spoke to the Bristol Literary Society in 1969, on "the death of the novel", declared that he saw "no intrinsic reason why a doubly talented artist might not arise and create a comic strip novel masterpiece". A popular Japanese version of the graphic novel can be found in manga, and such works of fiction can be published in online versions.
Audiobooks have been available since the 1930s in schools and public libraries, and to a lesser extent in music shops. Since the 1980s this medium has become more widely available, including more recently online.
Web fiction is especially popular in China, with revenues topping US$2.5 billion, as well as in South Korea. Online literature such as web fiction inside China has over 500 million readers. Online literature in China plays a much more important role than in the United States and the rest of the world. Most books are available online, where the most popular novels find millions of readers. Joara is S. Korea's largest web novel platform with 140,000 writers, with an average of 2,400 serials per day and 420,000 works. The company posted 12.5 billion won in sales in 2015 as profits were generated from 2009.
The development of ebooks and web novels has led to a rapid expansion of self-published works in recent years. Authors who self-publish can make more money than through a traditional publisher. However, despite the challenges from digital media print remains "the most popular book format among U.S. consumers, with more than 60 percent of adults having read a print book in the last twelve months".
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Margaret Anne Doody, The True Story of the Novel (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0813524535), 1, 183-187. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- ↑ Harold Bloom, Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds (London, UK: Fourth Estate, 2002, ISBN 978-1841153988), 294. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- ↑ György Lukács, The Theory of the Novel: A historico-philosophical essay on the forms of great epic literature trans. Anna Bostock (1920; Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1971, ISBN 978-0262120487).
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 J.A. Cuddon (ed.), Dictionary of Literary Terms & Literary Theory, 4th ed., ed. and rev. C.E. Preston (Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell, 1999, ISBN 978-0631202714), 760-762.
- ↑ M. H. Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms, 7th ed. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace, 1999, ISBN 015505452X), 192.
- ↑ Melville described Moby Dick to his English publisher as "a romance of adventure, founded upon certain wild legends in the Southern Sperm Whale Fisheries," and promised it would be done by the fall. Herman Melville in Lynn Horth (ed.), Correspondence, The Writings of Herman Melville, Volume Fourteen (Evanston and Chicago, IL: Northwestern University Press and The Newberry Library, 1993, ISBN 0810109956). Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 William Harmon and C. Hugh Holmam, Handbook to Literature, 7th ed., (Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996, ISBN 0132347822), 237, 450.
- ↑ Trần Nghĩa, Classification of Vietnamese novel in Hán script "Hán-Nôm," TẠP CHÍ HÁN NÔM SỐ 3(32) (1997). Retrieved February 25, 2023. (in Vietnamese)
- ↑ J. R. Morgan, Collected Ancient Greek Novels, 3rd ed., ed. Bryan Peter Reardon (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2019, ISBN 978-0520305595), xvi. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- ↑ Gareth L. Schmeling and Tim Whitmarsh, The Cambridge companion to the Greek and Roman novel (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0521865906).
- ↑ Chris Baldick (ed.), "Chivalric romance," in Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, 3rd ed. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0199238910).
- ↑ C.S. Lewis, The Discarded Image (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994, ISBN 0521477352), 9.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 "Chapbooks: Definition and Origins," Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- ↑ The term came from chapmen, chap, a variety of peddler, who circulated such literature as part of their stock.
- ↑ R. Leitch, "'Here Chapman Billies Take Their Stand': A Pilot Study of Scottish Chapmen, Packmen and Pedlars," Proceedings of the Scottish Society of Antiquarians, November 30, 1990, 173–188.
- ↑ Tessa Watt, Cheap Print and Popular Piety 1550–1640 (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0521382557).
- ↑ Compare Frank Palmeri, Satire, History, Novel: Narrative Forms, 1665–1815 (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0874138290).
- ↑ Jean Lombard, Courtilz de Sandras et la crise du roman à la fin du Grand Siècle (Paris, FR: PUF, 1980, ISBN 2130365744).
- ↑ See Paul Scarron, "Which perhaps will not be found very Entertaining," in The Comical Romance (London, U.K.: 1700) with its call for the new genre. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- ↑ See Robert Ignatius Letellier, The English Novel, 1660–1700: An annotated bibliography (Boston, MA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997, ISBN 978-0313303685).
- ↑ Joan DeJean, The Essence of Style: How the French Invented Fashion, Fine Food, Chic Cafés, Style, Sophistication, and Glamour (New York, NY: Free Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0743264136).
- ↑ George A. Cevasco, "Pearl Buck and the Chinese Novel," Asian Studies – Journal of Critical Perspectives on Asia 5(3) (1967): 437–51. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- ↑ Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel (Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin Books, 1963), 10.
- ↑ See Jonathan Irvine Israel, Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650–1750 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0199254569), 591–599.
- ↑ Samar Attar, The Vital Roots of European Enlightenment: Ibn Tufayl's Influence on Modern Western Thought (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007, ISBN 978-0739119891).
- ↑ Robert J. Griffin, "Tristram Shandy and Language," College English 23(2) (1961): 108–12.
- ↑ See the preface to her Exilius, Jane Barker, Exilius (London: E. Curll, 1715).
- ↑ Richard Maxwell and Katie Trumpener (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Fiction in the Romantic Period (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-1139827911).
- ↑ The elegant and clearly fashionable edition of The Works of Lucian (London: S. Briscoe/ J. Woodward/ J. Morphew, 1711), would thus include the story of "Lucian's Ass", vol.1, 114–43.
- ↑ See Robert Darnton, The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France (New York, NY: Norton, 1995, ISBN 978-0393037203).
- ↑ Pierre Daniel Huet, The History of Romances, trans. Stephen Lewis (London: J. Hooke/ T. Caldecott, 1715), 138–140.
- ↑ See Christiane Berkvens-Stevelinck, H. Bots, and P.G. Hoftijzer (eds.), Le Magasin de L'univers: The Dutch Republic as the Centre of the European Book Trade: Papers Presented at the International Colloquium, Held at Wassenaar, 5–7 July 1990 (Leiden, N.L. and Boston, MA: Brill, 1992, ISBN 978-9004094932).
- ↑ Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry Into a Category of the Bourgeois Society, trans. Thomas Burger (Boston, MA: MIT Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0262581080).
- ↑ See Hugh Barr Nisbet, Claude Rawson (eds.), The Cambridge history of literary criticism, vol. IV (1997; Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0521317207).
- ↑ The Castle of Otranto: The creepy tale that launched gothic fiction BBC, December 13, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- ↑ See Gerald Ernest Paul Gillespie, Manfred Engel, and Bernard Dieterle, Romantic prose fiction (Amsterdam, N.L.: John Benjamin's Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 978-9027234568).
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 37.2 Marion Wynne Davis (ed.), The Bloomsbury Guide to English Literature (Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990, ISBN 978-0747501695), 884-885.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 M.H. Abrams and Stephen Greenblatt (eds.), The Norton Anthology of English Literature, vol. 2, 7th ed. (New York, N.Y.: Norton, 2000, ISBN 978-0393974911), 20–21.
- ↑ Arthur C. Benson, "Charles Dickens," The North American Review 195(676) (March 1912): 381–91.
- ↑ Jane Millgate, "Two Versions of Regional Romance: Scott's The Bride of Lammermoor and Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles, Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 17(4) (Autumn, 1977): 729–38.
- ↑ See Mark Rose, Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright 3rd ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0674053083).
- ↑ See Richard Altick and Jonathan Rose, The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public, 1800–1900, 2nd ed. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1998, ISBN 9780814207949).
- ↑ Gene H. Bell-Villada, Art for Art's Sake & Literary Life: How Politics and Markets Helped Shape the Ideology & Culture of Aestheticism, 1790–1990 (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0803212602).
- ↑ For the wider context of nineteenth-century encounters with history see: Hayden White, Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, 1975, ISBN 978-0801817618).
- ↑ Claire Parfait, The Publishing History of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852–2002 (London, U.K.: Routledge, 2007, ISBN 978-0754655145).
- ↑ See Erwin R. Steinberg (ed.), The Stream-of-consciousness technique in the modern novel (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1979, ISBN 9780804692250).
- ↑ Jesse Kavadlo, "The Fiction of Self-destruction: Chuck Palahniuk, Closet Moralist," Stirrings Still: The International Journal of Existential Literature 2(2) (Fall–Winter 2005): 7.
- ↑ See: Charles Irving Glicksberg, The Sexual Revolution in Modern American Literature (New York, NY: Springer, 1971, ISBN 978-9024750368) and his The Sexual Revolution in Modern English Literature (New York, NY: Springer, 1973, ISBN 978-9024718948).
- ↑ See Gérard Genette, Palimpsests, trans. Channa Newman & Claude Doubinsky (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, ISBN 9780803270299).
- ↑ John J. Richetti, Popular Fiction before Richardson: Narrative Patterns 1700–1739 (Oxford: U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1969, ISBN 978-0198116813).
- ↑ Francisca Goldsmith, Graphic Novels Now: Building, Managing, And Marketing a Dynamic Collection (Chicago, IL: American Library Association, 2005, ISBN 978-0838909041), 16. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- ↑ Jamie Coville, "The History of Comic Books: Introduction and 'The Platinum Age 1897–1938'," TheComicBooks. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- ↑ Paul Gravett, Graphic Novels: Stories To Change Your Life (London, U.K.: Aurum Press Limited, 2005, ISBN 978-1845130688).
- ↑ Rachel Cheung, "China's online publishing industry – where fortune favours the few, and sometimes the undeserving," South China Morning Post, May 6, 2018. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- ↑ Amy Watson, "Number of International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs) assigned to self-published books in the United States from 2010 to 2018," statista, November 9, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- ↑ Amy Watson, "U.S. book industry - statistics & facts," statista, November 23, 2022. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
ReferencesISBN links support NWE through referral fees
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- Richetti, John J. Popular Fiction before Richardson: Narrative Patterns 1700–1739. Oxford: U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1969. ISBN 978-0198116813
- Rose, Mark. Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright, 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0674053083
- Scarron, Paul. "Which perhaps will not be found very Entertaining," in The Comical Romance. London, U.K.: 1700. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- Schmeling Gareth L., and Tim Whitmarsh. The Cambridge companion to the Greek and Roman novel. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0521865906
- Steinberg, Erwin R. (ed.). The Stream-of-consciousness technique in the modern novel. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1979. ISBN 9780804692250
- Watson, Amy. "Number of International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs) assigned to self-published books in the United States from 2010 to 2018," statista, November 9, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
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- White, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, 1975. ISBN 978-0801817618
Theories of the novel
- Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays], edited by Michael Holquist, translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: and London, U.K.: University of Texas Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0292782860
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- McKeon, Michael. Theory of the Novel: A Historical Approach. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0801863974
Histories of the novel
- Armstrong, Nancy. Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0195041798
- Burgess, Anthony. The Novel Now: A Student's Guide to Contemporary Fiction. London, U.K.: Faber, 1967.
- Davis, Lennard J. Factual Fictions: The Origins of the English Novel. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0231054201
- Heiserman, Arthur Ray. The Novel Before the Novel. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1977. ISBN 0226325725
- McKeon, Michael. The Origins of the English Novel, 1600–1740. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0801832918
- Mentz, Steve. Romance for sale in early modern England: the rise of prose fiction. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2006. ISBN 0754654699
- Moore, Steven. The Novel: An Alternative History: Beginnings to 1600. London, U.K.: Bloomsbury, 2010. ISBN 978-1441177049
- Moore, Steven. The Novel: An Alternative History: 1600–1800. London, U.K.: Bloomsbury, 2013. ISBN 978-1441188694
- Müller, Timo. Handbook of the American Novel of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. Boston, MA: de Gruyter, 2017. ISBN 978-3110422429
- Price, Leah. The Anthology and the Rise of the Novel: From Richardson to George Eliot. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0521539395
- Relihan, Constance C. (ed.). Framing Elizabethan fictions: contemporary approaches to early modern narrative prose. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1996. ISBN 0873385519
- Roilos, Panagiotis. Amphoteroglossia: A Poetics of the Twelfth-Century Medieval Greek Novel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0674017917
- Rubens, Robert. "A hundred years of fiction: 1896 to 1996. (The English Novel in the Twentieth Century, part 12)." Contemporary Review, (December 1996).
- Schmidt, Michael. The Novel: A Biography. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2014 ISBN 978-0674724730
All links retrieved February 26, 2023.
- The novel 1780-1832 at the British Library
- The novel 1832-1880 at the British Library
- The House of the Seven Gables with "Preface"
- "The 100 greatest novels of all time," The Telegraph, March 2, 2021. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
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