List of monarchs of Korea

From New World Encyclopedia

Korea unified vertical.svgHistory of Korea

Jeulmun Period
Mumun Period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
  Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
  Sui wars
 Silla, Gaya
North-South States:
 Unified Silla
 Later Three Kingdoms
 Khitan wars
 Mongol invasions
 Japanese invasions
 Manchu invasions
Korean Empire
Japanese occupation
 Provisional Gov't
Division of Korea
 Korean War
 North Korea
 South Korea

List of monarchs

The List of Monarchs of Korea provides a insightful look at the development of Korea since its legendary founding in 2333 B.C.E. until the end of the last royal dynasty in 1910 C.E. If, indeed, the history of Korea has been continual from those legendary beginnings, Korea has experienced one of the longest continual dynastic developments in history. We have clear evidence that Koreans are the most homogeneous people on the earth, so we can well expect that their history has been unbroken. Rather than a linear development of one dynasty succeeding another, Korean history from 2333 B.C.E. until the beginning of the Goryeo dynasty in the 930s, over 3000 years, had been kingdoms coexisting yet clashing for dominance. From the 930s to 1910, nearly 1000 years, Korea experienced a single dynasty ruling the entire Korean Peninsula.

The following list of monarchs has been categorized by historical era beginning with the most ancient and concluding with the most recent. Monarchs' names are listed either romanized posthumous (according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean) or temple names along with the dates of their reign. Articles about the individual monarchs include the McCune-Reischauer romanizations.

Tomb of king Wang Kon, first king of Gorye Dynasty, Korea 王建像


The legendary Dangun founded the first kingdom, Gojoseon (c.2333 B.C.E. - 108 B.C.E.) in 2333 B.C.E., although historians debate the founding years. Gojoseon may have numbered among the small peninsular states which emerged "by the fourth century B.C.E."[1] Lee mentions Gojoseon emerged in the Liao and Taedong valleys by the fourth century.[2] Some, like Kim regard "Dangun Joseon" as having possibly existed during the Neolithic period,[3] i.e. before the thirteenth century B.C.E.; by the same token they reject the possibility that Gojoseon existed as a "state" or even "tribal confederation" in the modern sense. Professor Yoon writes that the Gojoseon had become an ancient nation at 2333 B.C.E. which is the most recent research.[4] Bronze age archaeological evidence of Gojoseon culture has been found in northern Korea and southern Manchuria. By the fourth century B.C.E., historical and archaeological evidence supports that Gojoseon flourished as a kingdom.

Gyuwon Sahwa (1675) describes The Annals of the Danguns as a collection of nationalistic legends. Scholars widely question the authenticity of the Hwandan Gogi that lists different years of reign.

See also List of legendary monarchs of Korea.


The legendary monarchs listed in Gyuwon Sahwa:

  1. Dangun Wanggeom 왕검 (B.C. 2333-B.C. 2240)
  2. Buru 부루 (B.C. 2240-B.C. 2206)
  3. Gareuk 가륵 (B.C. 2206-B.C. 2155)
  4. Osa 오사 (B.C. 2155-B.C. 2106)
  5. Gueul 구을 (B.C. 2106-B.C. 2071)
  6. Dalmun 달문 (B.C. 2071-B.C. 2039)
  7. Hanyul 한율 (B.C. 2039-B.C. 2014)
  8. Seohan 서한 (B.C. 2014-B.C. 1957)
  9. Asul 아술 (B.C. 1957-B.C. 1929)
  10. Noeul 노을 (B.C. 1929-B.C. 1906)
  11. Dohae 도해 (B.C. 1906-B.C. 1870)
  12. Ahan 아한 (B.C. 1870-B.C. 1843)
  13. Heuldal 흘달 (B.C. 1843-B.C. 1800)
  14. Gobul 고불 (B.C. 1800-B.C. 1771)
  15. Beoreum 벌음 (B.C. 1771-B.C. 1738)
  16. Wina 위나 (B.C. 1738-B.C. 1720)
  17. Yeoeul 여을 (B.C. 1720-B.C. 1657)
  18. Dongeom 동엄 (B.C. 1657-B.C. 1637)
  19. Gumoso 구모소 (B.C. 1637-B.C. 1612)
  20. Gohol 고홀 (B.C. 1612-B.C. 1601)
  21. Sotae 소태 (B.C. 1601-B.C. 1568)
  22. Saekbullu 색불루 (B.C. 1568-B.C. 1551)
  23. Amul 아물 (B.C. 1551-B.C. 1532)
  24. Yeonna 연나 (B.C. 1532-B.C. 1519)
  25. Solla 솔나 (B.C. 1519-B.C. 1503)
  26. Churo 추로 (B.C. 1503-B.C. 1494)
  27. Dumil 두밀 (B.C. 1494-B.C. 1449)
  28. Haemo 해모 (B.C. 1449-B.C. 1427)
  29. Mahyu 마휴 (B.C. 1427-B.C. 1418)
  30. Nahyu 내휴 (B.C. 1418-B.C. 1365)
  31. Deungol 등올 (B.C. 1365-B.C. 1359)
  32. Chumil 추밀 (B.C. 1359-B.C. 1351)
  33. Gammul 감물 (B.C. 1351-B.C. 1342)
  34. Orumun 오루문 (B.C. 1342-B.C. 1322)
  35. Sabeol 사벌 (B.C. 1322-B.C. 1311)
  36. Maereuk 매륵 (B.C. 1311-B.C. 1293)
  37. Mamul 마물 (B.C. 1293-B.C. 1285)
  38. Damul 다물 (B.C. 1285-B.C. 1266)
  39. Duhol 두홀 (B.C. 1266-B.C. 1238)
  40. Dareum 달음 (B.C. 1238-B.C. 1224)
  41. Eumcha 음차 (B.C. 1224-B.C. 1205)
  42. Euruji 을우지 B.C. 1205-B.C. 1196)
  43. Mulli 물리 (B.C. 1196-B.C. 1181)
  44. Guhol 구홀 (B.C. 1181-B.C. 1174)
  45. Yeoru 여루 (B.C. 1174-B.C. 1169)
  46. Boeul 보을 (B.C. 1169-B.C. 1158)
  47. Goyeolga 고열가 (B.C. 1158-B.C. 1128)

Gija-Joseon (Disputed)

王建王陵]]Many scholars believe that Gija-Joseon succeeded Dangun Joseon, but some scholars debate the claim.[5]

  1. King Munseong of Gojoseon, Gija 문성대왕 (r. 1126 B.C.E. - 1082 B.C.E.);자수유/자서여(子須臾/子胥餘)
  2. King Janghye of Gojoseon 장혜왕 (r. 1082 B.C.E. - 1057 B.C.E.);자송 (子松)
  3. King Gyeonghyo of Gojoseon 경효왕 (r. 1057 B.C.E. - 1030 B.C.E.);자순 (子詢)
  4. King Gongjeong of Gojoseon 공정왕 (r. 1030 B.C.E. - 1000 B.C.E.);자백 (子佰)
  5. King Munmu of Gojoseon 문무왕 (r. 1000 B.C.E. - 972 B.C.E.);자춘 (子椿)
  6. King Taewon of Gojoseon 태원왕 (r. 972 B.C.E. - 968 B.C.E.);자예 (子禮)
  7. King Gyeongchang of Gojoseon 경창왕 (r. 968 B.C.E. - 957 B.C.E.);자장 (子莊)
  8. King Heungpyeong of Gojoseon 흥평왕 (r. 957 B.C.E. - 943 B.C.E.);자착 (子捉)
  9. King Cheorwi of Gojoseon 철위왕 (r. 943 B.C.E. - 925 B.C.E.);자주 (子調)
  10. King Seonhye of Gojoseon 선혜왕 (r. 925 B.C.E. - 896 B.C.E.);자색 (子索)
  11. King Uiyang of Gojoseon 의양왕 (r. 896 B.C.E. - 843 B.C.E.);자사 (子師)
  12. King Munhye of Gojoseon 문혜왕 (r. 843 B.C.E. - 793 B.C.E.);자염 (子炎)
  13. King Seongdeok of Gojoseon 성덕왕 (r. 793 B.C.E. - 778 B.C.E.);자월 (子越)
  14. King Dohoe of Gojoseon 도회왕 (r. 778 B.C.E. - 776 B.C.E.);자직 (子職)
  15. King Munyeol of Gojoseon 문열왕 (r. 776 B.C.E. - 761 B.C.E.);자우 (子優)
  16. King Changguk of Gojoseon 창국왕 (r. 761 B.C.E. - 748 B.C.E.);자목 (子睦)
  17. King Museong of Gojoseon 무성왕 (r. 748 B.C.E. - 722 B.C.E.);자평 (子平)
  18. King Jeonggyeong of Gojoseon 정경왕 (r. 722 B.C.E. - 703 B.C.E.);자궐 (子闕)
  19. King Nakseong of Gojoseon 낙성왕 (r. 703 B.C.E. - 675 B.C.E.);자회 (子懷)
  20. King Hyojong of Gojoseon 효종왕 (r. 675 B.C.E. - 658 B.C.E.);자존 (子存)
  21. King Cheonno of Gojoseon 천노왕 (r. 658 B.C.E. - 634 B.C.E.);자효 (子孝)
  22. King Sudo of Gojoseon 수도왕 (r. 634 B.C.E. - 615 B.C.E.);자립 (子立)
  23. King Hwiyang of Gojoseon 휘양왕 (r. 615 B.C.E. - 594 B.C.E.);자통 (子通)
  24. King Bongil of Gojoseon 봉일왕 (r. 594 B.C.E. - 578 B.C.E.);자참 (子參)
  25. King Deokchang of Gojoseon 덕창왕 (r. 578 B.C.E. - 560 B.C.E.);자근 (子僅)
  26. King Suseong of Gojoseon 수성왕 (r. 560 B.C.E. - 519 B.C.E.);자상 (子翔)
  27. King Yeonggeol of Gojoseon 영걸왕 (r. 519 B.C.E. - 503 B.C.E.);자려 (子藜)
  28. King Ilmin of Gojoseon 일민왕 (r. 503 B.C.E. - 486 B.C.E.);자강 (子岡)
  29. King Jese of Gojoseon 제세왕 (r. 486 B.C.E. - 465 B.C.E.);자혼 (子混)
  30. King Cheongguk of Gojoseon 청국왕 (r. 465 B.C.E. - 432 B.C.E.);자 벽정(子璧貞)
  31. King Doguk of Gojoseon 도국왕 (r. 432 B.C.E. - 413 B.C.E.);자징 (子澄)
  32. King Hyeokseong of Gojoseon 혁성왕 (r. 413 B.C.E. - 385 B.C.E.);자수 (子수)
  33. King Hwara of Gojoseon 화라왕 (r. 413 B.C.E. - 385 B.C.E.);자위 (子謂)
  34. King Seolmun of Gojoseon 설문왕 (r. 369 B.C.E. - 361 B.C.E.);자가 (子賀)
  35. King Gyeongsun of Gojoseon 경순왕 (r. 361 B.C.E. - 342 B.C.E.);자화 (子華)
  36. King Gadeok of Gojoseon 가덕왕 (r. 342 B.C.E. - 315 B.C.E.) 기후(箕詡)
  37. King Samno of Gojoseon 삼노왕 (r. 315 B.C.E. - 290 B.C.E.) 기욱(箕煜)
  38. King Hyeonmun of Gojoseon 현문왕 (r. 315 B.C.E. - 290 B.C.E.) 기석(箕釋)
  39. King Jangpyeong of Gojoseon 장평왕 (r. 251 B.C.E. - 232 B.C.E.) 기윤(箕潤)
  40. King Jongtong of Gojoseon 종통왕 (r. 232 B.C.E. - 220 B.C.E.) 기비(箕丕)
  41. King Ae of Gojoseon 애왕 (r. 220 B.C.E. - 195 B.C.E.) 기준(箕準)


The successor-state of GojoseonWiman Joseon (194 - 108 B.C.E.) began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gija Joseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo, a grandson of Wiman.

Earliest attested monarchs by contemporaneous records:

  1. Wiman of Gojoseon (Hangul: 위만 Hanja: 衛滿) (194 B.C.E. - 161 B.C.E.)
  2. Unknown (161 B.C.E. - 129 B.C.E.), son of Wiman.
  3. Ugeo of Gojoseon (Hangul: 우거왕 Hanja: 右渠王) (129B.C.E. - 108 B.C.E.), grandson of Wiman.

The Buyeo states


Bukbuyeo (c.239 B.C.E. - 58 B.C.E.) ruled in modern-day Manchuria. The rulers continued to use the titles of Dangun.[6] Some records refer to Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo) and Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo). In 37 B.C.E., Go Jumong, a great-grandson of Haemosu Dangun's second son, entered Jolbon Buyeo, Bukbuyeo under a changed state name. Jolbon's ruler, Go Museo, died with no sons and had declared Jumong successor. Thus, Jumong rose to the throne of Bukbuyeo and changed the state's name to Goguryeo.

  1. Haemosu of Buyeo 해모수 (239 - 195 B.C.E.)
  2. Mosuri of Buyeo 모수리 (195 - 170 B.C.E.)
  3. Go Haesa of Buyeo 고해사 (170 - 121 B.C.E.)
  4. Go Uru of Buyeo 고우루 (121 - 86 B.C.E.)
  5. Go Dumak of Bukbuyeo 고두막 (108 - 60 B.C.E.)
  6. Go Museo of Bukbuyeo 고무서 (60 - 58 B.C.E.)
  7. Go Jumong of Bukbuyeo 고주몽 (37 B.C.E. - 19 B.C.E. (Goguryeo))


(c.86 B.C.E.–22 C.E.) The rulers of Dongbuyeo submitted to Bukbuyeo in 86 B.C.E., and thus used the title Wang ("King"). King Haeburu, the brother of Go Uru Dangun, originally succeeded his brother to the Bukbuyeo throne. The forces of the Han dynasty and the rising of Go Dumak chased King Haeburu, a descendant of Goyeolga Dangun, the last ruler of Gojoseon, to the east.

  1. King Hae Buru 해부루왕 解夫婁王 (86 - 48 B.C.E.)
  2. King Geumwa 금와왕 金蛙王 (48 - 7 B.C.E.)
  3. King Daeso 대소왕 帶素王 (7 B.C.E. - 22 C.E.)

"Later" Buyeo rulers

  • 갈사왕(曷思王) (22- ca.68?)
  • 도두(都頭) later called 우태(于台) (ca.68)

Second century

  • Wigutae/Weichoutai (왕위구태/尉仇台) (?120-?174)
  • 王 夫 台 (왕부태) (ca.167)
  • 울구태(蔚仇台)

Third century

  • 王簡位居(왕간위거) (?174- ?200)
  • 마여(麻余)(?190~234)
  • Uiryo Wang / Yilü (Hangul: 의려 Hanja: 依慮) (234~286)

Fourth century

  • Uira Wang / Yiluo (Hangul: 의라 Hanja: 依羅)
  • Hyon Wang / Xuan (Hangul:현 Hanja: 玄) (?-346/347)
  • 孱王/蔚王 (잔왕)

Samhan Confederacies

Jin (Mahan) Confederation

Tomb of king Wang Geon, first king of Gorye Dynasty, Korea 王建王陵

Scholars dispute the Jin (Mahan) Confederation genealogy.

  1. 기준 (箕準) or King Mugang 무강왕 武康王 (B.C.220-B.C.194)
  2. King Gang* 강왕 康王 (B.C.193-B.C.189)
  3. 기감 (箕龕) or King An 안왕 安王 (B.C.189-B.C.157)
  4. 기식 (箕寔) or King Hye 혜왕 惠王 (B.C.157-B.C.144)
  5. 기무 (箕武) or King Myung 명왕 明王 (B.C.144-B.C.113)
  6. 기형 (箕亨) or King Hyo 효왕 孝王 (B.C.113-B.C.73)
  7. 기섭 (箕燮) or King Yang 양왕 襄王 (B.C.73-B.C.58)
  8. 기훈 (箕勳) or King Won 원왕 元王 (B.C.58-B.C.32)
  9. 기정 (箕貞) or King Gye 계왕 稽王 (B.C.32-B.C.17)
  10. 기학 (箕學)

Three Kingdoms


Goguryeo (37 B.C.E. - 668 C.E.) existed as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers used the title of Taewang (太王, "Greatest King"). [1] The founder of Goguryeo, considered the 7th Dangun of Bukbuyeo, succeeded the 6th Dangun Gomuseo to the throne of Jolbon Buyeo or Bukbuyeo under a different name.

# Posthumous name[2] Hangul (Hanja) Personal names [3][4] Period of reign
Legendary line [5]
1 Dongmyeong 동명성왕 (東明聖王), 동명왕 (東明王) Jumong 주몽 (朱蒙), Chumo 추모 (鄒牟), Sanghae 상해 (象解) 37 B.C.E.-19 B.C.E.
2 Yuri 유리왕 (琉璃王), 유리명왕 (琉璃明王) Yuri 유리 (琉璃, 類利), Yuryu 유류 (孺留), Nuri 누리 (累利) 19 B.C.E.-18 C.E.
3 Daemusin 대무신왕 (大武神王), 대해주류왕 (大解朱留王) Muhyul 무휼 (無恤) 18-44
4 Minjung 민중왕 (閔中王) Saekju 색주 (色朱) 44-48
5 Mobon 모본왕 (慕本王) U 우 (憂), Aeru 애루 (愛婁), Mangnae 막래 (莫來) 48-53
Great Imperial line
6 Taejo 태조[대]왕 (太祖[大]王), 국조왕 (國祖王) Gung 궁 (宮), Eosu 어수 (於漱) 53-146
7 Chadae 차대왕 (次大王) Suseong 수성 (遂成) 146-165
8 Sindae 신대왕 (新大王) Baekgo 백고 (伯固), Baekgu 백구 (伯句) 165-179
Hwando-Guknae line
9 Gogukcheon 고국천왕 (故國川王), 국양왕 (國襄王) Nammu 남무 (男武) 179-197
10 Sansang 산상왕 山上王 Jeong-u 정우 廷優, Wigung 위궁 位宮 197-227
11 Dongcheon 동천왕 東川王, 東襄王 Uwigeo 우위거 憂位居, Gyoche 교체 郊彘 227-248
12 Jungcheon 중천왕 中川大王, 中襄王 Yeonbul 연불 然弗 248-270
13 Seocheon 서천왕 西川王, 西襄王 Yangno 약로 藥盧, Yagu 약우 若友 270-292
14 Bongsang 봉상왕 烽上王, 鴙葛王 Sangbu 상부 相夫, Sapsiru 삽시루 插矢婁 292-300
15 Micheon 미천왕 美川王, 好攘王 Eulbul 을불 乙弗, Ubul 우불 憂拂 300-331
16 Gogugwon 고국원왕 故國原王 Sayu 사유 斯由, Yu 유 劉, Soe 쇠 釗 331-371
17 Sosurim 소수림왕 小獸林王 Gubu 구부 丘夫 371-384
18 Gogugyang 고국양왕 故國攘王 Yiryeon 이련 伊連, Eojiji 어지지 於只支 384-391
19 Gwanggaeto the Great 국강상광개토경평안호태왕 國彊上廣開土境平安好太王 Damdeok 담덕 談德, An 안 安 391-413
Pyongyang line
20 Jangsu 장수왕 長壽王 Georyeon 거련 巨連, Goryeon 고련 高璉 413-490
21 Munjamyeong 문자명왕 文咨明王 Na-un 나운 羅雲, Go-un 고운 高雲 491-519
22 Anjang 안장왕 安藏王 Heung-an 흥안 興安, Go-an 고안 高安 519-531
23 Anwon 안원왕 安原王 Bojeong 보정 寶廷, Gojeong 고정 高廷 531-545
24 Yangwon 양원왕 陽原王, 陽崗上好王 Pyeongseong 평성 平成 545-559
25 Pyeongwon 평원왕 平原王 Yangseong 양성 陽成, Tang 탕 湯, Goyang 고양 高陽 559-590
26 Yeongyang 영양왕 嬰陽王, 평양왕 平陽王 Go Won 고원 高元, Daewon 대원 大元 590-618
27 Yeongnyu 영류왕 營留王 Go Geonmu 고건무 高建武, Seong 성 成, Gomu 고무 高武 618-642
28 Bojang 보장왕 寶藏王 Go Jang 고장 高藏, Bojang 보장 寶藏 642-668

Notes: [1] Some of Goguryeo's records of individual kings, especially of the 19th (Gwanggaeto), use the title "Taewang" or "Hotaewang," roughly meaning Greatest King or Very Greatest King. Some argue that the for the translation "Emperior," equivalent of the Chinese title 皇帝, but few accept that. The most complete and oldest existing Korean history text, the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, written centuries after Goguryeo was defeated, uses the title "Wang," meaning King.

[2] The kings' names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, often differing with the Chinese concept of 諡號.

[3] Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second (Yuri) through fifth (Mobon), who have Hae as surname. According to records, all of the kings belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. Debate continues among scholars about whether the two surnames represent different transcriptions of the same name, or provide evidence of a power struggle.

[4] The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."

[5] The Samguk Sagi provide the Legendary line names and dates. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong (Zhūméng}, 閭達 Lǘdá, 始閭諧 Shǐlǘxié, 如栗 Rúlí, and 莫來 Mòlái. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early fifth century when Emperor Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contacts with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connection between those names remains unclear.

Bodeok (Goguryeo-Guk)

  1. Anseung (670-683) 고안승 (高安勝)


Baekje (18 B.C.E. - AD 660) belonged to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Temple names equal personal names, unless noted otherwise.[7]

# Temple name Hangul Hanja Period of reign Personal name Relationship Note
1 Onjo 온조왕 溫祚王 October 18 B.C.E. - February 29 C.E. Onjo (溫祚) founder son of Goguryeo's founder Jumong
2 Daru 다루왕 多婁王 February 29 - September 77 C.E. first son of Onjo
3 Giru 기루왕 己婁王 September 77 - November 128 C.E. first son of Daru
4 Gaeru 개루왕 蓋婁王 November 128 - ? 166 C.E. son of Giru
5 Chogo 초고왕 肖古王 ? 166 - October 214 C.E. son of Gaeru also Sogo (소고왕, 素古王)
6 Gusu 구수왕 仇首王 October 214 - ? 234 C.E. first son of Chogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴須王)
7 Saban 사반왕 沙伴王 234 C.E. first son of Gusu also Sai (사이왕, 沙伊王)
8 Goi 고이왕 古爾王 ? 234 - November 286 C.E. second son of Gaeru also Gui (구이군, 久爾君)
9 Chaekgye 책계왕 責稽王 November 286 - September 298 C.E. son of Goi also Cheonggye (청계왕, 靑稽王)
10 Bunseo 분서왕 汾西王 September 298 - October 304 C.E. first son of Chaekgye
11 Biryu 비류왕 比流王 November 304 - October 344 C.E. second son of Gusu
12 Gye 계왕 契王 October 344 - September 346 C.E. first son of Bunseo
13 Geunchogo 근초고왕 近肖古王 September 346 - November 375 C.E. second son of Biryu also Chogo (초고왕, 肖古王) or Sokgo (속고왕, 速古王)
14 Geun-gusu 근구수왕 近仇首王 November 375 - April 384 C.E. son of Geunchogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴首王)
15 Chimnyu 침류왕 枕流王 April 384 - November 385 C.E. first son of Geungusu
16 Jinsa 진사왕 辰斯王 November 385 - November 392 C.E. younger brother of Chimnyu also Buyeohui (부여휘, 扶餘暉)
17 Asin 아신왕 阿莘王 November 392 - September 405 C.E. cousin of Jinsa; first son of Chimnyu also Aha (아화왕, 阿花王)
18 Jeonji 전지왕 腆支王 September 405 - March 420 C.E. first son of Asin also Jikji (직지왕, 直支王) or Jinji (진지왕, 眞支王)
19 Gu-isin 구이신왕 久爾辛王 March 420 - December 427 C.E. first son of Jeonji
20 Biyu 비유왕 毗有王 December 427 - September 454 C.E. first son of Guisin also Yeobi (여비, 餘毗)
21 Gaero 개로왕 蓋鹵王 September 454 - September 475 C.E. Gyeongsa (경사, 慶司) or Gyeong (경, 慶) first son of Biyu also Yeogyeong (여경, 餘慶)
22 Munju 문주왕 文周王 September 475 - September 477 C.E. Modo (모도, 牟都) or Do (도, 都) son of Gaero
23 Samgeun 삼근왕 三斤王 September 477 - November 479 C.E. Samgeun (삼근, 三斤), Imgeol (임걸, 壬乞) or Samgeol (삼걸, 三乞) first son of Munju also Mun-geun (문근왕, 文斤王)
24 Dongseong 동성왕 東城王 November 479 - November 501 C.E. Modae (모대, 牟大) or Mamo (마모, 摩牟) cousin of Samgeum
25 Muryeong 무령왕 武寧王 November 501 - May 523 C.E. Sama (사마, 斯麻 or 斯摩) or Yung (융, 隆) second son of Dongseong also Sama (사마왕, 斯麻王), Do (도왕, 嶋王), or Horyeong (호령왕, 虎寧王)
26 Seong 성왕 聖王 May 523 - August 554 C.E. Myeong (명, 明) son of Muryeong also Myeong (명왕, 明王) or Seongmyeong (성명왕, 聖明王)
27 Wideok 위덕왕 威德王 August 554 - December 598 C.E. Chang (창, 昌) first son of Seong also Chang (창왕, 昌王)
28 Hye 혜왕 惠王 December 598 - December 599 C.E. Gye (계, 季) second son of Seong also Heon (헌왕, 獻王)
29 Beop 법왕 法王 December 599 - May 600 C.E. Seon (선, 宣) or Hyosun (효순, 孝順) first son of Hye
30 Mu 무왕 武王 May 600 - March 641 C.E. personal name Jang (장, 璋) or Seodong or Suhdeong (서동, 薯童) the fourth youngest son of Wideok also Mugang (무강왕, 武康王) or Mugwang (무광왕,武廣王)
31 Uija 의자왕 義慈王 March 641 - August 660 first son of Mu



Silla (57 B.C.E. - 935 C.E.) constituted one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the early years, the Pak, Seok, and Kim families ruled Silla. Rulers of Silla had various titles, including Isageum, Maripgan, Taewang, Daewang and Yeowang. Like some Baekje kings, some declared themselves emperor.

  1. Hyeokgeose Geoseogan 혁거세거서간 (57 B.C.E.–4 C.E.)
  2. Namhae Chachaung 남해차차웅 (4–24)
  3. Yuri Yisageum (24–57) 유리이사금 儒理尼師今 (Kings Yuri to Heurhae bore the Korean title Isageum, an old word for "ruler")
  4. Talhae Isageum 탈해 이사금 脫解尼師今 (57–80)
  5. Pasa Isageum 파사이사금 婆娑尼師今 (80–112)
  6. Jima Isageum 지마이사금 祗摩尼師今 (112–134)
  7. Ilseong Isageum 일성이사금 逸聖尼師今 (134–154)
  8. Adalla Isageum 아달라이사금 阿達羅尼師今 (154–184)
  9. Beolhyu Isageum 벌휴이사금 伐休尼師今 (184–196)
  10. Naehae Isageum 내해이사금 奈解尼師今 (196–230)
  11. Jobun Isageum 조분이사금 助賁尼師今 (230–247)
  12. Cheomhae Isageum 첨해이사금 沾解尼師今 (247–261)
  13. Michu Isageum 미추이사금 味鄒尼師今 (262–284)
  14. Yurye Isageum 유례이사금 儒禮尼師今 (284–298)
  15. Girim Isageum 기림이사금 基臨尼師今 (298–310)
  16. Heulhae Isageum 흘해이사금 訖解尼師今 (310–356)
  17. Naemul Maripgan 내물마립간 奈勿麻立干 (356–402) (Kings Naemul to Soji bore the Korean title Maripgan, an old word for "ruler")
  18. Silseong Maripgan 실성마립간 實聖麻立干 (402–417)
  19. Nulji Maripgan 눌지마립간 訥祗麻立干 (417–458)
  20. Jabi Maripgan 자비마립간 慈悲麻立干 (458–479)
  21. Soji Maripgan 소지마립간 炤智麻立干 (479–500)
  22. King Jijeung 지증왕 智證王 (500–514) (Kings Jijeung to Gyeongsun bore the title Wang (the modern Korean word for "king"), with the exceptions noted below)
  23. King Beopheung the Great 법흥태왕 法興太王 (514–540) ("King Beopheung the Great" is a translation of Beopheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
  24. King Jinheung the Great 진흥태왕 真興太王 (540–576) ("King Jinheung the Great" is a translation of Jinheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
  25. King Jinji 진지왕 真智王 (576–579)
  26. King Jinpyeong 진평왕 真平王 (579–632)
  27. Queen Seondeok 선덕여왕 善德女王 (632–647) (Queens Seondeok and Jindeok bore the title Yeowang, meaning "queen")
  28. Queen Jindeok 진덕여왕 真德女王 (647–654)
  29. King Muyeol 무열왕 武烈王 (654–661)

Gaya confederacy

Gaya confederacy (42 - 532) consisted of several small statelets. All rulers of Gaya bore the title Wang ("King").

According to a legend recorded in the Samguk Yusa (a collection of folktales, legends, and biographies from early Korean history), in the year 42 C.E., six eggs descended from the heaven with messages that they would be kings. From the six eggs came six boys and within twelve days the boys grew to maturity. One of them, named Suro, became the king of Geumgwan Gaya, and the other five founded the other five Gayas, namely, Daegaya, Seongsan Gaya, Ara Gaya, Goryeong Gaya, and Sogaya.

Geumgwan Gaya

This list is of the Kim Dynasty of Geumgwan Gaya (42-532). Given the legend that records the the founding of Geumgwan Gaya in 42 C.E. when six eggs descended from heaven, the period of Suro's reign (42-199) should not be taken to imply that he was a single historical person who lived for over 150 years.

# Temple name Hangul Hanja Period of reign
1 Suro of Geumgwan Gaya 수로왕 首露王 (42-199)
2 Geodeung of Geumgwan Gaya 거등왕 居登王 (199-259)
3 Mapum of Geumgwan Gaya 마품왕 麻品王 (259-291)
4 Geojilmi of Geumgwan Gaya 거질미왕 居叱彌王 (291-346)
5 Isipum of Geumgwan Gaya 이시품왕 伊尸品王 (346-407)
6 Jwaji of Geumgwan Gaya 좌지왕 坐知王 (407-421)
7 Chwihui of Geumgwan Gaya 취희왕 吹希王 (421-451)
8 Jilji of Geumgwan Gaya 질지왕 銍知王 (451-492)
9 Gyeomji of Geumgwan Gaya 겸지왕 鉗知王 (492-521)
10 Guhyeong of Geumgwan Gaya 구형왕 仇衡王 (521-532)


Only four of the sixteen kings of Daegaya (42 - 562) are known by name.

1. King Ijinashi of Daegaya 이진아시왕, also known as Naejinjuji 내진주지 or Noejiljuil 뇌질주일
9. King Inoe of Daegaya 이뇌왕, 8th generation descendant of Yi Jinashi
?. King Haji of Daegaya 하지왕, generation unknown; possibly also known as King Gasil; sent emissary to 南齊 China in 479, joined Baekje to aid Silla from Goguryeo attack in 481.
16. King Doseolji of Daegaya 도설지왕, submitted to Silla

North-South States

Unified (Later) Silla

  1. King Munmu 문무왕 文武王 (661–681)
  2. King Sinmun 신문왕 神文王 (681–691)
  3. King Hyoso 효소왕 孝昭王 (692–702)
  4. King Seongdeok the Great 성덕왕 聖德王 (702–737)
  5. King Hyoseong 효성왕 孝成王 (737–742)
  6. King Gyeongdeok 경덕왕 景德王 (742–765)
  7. King Hyegong 혜공왕 惠恭王 (765–780)
  8. King Seondeok 선덕왕 宣德王 (780–785)
  9. King Wonseong 원성왕 元聖王 (785–798)
  10. King Soseong 소성왕 昭聖王 (798–800)
  11. King Aejang 애장왕 哀莊王 (800–809)
  12. King Heondeok 헌덕왕 憲德王 (809-826)
  13. King Heungdeok 흥덕왕 興德王 (826–836)
  14. King Huigang 희강왕 僖康王 (836–838)
  15. King Minae 민애왕 閔哀王 (838–839)
  16. King Sinmu 신무왕 神武王 (839)
  17. King Munseong 문성왕 文聖王 (839–857)
  18. King Heonan 헌안왕 憲安王 (857–861)
  19. King Gyeongmun 경문왕 景文王 (861–875)
  20. King Heongang 헌강왕 憲康王 (875–886)
  21. King Jeonggang 정강왕 定康王 (886–887)
  22. Queen Jinseong 진성여왕 真聖女王 (887–897) (Queen Jinseong bore the Korean title Yeowang, which means "queen")
  23. King Hyogong 효공왕 孝恭王 (897–912)
  24. King Sindeok 신덕왕 神德王 (913–917)
  25. King Gyeongmyeong 경명왕 景明王 (917–924)
  26. King Gyeongae 경애왕 景哀王 (924–927)
  27. King Gyeongsun 경순왕 敬順王 (927–935)


Balhae (669-926) followed Goguryeo in the northern territories when Silla unified half of the Korean Peninsula. The founder called the state Jin, claiming the title of the successor to Goguryeo, but after establishing relations with China Jin received the name Balhae (Bohai in Chinese). The rulers used the title Daewang ("king") and had the temple name of either -jo or -jong, though deposed rulers accounted for an exception.

# Personal name Period of reign Era name (年號) Posthumous name (諡號) Temple name (廟號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
0 Dae Jung-sang 대중상
668-699 Junggwang 중광
Sejo 세조
1 Dae Joyeong 대조영
699-718 Cheontong 천통
Go 고왕
Taejo 태조
2 Dae Muye 대무예
718-737 Inan 인안
Mu 무왕
Kwangjong 광종
3 Dae Heummu 대흠무
737-793 Daeheung * 대흥
大興 *
Mun 문왕
Sejong 세종
4 Dae Won-ui 대원의
793-794 None None None None None None
5 Dae Hwa-yeo 대화여
794 Jungheung 중흥
Seong 성왕
Injong 인종
6 Dae Sung-rin 대숭린
794-808 Jeongryeok 정력
Gang 강왕
Mokjong 목종
7 Dae Won-yu 대원유
808-812 Yeongdeok 영덕
Jeong 정왕
Uijong 의종
8 Dae Eon-ui 대언의
812-817? Jujak 주작
Hui 희왕
Kangjong 강종
9 Dae Myeongchung 대명충
817?-818? Taesi 태시
Gan 간왕
Cheoljong 철종
10 Dae Insu 대인수
818?-830 Geonheung 건흥
Seon 선왕
Seongjong 성종
11 Dae Ijin 대이진
830-857 Hamhwa 함화
Jangjong 장종
12 Dae Geonhwang 대건황
857-871 Daejeong 대정
An 안왕
Soonjong 순종
13 Dae Hyeonseok 대현석
871-895 Cheonbok 천복
Gyeong 경왕
Myeongjong 명종
14 Dae Wihae 대위해
895-906 None None None None None None
15 Dae Inseon 대인선
906-926 Cheongtae 청태
Ae 애왕
None None

Note : Dae Heummu had another era name Boryeok (Hangul :보력 Hanja: 寶曆; 774-?)

Later Balhae

Later Balhae (927-936), the first successor-state of Balhae, rose almost immediately after its fall. The founder, Dae Gwang Hyun, a member of the royal family and possibly a prince, used his position and lineage to legitimize his rule of Balhae. Dae Won lost hold of his regime, when his general, Yeol Manhwa, staged a successful coup. Yeol Manhwa formed the Jeong-An Kingdom, reviving Balhae.

  1. Dae Gwang Hyun (927-936) 대광현(大光顯)

Jeong-An Kingdom

  1. Yeol Manhwa (936-?) 열만화 (烈萬華)
  2. Oh Hyeon-Myeong (976-986) 오현명 (烏玄明)

Heung-Yo Kingdom

Dae Yeon-Rim—a seventh generation descendant of Dae Joyeong, the founder of Balhae—founded the Heung-Yo Kingdom (1029-1030). The Heung-Yo Kingdom, among the last of the successor-states of Balhae, fell within a year to Liao forces in 1030 C.E.

  1. Dae Yeon-Rim (?-?) 대연림 (大延琳)

Dae Won Kingdom (Kingdom of Great Balhae)

The Dae Won Kingdom (1116) represented the last major successor-state and attempt to revive of Balhae. Go Yeong-Chang, a descendant of the Goguryeon Royal family, founded the Dae Won Kingdom. The Dae Won Kingdom fell within the year of its establishment.

  1. Go Yeong-Chang (?-1116) 고영창 (高永昌)


Yi Jeonggi founded the State of Je (765 - 819), a successor-state of Goguryeo. The son of a Goguryeo captive in the Tang Empire, Yi Jeonggi gathered a massive army that consisted of both Goguryeo and Baekje soldiers. In 765, Yi rebelled and established the Je kingdom, declaring himself the "Emperor of Je." Yi conquered fifteen prefectures of Tang Empire, gathering the people of Goguryeo and Baekje into one cause and nation. The State of Je attacked the Tang capital of Changan several times before falling to the Tang-Silla Alliance in 819.

  1. Yi Jeonggi (Hangul : 이정기 Hanja/Hanzi :李正己/李定己) 765C.E. - 781C.E.
  2. Yi Nab (Hangul : 이납 Hanja/Hanzi :李納) 781C.E. - 793 C.E.
  3. Yi Sago (Hangul : 이사고 Hanja/Hanzi :李師古) 793C.E. - 807C.E.
  4. Yi Sado (Hangul : 이사도 Hanja/Hanzi :李師道) 807C.E. - 819 C.E.[8][9][10]

Later Three Kingdoms

Later Goguryeo (Majin, Taebong)

  1. Gung Ye (901-918) 궁예 (弓裔)

Later Baekje

  1. Gyeon Hwon (900-935) 견훤 (甄萱)
  2. Gyeon Singeom (935-936) 견신검 (甄神劍)


The Wang Dynasty ruled Goryeo (918-1392). The first king had the temple name Taejo, meaning "great progenitor," a title applied to the first kings of both Goryeo and Joseon, also the founders of the Wang and Yi Dynasties respectively.

The next twenty-three emperors (until Wonjong) also used their temple names, ending in jong. Beginning with Chungnyeol (the twenty-fifth king), all the remaining kings of Goryeo had the title Wang ("King") as part of their temple names. Era names are in bracket where available

# Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C)/
Mongol name (M) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
x Sijo 시조
始祖 (T)
x Jak Je Geon 작제건
Uijo 의조
懿祖 (T)
x Wang Young 왕융 (건)
王隆 (建)
(d.897) Sejo 세조
世祖 (T)
1 Wang Geon 왕건
918–943 약천
若天 (C)
Taejo 태조
太祖 (T)
2 Wang Mu 왕무
943–945 승건
承乾 (C)
Hyejong 혜종
惠宗 (T)
3 Wang Yo 왕요
945–949 천의 (C) Jeongjong 정종
定宗 (T)
4 Wang So 왕소
949–975 일화
日華 (C)
Gwangjong 광종
光宗 (T)
5 Wang Yu 왕유
975–981 장민
長民 (C)
Gyeongjong 경종
景宗 (T)
6 Wang Chi 왕치
981–997 온고
溫古 (C)
Seongjong 성종
成宗 (T)
7 Wang Song 왕송
997–1009 효신
孝伸 (C)
Mokjong 목종
穆宗 (T)
8 Wang Sun 왕순
1009–1031 안세
安世 (C)
Hyeonjong 현종
顯宗 (T)
9 Wang Heum 왕흠
1031–1034 원량
元良 (C)
Deokjong 덕종
德宗 (T)
10 Wang Hyeong 왕형
1034–1046 신조
申照 (C)
Jeongjong 정종
靖宗 (T)
11 Wang Hwi 왕휘
1046–1083 촉유
燭幽 (C)
Munjong 문종
文宗 (T)
12 Wang Hun 왕훈
1083 의공
義恭 (C)
Sunjong 순종
順宗 (T)
13 Wang Un 왕운
1083–1094 계천
繼天 (C)
Seonjong 선종
宣宗 (T)
14 Wang Uk 왕욱
1094–1095 Heonjong 헌종
獻宗 (T)
15 Wang Hee 왕희
1095–1105 천상
天常 (C)
Sukjong 숙종
肅宗 (T)
16 Wang U 왕우
1105–1122 세민
世民 (C)
Yejong 예종
睿宗 (T)
17 Wang Hae 왕해
1122–1146 인표
仁表 (C)
Injong 인종
仁宗 (T)
18 Wang Hyeon 왕현
1146–1170 일승
日升 (C)
Uijong 의종
毅宗 (T)
19 Wang Ho 왕호
1170–1197 지단
之旦 (C)
Myeongjong 명종
明宗 (T)
20 Wang Tak 왕탁
1197–1204 지화
至華 (C)
Sinjong 신종
神宗 (T)
21 Wang Yeong 왕영
1204–1211 불피
不陂 (C)
Huijong 희종
熙宗 (T)
22 Wang O 왕오/왕숙/왕정
1211–1213 대화
大華 (C)
Gangjong 강종
康宗 (T)
23 Wang Cheol 왕철
1213–1259 천우
天祐 (C)
Gojong 고종
高宗 (T)
24 Wang Sik 왕식
1259–1274 일신
日新 (C)
Wonjong 원종
元宗 (T)
25 Wang Geo 왕거
1274–1308 Chungnyeol 충렬왕
忠烈王 (P)
26 Wang Jang 왕장
1308–1313 중앙
仲昻 (C)
Chungseon 충선왕
忠宣王 (P)
27 Wang Man 왕만
의효 (C) Chungsuk 충숙왕
忠肅王 (P)
28 Wang Jeong 왕정
Botapsilli (M) 보탑실리
普塔失里 (M)
Chunghye 충혜왕
忠惠王 (P)
29 Wang Heun 왕흔
1344–1348 Palsamanaeisa 팔사마타아지
八思麻朶兒只 (M)
Chungmok 충목왕
忠穆王 (P)
30 Wang Jeo 왕저
1348–1351 Ijae / Ikdang (Ps) 미사감타아지
迷思監朶兒只 (M)
이재 /익당 (Ps)
Chungjeong 충정왕
忠靖王 (P)
31 Wang Jeon 왕전
1351–1374 빠이란티무르
伯顔帖木兒 (M)
Gongmin 공민왕
恭愍王 (P)
32 Wang U 왕우
1374–1388 U 우왕
禑王 (P)
33 Wang Chang 왕창
1388–1389 Chang 창왕
昌王 (P)
34 Wang Yo 왕요
1389–1392 Gongyang 공양왕
恭讓王 (P)


Joseon (1391–1897) followed Goryeo. In 1897, when Joseon became the Korean Empire, Emperor Gojong posthumously raised some of the Joseon kings to the rank of emperors.

Joseon monarchs had temple names ending in jo or jong. The first kings/emperors of new lines within the dynasty received the title Jo, with the first king/emperor having the special name (Taejo), which means "great progenitor" (see also Goryeo). All other kings/emperors received the title Jong.

Kings Yeonsangun and Gwanghaegun received their normal titles, without temple names, after their reigns ended. Each monarch had a posthumous name that included either the title Wang ("King"), Hwangje ("Emperor"), Daewang ("King X the Great"), or Daeje ("Emperor X the Great"). For the sake of consistency, the title "King/Emperor" has been added to each monarch's temple name in the list below.

# Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C)/
Mongol name (M) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
x Yi Han 이한
Sijo 시조
始祖 (T)
x Yi An-sa 이안사
Mokjo 목조
穆祖 (T)
x Yi Haeng-ri 이행리
Ikjo 익조
翼祖 (T)
x Yi Chun 이춘
Buyan-Temür (M) 孛顔帖木兒 (M) Dojo 도조
度祖 (T)
x Yi Ja-chun 이자춘
(d.1360) Ulus Bukha (M) 吾魯思不花 (M) Hwanjo 환조
桓祖 (T)
1 Yi Seong gye 이성계
1392-1398 중결
仲潔 (C)
Taejo 태조
太祖 (T)
2 Yi Gyeong 이경
1398-1400 광원
光遠 (C)
Jeongjong 정종
定宗 (T)
3 Yi Bang won 이방원
1400-1418 유덕
Taejong 태종
4 Yi Do 이도
1418-1450 원정
元正 (C)
Sejong the Great 세종
5 Yi Hyang 이향
1450-1452 휘지
Munjong 문종
文宗 (T)
6 Yi Hong wi 이홍위
1452-1455 Danjong 단종
端宗 (T)
7 Yi Yu 이유
1455-1468 수지
粹之 (C)
Sejo 세조
世祖 (T)
8 Yi Gwang 이광
1468-1469 명조/평남
明照/平南 (C)
Yejong 예종
睿宗 (T)
9 Yi Hyeol 이혈
Seongjong 성종
10 Yi Yung 이융
Yeonsangun 연산군
11 Yi Yeok 이역
1506-1544 낙천
樂天 (C)
Jungjong 중종
中宗 (T)
12 Yi Ho 이호
1544-1545 천윤
天胤 (C)
Injong 인종
仁宗 (T)
13 Yi Hwan 이환
1545-1567 대양
對陽 (C)
Myeongjong 명종
明宗 (T)
14 Yi Yeon 이연
1567-1608 Seonjo 선조
宣祖 (T)
15 Yi Hon 이혼
Gwanghaegun 광해군
16 Yi Jong 이종
1623-1649 화백
Injo 인조
仁祖 (T)
17 Yi Ho 이호
1649-1659 정연/靜淵 (C)
죽오/竹梧 (Ps)
Hyojong 효종
18 Yi Yeon 이연
1659-1674 경직
景直 (C)
Hyeonjong 현종
顯宗 (T)
19 Yi Sun 이순
1674-1720 명보
明普 (C)
Sukjong 숙종
20 Yi Yun 이윤
1720-1724 휘서
輝瑞 (C)
Gyeongjong 경종
21 Yi Geum 이금
1724-1776 광숙/光叔 (C)
양성헌/養性軒 (Ps)
Yeongjo 영조
英祖 (T)
22 Yi San 이산
1776-1800 형운/亨運 (C)
홍재/弘齋 (Ps)
Jeongjo 정조
正祖 (T)
23 Yi Gong 이공
1800-1834 공보/公寶(C)
순재/純齋 (Ps)
Sunjo 순조
純祖 (T)
24 Yi Hwan 이환
1834-1849 문응/文應 (C)
원헌/元軒 (Ps)
Heonjong 헌종
憲宗 (T)
25 Yi Byeon 이변
1849-1863 도승/道升(C)
Cheoljong 철종
哲宗 (T)
26 Yi Myeong bok 이명복
1863-1897 (1907)* 성림/聖臨(C)
주연/珠淵 (Ps)
Gojong 고종
高宗 (T)
27 Yi Cheok 이척
(1907-1910)* 군방/君邦(C)
정헌/正軒 (Ps)
Sunjong 순종
純宗 (T)

Korean Empire

King Gojong declared the Korean Empire (1897-1919) to declare the end of the tributary relationship with China. Technically, historians use the emperors' era names rather than their temple names to designate the king, but commonly use temple names.

# Personal name Period of reign Korean era name Temple name (廟號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Yi Myeong bok 이명복
1897-1907 Gwangmu 광무
Gojong 고종
2 Yi Cheok 이척
1907-1910 Yungheui 융희
Sunjong 순종

See also


  1. Bruce Cumings, Korea's place in the sun: a modern history (New York: W.W. Norton, 1997, ISBN 978-0393040111), 25.
  2. Ki-baek Yi, A New History of Korea (Cambridge, MA: Published for the Harvard-Yenching Institute by Harvard University Press, 1984, ISBN 978-0674615755), 13.
  3. Jung Bae Kim, "Formation of the ethnic Korean nation and the emergence of its ancient kingdom states," Korean history: Discovery of its characteristics and developments (Seoul: Hollym, 1997, ISBN 1565911776), 27-36.
  4. N.-H. Yoon (윤내현), The Location and Transfer of GO-CHOSUN's Capital (고조선의 도읍 위치와 그 이동), 단군학연구, 7, 207-238, 2002.
  5. 김황, Daedong Sagang (대동사강, 大東史綱), 대동사강사, 경성 (1929)
  6. 백산 학회, 고조선 부여사 연구
  7. 7.0 7.1 Chʻang-guk Song, Paekche wangjo 700-yŏn. Ŭttŭm yŏksa manhwa, 4. (Sŏul-si: Kyerim Datkʻŏm, 2001, ISBN 9788981069308), 318-319.
  8. New history book of Tang, 新唐書
  9. Old history book of Tang, 舊唐書
  10. Zizhi Tongjian, 資治通鑒

ISBN links support NWE through referral fees

  • Byeon Tae-seop (변태섭). 韓國史通論 (Hanguksa tongnon) (Outline of Korean history) , 4th ed, 1999. ISBN 8944591016
  • Cumings, Bruce. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997. ISBN 978-0393040111
  • Kim, Jung Bae. "Formation of the ethnic Korean nation and the emergence of its ancient kingdom states", Korean history: Discovery of its characteristics and developments. Seoul: Hollym, 1997, 27-36. ISBN 1565911776
  • Nahm, Andrew C. Korea: tradition & transformation: a history of the Korean people. Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International Corp, 1988. ISBN 978-0930878566
  • Song, Chʻang-guk. Paekche wangjo 700-yŏn. Ŭttŭm yŏksa manhwa, 4. Sŏul-si: Kyerim Datkʻŏm, 2001. ISBN 978-8981069308
  • Yi, Ki-baek. A New History of Korea. Cambridge, MA: Published for the Harvard-Yenching Institute by Harvard University Press, 1984. ISBN 978-0674615755
  • Yoon, N.-H. (윤내현), The Location and Transfer of GO-CHOSUN's Capital (고조선의 도읍 위치와 그 이동), 단군학연구, 7, 207 – 238, 2002.

External Links

All links retrieved October 29, 2022.


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