|Repubulika y'u Rwanda
République du Rwanda
Republic of Rwanda
|Motto: Ubumwe, Umurimo, Gukunda Igihugu
"Unity, Work, Patriotism"
|Anthem: "Rwanda nziza"
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Kinyarwanda, French, English|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary democracy and Presidential republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Anastase Murekezi|
|-||from Belgium||1 July 1962|
|-||Total||26,338 km² (148th)
10,169 sq mi
|-||2016 estimate||11,533,446 (76th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|Currency||Rwandan franc (
|Time zone||CAT (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+2)|
Rwanda, officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a small landlocked country in the Great Lakes region of east-central Africa, with great natural beauty but few exportable resources. Its hilly terrain, which gives it the title Pays des Mille Collines ("Land of a Thousand Hills"), supports the densest population in sub-Saharan Africa.
The country is infamous for the 1994 genocide that resulted in the deaths of up to one million people. Since then, the government has been making efforts to bring the people together, but Rwanda still faces numerous problems. This nation, however, is at the forefront of a new concept of ensuring peace through the implementation of a law requiring a high percentage of women within the Parliament. This is based upon the idea that women will never allow the incidence of mass killing to be reproduced.
Rwanda is located near the center of Africa, a few degrees south of the equator. It is separated from the Democratic Republic of Congo by Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River valley to the west; it is bounded on the north by Uganda, to the east by Tanzania, and to the south by Burundi. The capital, Kigali, is located in the center of the country.
Rwanda's countryside is covered by grasslands and small farms extending over rolling hills, with areas of rugged mountains that extend southeast from a chain of volcanoes in the northwest. The divide between the Congo and Nile drainage systems extends from north to south through western Rwanda at an average elevation of almost 9,000 feet (2,740 m). On the western slopes of this ridgeline, the land slopes abruptly toward Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River valley and constitutes part of the Great Rift Valley. The eastern slopes are more moderate, with rolling hills extending across central uplands at gradually reducing altitudes, to the plains, swamps, and lakes of the eastern border region. Therefore the country is also known as the "Land of a Thousand Hills."
In 2006, a British-led exploration announced that they had located the longest headstream of the Nile River in Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda.
Though Rwanda is a tropical country, only two degrees south of the equator, its high elevation makes the climate temperate. In the mountains, frost and snow are possible. The average daily temperature near Lake Kivu, at an altitude of 4,800 feet (1,463 m) is 73°F (23°C). Rwanda is considered the lightning capital of the world, due to intense daily thunderstorms during the two rainy seasons (February–April and November–January).
Annual rainfall averages 31 inches (830 mm) but is generally heavier in the western and northwestern mountains than in the eastern savannas.
Geographic coordinates: 2°00′S 30°00′E
Map references: Africa
total: 26,338 km²
land: 24,948 km²
water: 1,390 km²
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
lowest point: Ruzizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
arable land: 45.56%
permanent crops: 10.25%
other: 44.19% (2005)
Irrigated land: 40 km² (1998 est)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Birunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of Congo
Environment - current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Although the Twa (pygmies) were the original people living in the area now known as Rwanda, possibly as far back as 30,000 B.C.E., by the fifteenth century the Hutu and Tutsi had moved in. The Hutus primarily were farmers who lived on hilltops, and the Tutsi were warriors and herders who lived on the hillsides and in the valleys. In the nineteenth century that evolved into a feudal-type system with sharp social divisions in which Tutsis dominated.
Because of its mountainous terrain, Rwanda was spared the onslaughts of invaders and slave traders. John Hanning Speke was the first European to visit Rwanda. In 1895 the Rwandan king accepted German rule to maintain his power, and the area became part of German East Africa. The Germans did nothing to develop the country economically. They kept the indigenous administration system by applying the same type of indirect rule established by the British Empire in the Ugandan kingdoms.
After Germany's loss in World War I, Belgium took over Rwanda with a League of Nations mandate. Belgian rule in the region was far more direct and harsh than German rule. The Belgian colonizers did realize the value of native rule, however. Backed by Christian churches, the Belgians favored the minority Tutsi upper class over lower classes of Tutsis and Hutus. Belgian forced labor policies and stringent taxes were mainly enforced by the Tutsi upper class, which the Belgians used as buffers against the people's anger, thus further polarizing the Hutu and the Tutsi. Many young peasants, to escape tax harassment and hunger, migrated to neighboring countries. They moved mainly to Congo but also to Ugandan plantations, looking for work.
After World War II, Rwanda became a United Nations (UN) trust territory administered by Belgium. In 1959, King Mutara III Charles was assassinated and his younger brother became the Abega clan monarch, King Kigeli V. In 1961, King Kigeli V was in Kinshasa to meet with U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld when Dominique Mbonyumutwa, with the support of the Belgian government, led a coup d'état. The coup overthrew King Kigeli V and the Hutu gained more and more power. Upon Rwanda's independence on July 1, 1962, the Hutu held virtually all power.
Gregoire Kayibanda was the first president (1962–1973), followed by Juvenal Habyarimana (1973–1994). The latter, who many view as a ruthless dictator, was unable to find a solution to increasing social unrest, calls for democracy, and the long-running problem of Rwandan Tutsi refugees. By the 1990s, Rwanda had up to one million refugees scattered around neighboring countries, mostly in Uganda and Burundi.
In 1990, the Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaded Rwanda from Uganda. During the fighting, top Rwandan government officials, mainly Hutu, began secretly training young men into informal armed bands called Interahamwe (a Kinyarwanda term roughly meaning "those who fight together"). Government officials also launched a radio station that began anti-Tutsi propaganda. The military government of Habyarimana responded to the RPF invasion with pogroms against Tutsis, whom it claimed were trying to re-enslave the Hutus. In August 1993, the government and the RPF signed a cease-fire agreement known as the Arusha Accords in Arusha, Tanzania, to form a power-sharing government, but fighting between the two sides continued. The United Nations sent a peacekeeping force known as the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR). UNAMIR was vastly underfunded and understaffed.
During the armed conflict, the RPF was blamed for the bombing of the capital Kigali. These attacks were actually carried out by the Hutu army as part of a campaign to create a reason for a political crackdown and ethnic violence. On April 6, 1994, President Habyarimana was assassinated when his airplane was shot down while landing in Kigali.  It remains unclear who was responsible for the assassination—most credible sources point to the Presidential Guard, spurred by Hutu nationalists fearful of losing power, but others believe that Tutsi rebels were responsible, possibly with the help of Belgian mercenaries.
Over the next three months, with logistical and military assistance and training from France, the military and Interahamwe militia groups killed between half a million and one million Tutsis and Hutu moderates in the Rwandan genocide. The RPF continued to advance on the capital, and occupied the northern, eastern, and southern parts of the country by June. Thousands of civilians were killed in the conflict. U.N. member states refused to answer UNAMIR's requests for increased troops and money. Meanwhile, French troops were dispatched to stabilize the situation, but this only exacerbated the situation, with the evacuation limited to foreign nationals.
On July 4, 1994, the war ended as the RPF entered Kigali. Over two million Hutus fled the country, fearing Tutsi retribution. Most have since returned, but some remain in the Congo, including some militia members who later took part in the First and Second Congo Wars. After repeated unsuccessful appeals to the United Nations and the international community to deal with the security threat posed by the remnants of the defeated genocidal forces on its eastern border, in 1996, Rwanda invaded eastern Zaire in an effort to eliminate the Interahamwe groups operating there. This action, and a simultaneous one by Ugandan troops, contributed to the outbreak of the First Congo War and the eventual fall of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko.
Rwanda today struggles to heal and rebuild, and shows signs of rapid development, but some Rwandans continue to struggle with the legacy of genocide and war. In 2004, a ceremony was held in Kigali at the Gisozi Memorial (sponsored by the Aegis Trust and attended by many foreign dignitaries) to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the genocide. The country observes a national day of mourning each year on April 7. Rwandan genocidal leaders were put on trial at the International Criminal Tribunal, in the Rwandan National Court system and through the informal Gacaca village justice program.
The current Rwandan government has been praised by many for establishing security and promoting reconciliation and economic development, but is also criticized by some for being too militant and opposing dissent.
After its military victory in July 1994, the Rwandan Patriotic Front organized a coalition government based on the 1993 Arusha accords and political declarations by the parties. The National Movement for Democracy and Development—Habyarimana's party that instigated and implemented the genocidal ideology—along with the CDR (another Hutu extremist party) were banned, with most of its leaders either arrested or in exile.
After the 1994 genocide, the Hutu people living in refugee camps were attacked by Tutsi forces.
A new constitution was adopted by referendum and promulgated in 2003. The first postwar presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003, respectively. The RPF-led government has continued to promote reconciliation and unity among all Rwandans as enshrined in the new constitution that forbids any political activity or discrimination based on race, ethnicity, or religion.
By law, at least a third of the Parliament representation must be female. It is believed that women will not allow the mass killings of the past to be repeated. Rwanda topped a recently conducted global survey on the percentage of women in Parliament with as much as 49 percent female representation.
Prior to January 1, 2006, Rwanda was composed of twelve provinces, but these were abolished in full and redrawn as part of a program of decentralization and reorganization.
Rwanda is divided into five provinces and subdivided into thirty districts. The provinces are:
Rwanda's armed forces consist of mostly infantry and an air force. In 2002, there were a reported 15,000–20,000 troops stationed in the Congo. The paramilitary consists of national police and local defense forces.
Opposition forces may number around 15,000 in the Army for the Liberation of Rwanda, which consists of Hutu rebels. The civil war of 1994 weakened the government armed forces, which could not stop the Hutu–Tutsi tribal conflict.
Rwanda was granted United Nations membership on September 18, 1962. It is a member of the African Development Bank, G-77, and the African Union. It is also a signatory of the Law of the Sea and a member of the World Trade Organization.
In 1976, Rwanda joined Burundi and Zaire (now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo) in the Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries, formed to develop the economic potential of the basin of lakes Kivu and Tanganyika. In 1977, Rwanda joined Burundi and Tanzania in forming an economic community for the management and development of the Kagera River basin. Uganda became a part of the community in 1980. Its headquarters are in Kigali. 
Rwanda is a rural country with about 90 percent of the population engaged in subsistence agriculture. It is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry.
Primary exports are coffee and tea, with the addition in recent years of minerals (mainly Coltan, used in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones) and flowers. Tourism is also a growing sector, notably around ecotourism (Nyungwe Forest, Lake Kivu) and the world-famous and unique mountain gorillas in the Virunga park. It has a low gross national product (GNP), and it has been identified as a Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC). In 2005, its economic performance and governance achievements prompted international funding institutions to cancel nearly all its debts.
According to the World Food Programme, it is estimated that 60 percent of the population lives below the poverty line and 10–12 percent of the population suffers from food insecurity every year.
In 2006, China proposed funding a study for building a railway link from Bujumbura in Burundi to Kigali in Rwanda to Isaki in Tanzania. China has also offered economic cooperation in agriculture, energy, education, and industry.
Most Rwandans speak Kinyarwanda. It is difficult to establish exactly what words like "Tutsi" and "Hutu" meant before the arrival of European colonists, because there was no written history. In the twenty-first century a number of Rwandans rejected the idea of sub-races and simply identify themselves as "Rwandans."
Rwanda's population density, even after the 1994 genocide, is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa at 590 people per square mile (230/km²). The country has few villages, and nearly every family lives in a self-contained compound on a hillside. The urban concentrations are grouped around administrative centers.
The indigenous population consists of three ethnic groups. The Hutus, who comprise the majority of the population (85 percent), are farmers of Bantu origin. The Tutsis (14 percent before the genocide, less than 10 percent now) are a pastoral people who arrived in the area in the fifteenth century. Until 1959, they formed the dominant caste under a feudal system based on cattleholding. The "Twa" or pygmies, (1 percent) are thought to be the remnants of the earliest settlers of the region.
Over half of the adult population is literate, but no more than 5 percent have received secondary education. During 1994–1995, most primary schools and more than half of pre-war secondary schools reopened. The national university in Butare reopened in April 1995; enrollment is over 7,000. Rebuilding the educational system continues to be a high priority of the Rwandan government.
Most Rwandans (56.5 percent) are Roman Catholic. Other Christians make up another 37 percent. Muslims now comprise 14 percent of the population. Due to the widespread involvement of both Roman Catholic and Protestant clergy in the Rwandan genocide and the shelter and protection given to members of both ethnic groups of all religions by Muslims, widespread conversion occurred, causing the Muslim population to jump from 4 to 14 percent.
The family unit, or inzu, is the most important unit in Rwandan culture. Usually its members live together on a rural homestead. Marriage has a high value, with many arranged by families. The groom's family must pay a dowry to the bride's family.
Women weave mats and baskets, while men make drums, pipes, bowls, and other useful items out of wood.
Soccer is the most popular sport.
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