John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was an American aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio. In 1962 he was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times. Before joining NASA, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War II and Korea with six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen clusters on his Air Medal.
Glenn was one of the Mercury Seven military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA as the United States' first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, he flew the Friendship 7 mission, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth and the fifth person in space. Glenn received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, and was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven.
Glenn resigned from NASA in 1964 and retired from the Marine Corps the following year to run for political office. A member of the Democratic Party, Glenn first won election to the Senate in 1974 and served for 24 years until January 3, 1999.
In 1998, still a sitting senator, Glenn was the oldest person to fly in space as a crew member of the Discovery space shuttle and the only person to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012 in recognition of his lifelong service to his country.
Early life and education
John Herschel Glenn Jr. was born on July 18, 1921 in Cambridge, Ohio, the son of John Herschel Glenn, Sr. (1895–1966), owner of the Glenn Plumbing Company, and teacher Clara Teresa Sproat (1897–1971). He was raised in nearby New Concord with his adopted sister Jean. He attended New Concord Elementary School.
After graduating from New Concord High School in 1939, Glenn studied engineering at Muskingum College, where he was a member of the Stag Club fraternity. He earned a private pilot license for credit in a physics course in 1941. Glenn did not complete his senior year in residence due to becoming a fighter pilot during World War II, nor did he take a proficiency exam, both required by the school for its Bachelor of Science degree. He later took courses at the University of Maryland, again without fulfilling the graduation requirements. In 1960, he became concerned about his lack of qualifications when NASA was selecting astronauts for the Mercury program and petitioned Muskingum to receive a degree. His petition was rejected, but Muskingum awarded Glenn an honorary doctorate after his Mercury space flight; they subsequently approved his petition and awarded his bachelors degree in February, 1962.
On April 6, 1943 Glenn married his high school sweetheart, Anna Margaret Castor (1920-2020), who also attended Muskingum College. They had two children—John David (b. 1945) and Carolyn Ann (b. 1947)—and two grandchildren, and remained married for 73 years until his death. Glenn's NASA friend, Charles Bolden, was inspired by the marriage. "For anyone who's contemplating marriage, you ought to go to school on the Glenns, because they can teach us a lot about what unending love, with undying respect and admiration for each other means ... There was never a question whether Annie was the love of his life."
A Freemason, Glenn was a member of Concord Lodge #688 in New Concord, Ohio. He received all of his degrees in full in a "Mason at Sight" ceremony from the Grand Master of Ohio in 1978, fourteen years after petitioning his lodge. In 1998, Glenn became a 32nd-degree Scottish Rite Mason in the Valley of Cincinnati (NMJ); the following year, he received the 33rd degree of the Scottish Rite.
Glenn was an ordained elder of the Presbyterian Church. Although his religious faith was kindled before he became an astronaut, it was reinforced after he traveled in space. "To look out at this kind of creation and not believe in God is to me impossible," said Glenn after his second space voyage. He saw no contradiction between belief in God and the knowledge that evolution is "a fact," and believed that evolution should be taught in schools: "I don't see that I'm any less religious by the fact that I can appreciate the fact that science just records that we change with evolution and time, and that's a fact. It doesn't mean it's less wondrous and it doesn't mean that there can't be some power greater than any of us that has been behind and is behind whatever is going on."
Glenn was an original owner of a Holiday Inn franchise near Orlando, Florida, which is today the Seralago Hotel & Suites Main Gate East. Glenn's business partner was Henri Landwirth, a Holocaust survivor. He remembered learning about Landwirth's background: "Henri doesn't talk about it much. It was years before he spoke about it with me and then only because of an accident. We were down in Florida during the space program. Everyone was wearing short-sleeved Ban-Lon shirts, everyone but Henri. Then one day I saw Henri at the pool and noticed the number on his arm. I told Henri that if it were me I'd wear that number like a medal with a spotlight on it."
In June 2014, Glenn underwent successful heart valve replacement surgery at the Cleveland Clinic. In early December 2016, he was hospitalized at the James Cancer Hospital of Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus. Glenn died on December 8, 2016, at the OSU Wexner Medical Center. He was interred in a private ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery after lying in state at the Ohio Statehouse and a public memorial service was held at Mershon Auditorium at Ohio State University.
World War II
When the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II, Glenn quit college to enlist in the U.S. Army Air Corps. Never called to duty, in March 1942 he enlisted as a U.S. Navy aviation cadet. Glenn attended the University of Iowa in Iowa City for pre-flight training and continued at Naval Air Station Olathe in Kansas for primary training, where he made his first solo flight in a military aircraft. During advanced training at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, he accepted an offer to transfer to the U.S. Marine Corps.
Completing his training in March 1943, Glenn was commissioned as a second lieutenant. After advanced training at Camp Kearny, California, he was assigned to Marine Squadron VMJ-353 and flew R4D transport planes. Glenn was posted to the Marine Corps Air Station El Centro in California in July 1943 and joined VMO-155, which flew the F4F Wildcat fighter. VMO-155 re-equipped with the F4U Corsair in September 1943.
He was promoted to first lieutenant in October 1943, and shipped out to Hawaii in January 1944. It was intended that VMO-155 would move to the Marshall Islands but this was delayed, and on February 21 it moved to Midway Atoll and became part of the garrison. Beginning in June 1944, stationed in the Marshall Islands, Glenn flew over 50 combat missions in the area. Hit by anti-aircraft fire five times, he received two Distinguished Flying Crosses and ten Air Medals.
Glenn returned to the United States at the end of his one-year tour of duty in 1945, and was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point in North Carolina and then to Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland. He was promoted to captain in July 1945, shortly before the Pacific War's end. Glenn was ordered back to Cherry Point, where he joined VMF-913 (another Corsair squadron).
In March 1946, he was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in southern California. Glenn volunteered for service with the occupation in North China, believing that it would be a short tour. He joined VMF-218, yet another Corsair squadron (based at Nanyuan Field near Beijing), in December 1946. Glenn flew patrol missions until VMF-218 was transferred to Guam in March 1947, and he returned home in December 1948.
He was re-posted to NAS Corpus Christi, first as a student and then as a flight instructor. In July 1951, Glenn was sent to the Amphibious Warfare School at Marine Corps Base Quantico in northern Virginia for a six-month course. He then joined the staff of the Commandant, Marine Corps Schools. Given only four hours of flying time per month, Glenn maintained his proficiency (and flight pay) by flying on weekends. He was promoted to major in July 1952.
Glenn was ordered to South Korea in October 1952, late in the Korean War. On February 3, 1953 he reported to K-3 and was assigned to VMF-311, one of two Marine fighter squadrons there, as its operations officer. VMF-311, equipped with the F9F Panther jet fighter-bomber, was assigned a variety of missions. He flew 63 combat missions in Korea with VMF-311, and was nicknamed "Magnet Ass" because of his ability to attract enemy flak (an occupational hazard of low-level close air support missions); twice he returned to base with over 250 holes in his plane. Glenn flew for a time with Marine reservist Ted Williams (a future Hall of Fame baseball player with the Boston Red Sox) as his wingman, and also flew with future major general Ralph H. Spanjer.
Glenn had applied for an inter-service exchange position with the U.S. Air Force to fly the F-86 Sabre jet fighter-interceptor. In June 1953 he reported for duty with the 25th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, and flew 27 combat missions in the faster F-86. Glenn shot down his first MiG-15s in a dogfight on July 12, 1953. A second battle followed on July 19, and a third (during which four Sabres shot down three MiGs) on July 22. These were the final air victories of the war, which ended with an armistice five days later. For his service in Korea, Glenn received two more Distinguished Flying Crosses and eight more Air Medals.
Glenn later wrote:
Since the days of the Lafayette Escadrille during World War I, pilots have viewed air-to-air combat as the ultimate test not only of their machines but of their own personal determination and flying skills. I was no exception.
With his combat experience as a fighter pilot, Glenn applied for training as a test pilot while he was still in Korea. He reported to the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School at NAS Patuxent River in Maryland in January 1954, and graduated in July.
Glenn's first assignment was testing the FJ-3 Fury, a Navy version of the F-86 Sabre which nearly killed him when its cockpit depressurized and its oxygen system failed. He also tested the armament of aircraft such as the Vought F7U Cutlass and F8U Crusader. From November 1956 to April 1959, Glenn was assigned to the Fighter Design Branch of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics in Washington, D.C. and attended the University of Maryland.
On July 16, 1957 he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight, At that time, the transcontinental speed record, held by an Air Force Republic F-84 Thunderjet, was 3 hours 45 minutes and Glenn calculated that an F8U Crusader could do it faster. Since its 586-mile-per-hour (943 km/h) air speed was faster than that of a .45 caliber bullet, Glenn called his project Project Bullet. His flight time was 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8.3 seconds, averaging supersonic speed despite three in-flight refuelings when speeds dropped below 300 miles per hour (480 km/h). Glenn's on-board camera took the first continuous, transcontinental panoramic photograph of the United States. When he flew over his hometown, a child reportedly ran to the Glenn house and yelled "Johnny dropped a bomb!" as his sonic boom shook the town.  Glenn received his fifth Distinguished Flying Cross for this mission, and he was promoted to lieutenant colonel on April 1, 1959. He now had nearly 9,000 hours of flying time, including about 3,000 hours in jets.
While Glenn was on duty at Patuxent and in Washington, he began reading everything he could find about space. His office was asked to send a test pilot to Langley Air Force Base in Virginia to make runs on a spaceflight simulator, part of NASA research of reentry-vehicle shapes. The pilot would also be sent to the Naval Air Development Center in Johnsville, Pennsylvania, and would be subjected to high g-forces in a centrifuge for comparison with data collected in the simulator. Glenn's request for the position was granted, and he spent several days at Langley and a week in Johnsville for the testing.
Before Glenn's appointment as an astronaut in the Mercury program, he participated in capsule design. NASA had asked military-service members to participate in planning the mockup of a capsule. Since Glenn had participated in the research at Langley and Johnsville, been on mock-up boards in the Navy and understood capsules, he was sent to the McDonnell plant in St. Louis as a service adviser to the mockup board.
In 1958, the newly-formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration began a recruiting program for astronauts. Each astronaut had to be a military test pilot between the ages of 25 and 40 with sufficient flight hours, no more than 5 ft 11 in (1.8 m) in height, and possess a degree in a scientific field. The group was narrowed down to seven astronauts (Glenn, Alan Shepard, Gus Grissom, Scott Carpenter, Wally Schirra, Gordon Cooper, and Deke Slayton), who were introduced to the public at a NASA press conference in April 1959. Glenn barely met the requirements; he was near the age cutoff (40) and lacked a science-based degree at the time, but he was on a list of 100 test pilots who met the minimum requirements to become an astronaut. The candidates were screened, and the number of potential astronauts was reduced to 32. The candidates underwent a battery of tests, including physical tests to measure stamina and psychological tests to measure maturity, alertness, and motivation.
After testing, the candidates had to wait 10 to 12 days for the results. Glenn had returned to his position at the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics when he received a call from the associate director of Project Mercury, Charles Donlan, offering him a position as one of the Mercury Seven. He remained an officer in the Marine Corps after his selection in 1959, and was assigned to the NASA Space Task Group at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The task force was moved to Houston in 1962, and became part of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.
The astronauts trained at Langley. A portion of the training was education, and they studied subjects such as graduate-level introductory space science. The training also had a practical aspect, which included scuba diving and work in simulators. Astronauts were given an additional role in the spaceflight program, to ensure pilot input in design. Glenn's role was cockpit layout design and control functioning for the Mercury and early Apollo programs, and he was a backup pilot for Shepard and Grissom on the Freedom 7 and Liberty Bell 7 sub-orbital missions.
Friendship 7 flight
The flight took off on February 20, 1962 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. There were eleven delays during the countdown due to equipment malfunctions, improvements to equipment functioning properly and the weather. During Glenn's first orbit, a scheduled 30-minute test to see if he could fly the spacecraft manually became significant when a failure of the automatic-control system was detected at the end of the first orbit; this forced Glenn to operate in manual mode for the second and third orbits and re-entry.
Later in the flight, telemetry indicated that the heat shield had loosened. If the telemetry was correct, Glenn's spacecraft would probably have been destroyed during re-entry from the intense heat. Flight controllers had him modify his re-entry procedure by keeping his retrorocket pack over the shield to help retain it during re-entry. Leaving the retrorocket pack on made large chunks of flaming debris fly past the window of his capsule during re-entry, although Glenn thought it might have been the heat shield. He told an interviewer, "Fortunately it was the rocket pack—or I wouldn't be answering these questions." After the flight, it was determined that the indicator was faulty.
Friendship 7 safely splashed down 800 miles (1,290 km) southeast of Cape Canaveral after Glenn's 4-hour, 55-minute flight. The spacecraft landed 41 miles (66 km) west and 19 miles (31 km) north of the target landing site. Friendship 7 was recovered by the USS Noa, which had the spacecraft on the deck 21 minutes after landing; Glenn was in the capsule during the recovery operation. He carried a note on the flight which read, "I am a stranger. I come in peace. Take me to your leader and there will be a massive reward for you in eternity" in several languages, in case he landed near southern Pacific Ocean islands. The flight took Glenn to a maximum altitude (apogee) of about 162 miles (261 km) and a minimum altitude of 100 miles (160 km) (perigee) at a speed of about 17,500 miles per hour (28,200 km/h).
The flight made Glenn the first American to orbit the Earth; the third American in space, he was the fifth human in space. Perth, Western Australia, became known worldwide as the "City of Light" when residents turned on their house, car, and streetlights as Glenn passed overhead. The city repeated the act when Glenn rode the Space Shuttle in 1998. His flight occurred while the U.S. and the Soviet Union were embroiled in the Cold War and competing in the Space Race. The "best day of his life," it renewed U.S. confidence. 
As the first American in orbit Glenn became a national hero, met President Kennedy, and received a ticker-tape parade in New York City reminiscent of those honoring Charles Lindbergh and other dignitaries. He became "so valuable to the nation as an iconic figure," according to NASA administrator Charles Bolden, that Kennedy would not "risk putting him back in space again." On February 23, 1962, President Kennedy gave him the NASA Distinguished Service Medal.
Since Glenn was 42 years old, he was unlikely to be chosen for a lunar landing. He resigned from NASA on January 16, 1964, and announced his Democratic Party candidacy for the U.S. Senate from his home state of Ohio the following day. On February 26 Glenn received a concussion from hitting his head against a bathtub, and he withdrew from the race on March 30. He went on convalescent leave from the Marine Corps until he fully recovered, which was required for his retirement. Glenn retired as a colonel on January 1, 1965, becoming an executive with Royal Crown Cola.
During Glenn's training, NASA psychologists had determined that he was the astronaut best suited for public life. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy suggested to Glenn and his wife in December 1962 that he run for the U.S. Senate from Ohio in 1964, challenging aging incumbent Stephen M. Young (1889–1984) in the Democratic primary election. Glenn remained close to the Kennedy family; he was with Robert Kennedy in Los Angeles when he was assassinated in 1968, and was a pallbearer at Kennedy's funeral in New York City.
In 1970, Young did not seek reelection and the seat was open. Glenn was defeated in the Democratic primary by businessman Howard Metzenbaum (who received 51 percent of the vote to Glenn's 49 percent), but Metzenbaum lost the general election to Robert Taft Jr. In 1974, Glenn declined Ohio governor John J. Gilligan and the state Democratic party's request that he run for lieutenant governor and challenged Metzenbaum again for the other Ohio Senate seat (vacated by Republican William B. Saxbe, who became U.S. Attorney General in early 1974). Metzenbaum was the short-term incumbent, appointed by Gilligan in January.
In the primary, Metzenbaum contrasted his strong business background with Glenn's military and astronaut credentials and said that his opponent had "never held a payroll." Glenn's reply became known as the "Gold Star Mothers" speech. He told Metzenbaum to go to a veterans' hospital and "look those men with mangled bodies in the eyes and tell them they didn't hold a job. You go with me to any Gold Star mother and you look her in the eye and tell her that her son did not hold a job." According to many observers, Glenn's "Gold Star Mothers" speech won him the primary. He defeated Metzenbaum 54 to 46 percent before defeating Ralph Perk (the Republican mayor of Cleveland) in the general election, beginning a Senate career which would continue until 1999.
Savings and loan scandal
Glenn was one of the Keating Five: U.S. senators who were caught up in the savings and loan crisis after he accepted a $200,000 campaign contribution from Lincoln Savings and Loan Association head Charles Keating. Glenn and Republican senator John McCain were the only senators who were exonerated, although the Senate commission found that Glenn had exercised "poor judgment." The association of his name with the scandal made Republicans hopeful that he could be defeated in the 1992 campaign, but Glenn defeated lieutenant governor Mike DeWine to retain his seat.
In 1976, Glenn was a candidate for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination. However, his keynote address at the Democratic National Convention failed to impress the delegates and the nomination went to veteran politician Walter Mondale. Glenn also ran for the 1984 Democratic presidential nomination.
He and his staff were concerned about the 1983 release of The Right Stuff, a film about the Mercury Seven based on the best-selling Tom Wolfe book of the same name. Wolfe had called Glenn a "zealous moralizer," and he did not attend the film's Washington premiere on October 16, 1983. Reviewers saw Ed Harris' portrayal of Glenn as heroic, however, and his staff began to publicize the film to the press. Aide Greg Schneiders suggested an unusual strategy, similar to Glenn's personal campaign and voting style, where he would avoid appealing to special interest groups and instead seek support from ordinary Democratic primary voters: the "constituency of the whole." Mondale defeated Glenn for the nomination, however, and he carried $3 million in campaign debt for over 20 years before receiving a reprieve from the Federal Election Commission. He was considered as a vice-presidential candidate in 1984, 1988, and 1992.
As a senator, Glenn was chief author of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, chaired the Committee on Governmental Affairs from 1987 to 1995 and sat on the Foreign Relations and Armed Services committees and the Special Committee on Aging.
When the Republican Party regained control of the Senate, Glenn was the ranking minority member on the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (chaired by Maine senator Susan Collins) which investigated illegal foreign donations by China to U.S. political campaigns for the 1996 election.
Return to space
On January 16, 1998, NASA administrator Dan Goldin announced that Glenn would be part of the STS-95 crew; this made him, at age 77, the oldest person to fly in space. NASA and the National Institute of Aging (NIA) planned to use Glenn as a test subject for research, with biometrics taken before, during and after his flight. Some experiments (in circadian rhythms, for example) compared him with the younger crew members. In addition to these tests, he was in charge of the flight's photography and videography. Glenn returned to space on the Space Shuttle on October 29, 1998, as a Payload Specialist on Discovery.
Glenn wrote in his memoir that he had no idea that NASA was willing to send him back into space when the agency made its announcement. His participation in the nine-day mission was criticized by some members of the space community as a favor granted by president Bill Clinton.
In a 2012 interview, Glenn said that the purpose of his flight was "to make measurements and do research on me at the age of 77 to see if we could find out by comparing the results on me in space with the younger people and maybe get answers to some of those things on the immune system or protein turnover or vestibular functions and other things — heart changes."
After STS-95 returned safely, its crew received a ticker-tape parade; this made Glenn the tenth individual to receive multiple ticker-tape parades. On October 15, 1998, NASA Road 1 (the main causeway to the Johnson Space Center) was renamed John Glenn Parkway for several months. In 2001, Glenn strenuously opposed sending Dennis Tito, the world's first space tourist, to the International Space Station because Tito's trip had no scientific purpose.
Glenn helped found the John Glenn Institute for Public Service and Public Policy at Ohio State University in 1998 to encourage public service. On July 22, 2006, the institute merged with OSU's School of Public Policy and Management to become the John Glenn School of Public Affairs; Glenn held an adjunct professorship at the school, later renamed the John Glenn College of Public Affairs.
Glenn was an honorary member of the International Academy of Astronautics and a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Marine Corps Aviation Association, Order of Daedalians, National Space Club Board of Trustees, National Space Society Board of Governors, International Association of Holiday Inns, Ohio Democratic Party, State Democratic Executive Committee, Franklin County (Ohio) Democratic Party and the 10th District (Ohio) Democratic Action Club. In 2001 he guest-starred as himself on the American television sitcom, Frasier.
On September 5, 2009, John and Annie Glenn dotted the "i" in Ohio State University's Script Ohio marching band performance during the Ohio State–Navy football-game halftime show. Other non-band members to receive the honor include Bob Hope, Woody Hayes, Jack Nicklaus and Earle Bruce. On February 20, 2012, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Friendship 7 flight, Glenn had an unexpected opportunity to speak with the orbiting crew of the International Space Station when he was onstage with NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden at Ohio State University.
On April 19, 2012, Glenn participated in the ceremonial transfer of the retired Space Shuttle Discovery from NASA to the Smithsonian Institution for permanent display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. He criticized the "unfortunate" decision to end the Space Shuttle program, saying that grounding the shuttles delayed research.
In June 2016, the Port Columbus, Ohio airport was renamed the John Glenn Columbus International Airport. The Glenns attended the ceremony, and he spoke about how visiting the airport as a child kindled his interest in flying.
In his official statement President Barack Obama said that Glenn, "the first American to orbit the Earth, reminded us that with courage and a spirit of discovery there's no limit to the heights we can reach together." Tributes were also paid by former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and president-elect Donald Trump. Former and current astronauts added tributes; so did NASA Administrator and former shuttle astronaut Charles Bolden, who wrote: "John Glenn's legacy is one of risk and accomplishment, of history created and duty to country carried out under great pressure with the whole world watching."
President Obama ordered flags to be flown at half-mast until Glenn's burial.
Awards and honors
In 1961 Glenn received an honorary LL.D from Muskingum University, the college he attended before joining the military in World War II. He received honorary doctorates from Nihon University in Tokyo, Wagner College in Staten Island, New York and New Hampshire College in Manchester, New Hampshire.
In 2000 Glenn received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for public service by an elected or appointed official, one of the annual Jefferson Awards. Four years later, he received the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars of the Smithsonian Institution. In 2009, Glenn received an honorary LL.D from Williams College; the following year, he received an honorary doctorate of public service degree from Ohio Northern University.
The Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland is named after him, and the Senator John Glenn Highway runs along a stretch of I-480 in Ohio across from the Glenn Research Center. Colonel Glenn Highway (which passes Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Wright State University near Dayton, Ohio), John Glenn High School in his hometown of New Concord, and Col. John Glenn Elementary in Seven Hills, Ohio, are also named for him. High schools in Westland and Bay City, Michigan; Walkerton, Indiana; San Angelo, Texas, and Norwalk, California bear Glenn's name. His boyhood home in New Concord has been restored as an historic house museum and education center.
The fireboat John H. Glenn Jr., operated by the District of Columbia Fire and Emergency Medical Services Department and protecting sections of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers which run through Washington, D.C., was named for him. The USNS John Glenn (T-MLP-2), a mobile landing platform delivered to the U.S. Navy on March 12, 2014, is also named for Glenn. It was christened on February 1, 2014, in San Diego at General Dynamics' National Steel and Shipbuilding Company.
- Congressional Gold Medal
- National Geographic Society's Hubbard Medal, 1962
- John J. Montgomery Award, 1963
- Thomas D. White National Defense Award
- Ambassador of Space Exploration Award
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- Glenn, John Herschel, Jr. National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- John Glenn Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars of the Smithsonian Institution to Honor Bernard Arnault and Jacques Attali in Washington, D.C. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Mar 22, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Honorary Degrees Williams College. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Tyrel Linkhorn, Honorary doctorate degree for John Glenn The Lima News, May 24, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Isabel Goyer, 51 Heroes & Heroines of Aviation Flying, July 24, 2013. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Daniel Victor, Meet New Glenn, the Blue Origin Rocket That May Someday Take You to Space The New York Times, September 12, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- The John & Annie Glenn Museum Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Robert Z. Pearlman, Godspeed the John Glenn: Navy Christens Ship for 1st American to Orbit Earth Space.com, February 3, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- John Glenn, first American to orbit Earth, dies aged 95 BBC, December 8, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Hokulea’s Nainoa Thompson receives National Geographic award KHON TV, June 18, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Lorle Porter, John Glenn's New Concord (Arcadia Publishing, 2001, ISBN 978-0738508436).
- Thomas D. White National Defense Award presented to Senator John Glenn by the United States Air Force Academy Retrieved February 9, 2021.
ReferencesISBN links support NWE through referral fees
- Burgess, Colin. Friendship 7: The Epic Orbital Flight of John H. Glenn, Jr.. Springer, 2015. ISBN 978-3319156538
- Catchpole, John. Project Mercury: NASA's First Manned Space Programme. Springer, 2001. ISBN 978-1852334062
- Fenno, Richard F., Jr. The Presidential Odyssey of John Glenn. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0871875679
- Glenn, John H., and Nick Taylor. John Glenn: A Memoir. New York: Bantam Books, 2000. ISBN 978-0553581577
- Koli, Monika. 20 Greatest Astronauts of the World. Prabhat Prakashan, 2017. ASIN B01K25SL94
- Kupperberg, Paul. John Glenn: The First American in Orbit and His Return to Space. Rosen Publishing Group, 2004. ISBN 978-0823944606
- Mersky, Peter B. U.S. Marine Corps Aviation — 1912 to the present. Annapolis, MD: The Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1983. ISBN 978-0933852396
- Nayan, Rajiv (ed.). The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and India. Routledge, 2013. ISBN 978-0415851282
- Porter, Lorle. John Glenn's New Concord. Arcadia Publishing, 2001. ISBN 978-0738508436
- Shettle, M.L., Jr. United States Marine Corps Air Stations of World War II. Bowersville, GA: Schaertel Publishing, 2001. ISBN 978-0964338821
- Tilton, Rafael. John Glenn. Lucent Books, 2000. ISBN 978-1560066897
All links retrieved August 3, 2022.
- John Glenn, 1921-2016, NASA
- The John & Annie Glenn Museum
- John Glenn's Flight on Friendship 7, MA-6 – complete 5-hour capsule audio recording
- John Glenn IMDb profile
- Glenn, John Herschel Jr, Encyclopedia Astronautica
- John Glenn: A Life of Service PBS
- Obituary: John Glenn BBC News
|Party Political Offices|
|Democratic nominee for Senator from Ohio
1974, 1980, 1986, 1992
|Succeeded by: Mary Boyle|
|Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
Served alongside: Barbara Jordan
|Succeeded by: Mo Udall|
|United States Senate|
|United States Senator (Class 3) from Ohio
Served alongside: Robert Taft, Howard Metzenbaum, Mike DeWine
|Succeeded by: George Voinovich|
|Chair of Senate Governmental Affairs Committee
|Succeeded by: William Roth|
|Oldest Living United States Senator
(Sitting or Former)
January 3, 2015–December 8, 2016
|Succeeded by: Ernest Hollings|
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