|Name, Symbol, Number||erbium, Er, 68|
|Group, Period, Block||n/a, 6, f|
|Atomic mass||167.259(3) g/mol|
|Electron configuration||[Xe] 4f12 6s2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2|
|Density (near r.t.)||9.066 g/cm³|
|Liquid density at m.p.||8.86 g/cm³|
|Melting point||1802 K
(1529 °C, 2784 °F)
|Boiling point||3141 K
(2868 °C, 5194 °F)
|Heat of fusion||19.90 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||280 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity||(25 °C) 28.12 J/(mol·K)|
|Electronegativity||1.24 (Pauling scale)|
|1st: 589.3 kJ/mol|
|2nd: 1150 kJ/mol|
|3rd: 2194 kJ/mol|
|Atomic radius||175 pm|
|Atomic radius (calc.)||226 pm|
|Magnetic ordering||no data|
|Electrical resistivity||(r.t.) (poly) 0.860 µΩ·m|
|Thermal conductivity||(300 K) 14.5 W/(m·K)|
|Thermal expansion||(r.t.) (poly)
|Speed of sound (thin rod)||(20 °C) 2830 m/s|
|Speed of sound (thin rod)||(r.t.) 69.9 m/s|
|Shear modulus||28.3 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||44.4 GPa|
|Vickers hardness||589 MPa|
|Brinell hardness||814 MPa|
|CAS registry number||7440-52-0|
Like other rare earths, this element is never found as a free element in nature but is found bound in monazite sand ores. It has historically been very difficult and expensive to separate rare earths from each other in their ores but ion-exchange production techniques developed in the late twentieth century have greatly brought down the cost of production of all rare-earth metals and their chemical compounds. The principal commercial sources of erbium are from the minerals xenotime and euxenite.
Erbium (for Ytterby, a town in Sweden) was discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1843. Mosander separated "yttria" from the mineral gadolinite into three fractions which he called yttria, erbia, and terbia. He named the new element after the town of Ytterby where large concentrations of yttria and erbium are located. Erbia and terbia, however, were confused at this time. After 1860, terbia was renamed erbia and after 1877 what had been known as erbia was renamed terbia. Fairly pure Er2O3 was independently isolated in 1905 by Georges Urbain and Charles James. Reasonably pure metal wasn't produced until 1934 when workers reduced the anhydrous chloride with potassium vapor.
Erbium is an inner transition metal (or lanthanide) that lies in period six of the periodic table, between holmium and thulium. A trivalent element, pure erbium metal is malleable (or easily shaped), soft yet stable in air, and does not oxidize as quickly as some other rare earth metals.
Salts of erbium are rose-colored and the element gives a characteristic sharp absorption spectra in visible light, ultraviolet, and near infrared. Otherwise it looks much like the other rare earths. Its sesquioxide is called erbia. Erbium's properties are to a degree dictated by the kind and amount of impurities present.
Erbium doped glasses or crystals can be used as optical amplification media, where erbium ions are optically pumped at around 980nm or 1480nm and then radiate light at 1550nm. This process can be used to create lasers and optical amplifiers. The 1550nm wavelength is especially important for optical communications because standard single mode optical fibers have minimal loss at this particular wavelength.
Naturally occurring erbium is composed of six stable isotopes—Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170—with Er-166 being the most abundant (33.6 percent natural abundance). 23 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being Er-169 with a half life of 9.4 days, Er-172 with a half-life of 49.3 hours, Er-160 with a half-life of 28.58 hours, Er-165 with a half-life of 10.36 hours, and Er-171 with a half life of 7.516 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 3.5 hours, and the majority of these have half lives that are less than four minutes. This element also has six meta states, with the most stable being Er-167m (t½ 2.269 seconds).
The isotopes of erbium range in atomic weight from 144.957 amu (Er-145) to 173.944 amu (Er-174). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Er-166, is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta decay. The primary decay products before Er-166 are element 67 (holmium) isotopes, and the primary products after are element 69 (thulium) isotopes.
Erbium's everyday uses are varied. It is commonly used as a photographic filter and because of its resilience it is useful as a metallurgical additive. Other uses:
Erbium does not play any known biological role but is thought by some to be able to stimulate metabolism. As with the other lanthanides, erbium compounds have low-to-moderate toxicity, but their toxicity has not been investigated in detail. Metallic erbium in dust form presents a fire and explosion hazard.
All links retrieved August 18, 2017.
New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:
The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: