Space tourism (or spaceflight) is the recent phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space. As of 2008, orbital space tourism opportunities are limited and expensive, with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport. The price for a flight brokered by Space Adventures to the International Space Station aboard a Soyuz spacecraft was $20–28 million, as of 2008. Flights are fully booked until 2009.
Among the primary attractions of space tourism are the uniqueness of the experience, the thrill and awe of looking at Earth from space, the notion of it being an exclusive status symbol, and the feelings of weightlessness. The space tourism industry is being targeted by spaceports in numerous locations, including California, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Florida, Virginia, Alaska, Wisconsin, Esrange in Sweden as well as the United Arab Emirates.
After early successes in space, much of the public saw intensive space exploration as inevitable. In people's minds, such exploration was symbolized by wide public access to space, mostly in the form of space tourism. Those aspirations are best remembered in science fiction works (and one children's book), such as Arthur C. Clarke's A Fall of Moondust and also 2001: A Space Odyssey, Roald Dahl's Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator, Joanna Russ's 1968 novel Picnic on Paradise, and Larry Niven's Known Space stories. Lucian in 2 C.E. in his book True History examines the idea of a crew of men whose ship travels to the Moon during a storm. Jules Verne (February 8 1828–March 24 1905) was one of the first who introduced the theme of lunar visits in his books, From the Earth to the Moon (1865) and Around the Moon (1870). Robert A. Heinlein’s short story The Menace from Earth, published in 1957, was one of the first to incorporate elements of a developed space tourism industry within its framework. During the 1960s and 1970s, it was common belief that space hotels would be launched by 2000. Many futurologists around the middle of the twentieth century speculated that the average family of the early twenty-first century would be able to enjoy a holiday on the Moon.
The end of the Space Race, however, signified by the Moon landing, decreased the emphasis placed on space exploration by national governments and therefore led to decreased demands for public funding of manned space flights.
The Soviet space program was aggressive in broadening the pool of cosmonauts from the very beginning. The Soviet Intercosmos program also included cosmonauts selected from Warsaw Pact members (from Czechoslovakia, Poland, East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania) and later from allies of the USSR (Cuba, France, Mongolia, Vietnam) and non-aligned countries (India, Syria, Afghanistan). Most of these cosmonauts received full training for their missions and were treated as equals, but especially after the Mir program began, were generally given shorter flights than Soviet cosmonauts. The European Space Agency took advantage of the program as well.
The U.S. space shuttle program included payload specialist positions which were usually filled by representatives of companies or institutions managing a specific payload on that mission. These payload specialists did not receive the same training as professional NASA astronauts and were not employed by NASA, so they were essentially private astronauts. NASA was also eager to prove its capability to Congressional sponsors, and Senator Jake Garn and (then-Representative, now Senator) Bill Nelson were both given opportunities to fly on board a shuttle. As the shuttle program expanded, the Teacher in Space program was developed as a way to expand publicity and educational opportunities for NASA. Christa McAuliffe would have been the first Teacher in Space, but was killed in the Challenger disaster and the program was canceled. During the same period a Journalist in Space program was frequently discussed, with individuals such as Walter Cronkite and Miles O'Brien considered front-runners, but no formal program was ever developed. McAuliffe's backup in the Teacher in Space Program, Barbara Morgan, trained and flew aboard STS-118 as a fully trained NASA payload specialist and spoke to many students as an educator during the trip.
With the realities of the post-Perestroika economy in Russia, its space industry was especially starved for cash. The Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS) offered to pay for one of its reporters to fly on a mission. For $28 million, Toyohiro Akiyama was flown in 1990 to Mir with the eighth crew and returned a week later with the seventh crew. Akiyama gave a daily TV broadcast from orbit and also performed scientific experiments for Russian and Japanese companies. However, since the cost of the flight was paid by his employer, Akiyama could be considered a business traveler rather than a tourist.
In 1991, British chemist Helen Sharman was selected from a pool of public applicants to be the first Briton in space. As the United Kingdom had no human space program, the arrangement was by a consortium of private companies who contracted with the Russian space program. Sharman was also in a sense a private space traveler, but she was a working cosmonaut with a full training regimen.
Orbital space tourism
At the end of 1990s, MirCorp, a private venture by then in charge of the space station, began seeking potential space tourists to visit Mir in order to offset some of its maintenance costs. Dennis Tito, an American businessman and former JPL scientist, became their first candidate. When the decision to de-orbit Mir was made, Tito managed to switch his trip to the International Space Station (ISS) through a deal between MirCorp and U.S.-based Space Adventures, Ltd., despite strong opposition from senior figures at NASA. Space Adventures remains the only company to have sent paying passengers to space.
In conjunction with the Federal Space Agency of the Russian Federation and Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, Space Adventures facilitated the flights for the world's first private space explorers: Dennis Tito, Mark Shuttleworth, Gregory Olsen, Anousheh Ansari and Charles Simonyi. The first three participants paid in excess of $20 million (USD) each for their ten-day visit to the ISS.
On April 28, 2001, American businessman Dennis Tito became the first "fee-paying" space tourist when he visited the International Space Station (ISS) for seven days. He was followed in 2002 by South African computer millionaire Mark Shuttleworth. The third was Gregory Olsen in 2005, who was trained as a scientist and whose company produced specialist high-sensitivity cameras. Olsen planned to use his time on the ISS to conduct a number of experiments, in part to test his company's products. Olsen had planned an earlier flight, but had to cancel for health reasons.
After the Columbia disaster, space tourism on the Russian Soyuz program was temporarily put on hold, because Soyuz vehicles became the only available transport to the ISS. However, in 2006, space tourism was resumed. On September 18, 2006, Anousheh Ansari, an Iranian American (Soyuz TMA-9), became the fourth space tourist (she prefers spaceflight participant). On April 7, 2007, Charles Simonyi, an American billionaire of Hungarian descent, joined their ranks (Soyuz TMA-10).
In 2003, NASA and the Russian Space Agency agreed to use the term 'Spaceflight Participant' to distinguish those space travelers from astronauts on missions coordinated by those two agencies. Tito, Shuttleworth, Olsen, Ansari, and Simonyi were designated as such during their respective space flights. NASA also lists Christa McAuliffe as a "Space Flight Participant" (although she did not pay a fee), apparently due to her non-technical duties aboard the STS-51-L flight.
List of flown space tourists
Six of the space tourists flew to and from the International Space Station on Soyuz spacecraft through the space tourism company, Space Adventures: Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor flew under a paid agreement with Russia through the Malaysian Angkasawan program.
- Dennis Tito (American): April 28 - May 6, 2001
- Mark Shuttleworth (South African / British): April 25 - May 5, 2002
- Gregory Olsen (American): October 1 - October 11, 2005
- Anousheh Ansari (Iranian / American): September 18 - September 29, 2006
- Charles Simonyi (Hungarian): April 7 - April 21, 2007
- Richard Garriott (American): October 12 - October 23, 2008
- Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor (Malaysian): October 10 - October 23, 2007
Future space tourists
The following people have been named as possible future commercial passengers on Soyuz spacecraft to the ISS:
- Vladimir Gruzdev (Russia). Expected to fly in 2009. Gruzdev is a United Russia pro-presidential party member. The United Russia party may pay the estimated $25 million for the flight from the party funds. Gruzdev has had a medical examination and been given approval to begin the cosmonaut training program. Gruzdev previously participated in the Arktika 2007 mission, which placed a Russian flag on the seabed near the North Pole.
- Charles Simonyi (Hungarian). Training for a second flight in Spring 2009 aboard Soyuz TMA-14. He would be the first repeat space tourist. Backup is Esther Dyson.
- Sergey Brin (United States). Expected to fly in 2011. Brin, co-founder of Google, is a firm supporter of space tourism and future space travel.
As of November 2007 Virgin Galactic had pre-sold nearly 200 seats for their suborbital space tourism flights, according to the company's president.
More affordable suborbital space tourism is viewed as a money-making proposition by several other companies, including Space Adventures, Virgin Galactic, Starchaser, Blue Origin, Armadillo Aerospace, XCOR Aerospace, Rocketplane Limited, the European "Project Enterprise", and others. Most are proposing vehicles that make suborbital flights peaking at an altitude of 100-160 kilometers. Passengers would experience three to six minutes of weightlessness, a view of a twinkle-free starfield, and a vista of the curved Earth below. Projected costs are expected to be about $200,000 per passenger.
The X Prize
On October 4, 2004, the SpaceShipOne, designed by Burt Rutan of Scaled Composites and funded by Virgin Galactic, won the $10,000,000 X Prize, which was designed to be won by the first private company who could reach and surpass an altitude of 62 miles (100km) twice within two weeks. The altitude is beyond the Kármán Line, the arbitrarily defined boundary of space. The first flight was flown by Michael Melvill on June 21, 2004 to a height of 62 miles, making him the first commercial astronaut. The prize-winning flight was flown by Brian Binnie, which reached a height of 69.6 miles, breaking the X-15 record.
Virgin Galactic, one of the leading potential space tourism groups, is planning to have passenger service on its first spaceship, the VSS Enterprise (Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo), with the inaugural launch in 2008 and main flights beginning in 2009. The price is initially set at $200,000. Headed by Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group, Virgin Galactic will be the first private space tourism company to regularly send civilians into space, by training them for 3 days before their launch. The SpaceShipTwo spaceship was built as a result of the Ansari X Prize (which was won by SpaceShipOne); both SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo were designed by Burt Rutan. Launches will first occur at the Mojave Spaceport in California, and will then be moved to the permanent spaceport in Upham, New Mexico, near Truth or Consequences. The spaceships used will go 360,000 feet (109.73 km, or 68.18 miles) high; this goes beyond the height of 100 km, which is the internationally defined boundary between Earth and space. Space flights will last 2.5 hours, carry 6 passengers, and reach a speed of Mach 3. SpaceShipTwo will not require a space shuttle-like heat shield for atmospheric reentry as it will not experience the extreme aerodynamic heating experienced during reentry at orbital velocities (approximately Mach 22.5 at a typical shuttle altitude of 300 km, or 185 miles). The glider will employ a "feathering" technique to manage drag during the unpowered descent and landing. SpaceShipTwo will use a single hybrid rocket motor to launch from mid-air after detaching from a mother ship at 50,000 feet, instead of NASA's space shuttle's ground-based launch.
Project Enterprise was launched by the German TALIS Institute in 2004 and is the first project of its kind in Europe. The goal is to develop a rocket propelled spaceplane by 2011 that will carry one pilot and up to five passengers into suborbital space. The plane will launch from the ground using rockets, and will return in an unpowered flight like Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo. The prototypes and finished spaceplane will be launched from an airport near Cochstedt (Germany; Saxony-Anhalt).
Since 2004, the TALIS Institute has gained many industrial partners, including XtremeAir, who will manufacture the airframe, and Swiss Propulsion Laboratory SPL, who will deliver the propulsion components. XtremeAir is known for their acrobatic airplanes, and SPL has designed and tested liquid propellant rocket engines since 1998.
Current work is focusing on the first prototype, the "Black Sky": An existing acrobatic airplane that would be fitted with a single rocket engine and a new wing. The rocket engine is expected to deliver a thrust of 10 kN. The test program for this engine started in 2007 at SPL.
In December 2005, the U.S. Government released a set of proposed rules for space tourism.
Under current US law, any company proposing to launch paying passengers from American soil on a suborbital rocket must receive a license from the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (FAA/AST). The licensing process focuses on public safety and safety of property, and the details can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Chapter III. This is in accordance with the Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act passed by Congress in 2004.
Orbital flights, space stations and space hotels
- EADS Astrium, a subsidiary of European aerospace giant EADS, announced its space tourism project on June 13, 2007.
- SpaceX is a private space company which develops their own rocket family called Falcon and a capsule named Dragon, capable of sending up to 7 people to any space station, either ISS or a possible station by Bigelow Aerospace. Falcon 1 has already undertaken test flights and is on the way to its first commercial flight, Falcon 9 (which would be the rocket for the Dragon capsule) is currently at the test facility and will take its first testflight later that year. The Dragon capsule is slated to enter service 2009.
- Constellation Services International (CSI) is working on a project to send manned spacecraft on commercial circumlunar missions. Their offer would include a week-long stay at the ISS, as well as a week-long trip around the Moon.
- Space Adventures Ltd. have also announced that they are working on circumlunar missions to the moon, with the price per passenger being $100,000,000. They are currently developing spaceports at the United Arab Emirates (Ras al-Khaimah) and in Singapore.
- Orbital space tourist flights are also being planned by Excalibur Almaz, using modernized TKS space capsules.
Several plans have been proposed for using a space station as a hotel. American motel tycoon Robert Bigelow has acquired the designs for inflatable space habitats from the Transhab program abandoned by NASA. His company, Bigelow Aerospace already launched the first inflatable habitat module named Genesis I in 12 July 2006. The second test module, Genesis II was launched 28 June 2007. It is also currently planning to launch a prototype space station module by late 2008, and plans to officially launch the first commercial space station by 2010 (tagged Nautilus) which will have 330 cubic meters (almost as big as the ISS's 425 cubic meters of usable volume).
Bigelow Aerospace is currently offering the America's Space Prize, a $50 million prize to the first US company to create a reusable spacecraft capable of carrying passengers to a Nautilus space station.
Other companies have also expressed interest in constructing "space hotels." For example, Excalibur Almaz plans to modernize and launch its Soviet-era Almaz space stations, which will feature the largest windows ever on spacecraft. Virgin's Richard Branson has expressed his hope for the construction of a space hotel within his lifetime. He expects that beginning a space tourism program will cost $100 million. Hilton International announced the Space Islands Project, a plan to connect together used space shuttle fuel tanks, each the diameter of a Boeing 747 aircraft. A separate organization, Space Island Group announced their distinct Space Island Project (note the singular "Island"), and plans on having 20,000 people on their "space island" by 2020, with the number of people doubling for each decade. British Airways has expressed interest in the venture. If and when Space Hotels develop, it would initially cost a passenger $60,000, with prices lowering over time.
Fashion designer Eri Matsui has designed clothing, including a wedding gown, intended to look best in weightless environments.
Advocacy, education, and industry organizations
Several organizations have been formed to promote the space tourism industry, including the Space Tourism Society, and others. More information about the future of Space Tourism can be found at Space Tourism Lecture, which is a free online Space Tourism Lecture handout collection. Since 2003 Dr. Robert A. Goehlich teaches the world's first and only Space Tourism class at Keio University, Yokohama, Japan.
Opinions of commercial space tourism
A web-based survey suggested that over 70 percent of those surveyed wanted less than or equal to two weeks in space; in addition, 88 percent wanted to spacewalk (only 74 percent of these would do it for a 50 percent premium), and 21 percent wanted a hotel or space station.
The concept has met with some criticism from social commentators and politicians, notably Guenter Verheugen, vice-president of the European Commission, who said of the EADS Astrium Space Tourism Project "It's only for the super rich, which is against my social convictions."
Objection to "Space Tourist" terminology
- Further information: Astronaut#Terminology
Dennis Tito, Mark Shuttleworth, Gregory Olsen, Anousheh Ansari and Richard Garriott have all preferred to be called something other than "space tourist." In each case, they explained their preferences by pointing out that they carried out scientific experiments as part of their journey; Garriott additionally emphasized their training is identical to requirements of non-Russian cosmonauts, and that teachers or other citizens chosen to fly with NASA are called astronauts. Tito has asked to be known as an "independent researcher." Shuttleworth proposed "pioneer of commercial space travel". Olsen preferred "private researcher." Ansari prefers the term "private space explorer". Garriott prefers "cosmonaut" or "astronaut," but will accept "private" in front of either. Alone among those who have paid to go to orbit so far, Charles Simonyi seems to have no concerns about calling it "space tourism," even in reference to his own experience. Asked in an interview "Do you foresee a day when space tourism is not just the province of billionaires - when it will be as affordable as plane travel?," he did not object to the implicit categorization of his own trip, but rather answered "Yes, the only question is when …."
Although many space enthusiasts subscribe to the notion of space tourism as a potential burgeoning industry that could further the development and settlement of space, some of these same enthusiasts object to the use of the term "space tourist." Rick Tumlinson of the Space Frontier Foundation, for example, has said
"I hate the word tourist, and I always will …. 'Tourist' is somebody in a flowered shirt with three cameras around his neck."
Others with perhaps less enthusiasm for space development seem to agree. Alex Tabarrok has categorized it as a kind of "adventure travel." The mere fact of people paying for a travel experience does not, in his view, make that activity "tourism."
At best and for the foreseeable future space travel will remain akin to climbing Everest, dangerous and uncommon. Yes, we might see 100 flights a year but that's not space tourism - tourism is fat guys with cameras.
On Lewis Black's Root of All Evil, comedian Paul F. Thompkins, as part of his claim that "rocket scientists" and space programs in general were a waste of time and resources, also claimed that space tourism" promotes classism during a time when Americans need to stick together."
- Space colonization
- Space exploration
- Space habitat
- ↑ Space: the forgotten frontier? OECD Observer. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ 1991: Sharman becomes first Briton in space. BBC News. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Alan Boyle, 2006. Regulators OK Oklahoma spaceport - Suborbital test flights could begin in 2007, setting stage for tourists. MSNBC. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Payload Specialist Astronauts. NASA. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ How Space Tourism Works. howstuffworks.com. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Andrew Hammond, 2007. Saudi prince says Islam proud of Malaysia spaceman. Reuters. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ NASA Holds Briefing With First Female Station Commander and Crew. NASA. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Charles in Space Charles Simonyi's blog and video blog about his trip to the ISS. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Expedition 18. NASA. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ First Russian space flight participant will not lift off until 2009. RIA Novosti. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Becky Iannotta, U.S. Billionaire to Make Second Private Spaceflight. Space.com. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Jonathan Skillings, 2008. Astronaut training awaits Esther Dyson. CNET. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Google founder books space flight. BBC News. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Spaceflights now for sale; scary part is price. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Project Enterprise. Project Enterprise. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Scotland 2040: Spaceships head for Moon with lunar golfers and crater ramblers aboard. Scotsman.com. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Carolyn Said, September 28, 2004, British tycoon wants to fly you to space: Virgin Galactic plans to sell $200,000 rides. San Francisco Gate. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ X PRIZE Foundation. xprize.org. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Space Adventures. Space Adventures. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Zero Gravity Corporation. No Gravity. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Tiron, Stefan. The Last Frontier Of Tourism. Monochrom. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 SpaceShipOne Captures X-Prize. Scaled Composites. Retrieved December 19, 2008. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Xprize1" defined multiple times with different content
- ↑ SpaceShipOne pilot bio: Michael W. Melvill. Scaled Composites. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Home Page. Virgin Galactic. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Flight to Orbit. NASA. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Project Enterprise. XtremeAir. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Project Enterprise. Swiss Propulsion Laboratory SPL. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Congress Passes Space Tourism Bill. Space.com. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Europe joins space tourism race. Times(UK) online. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ $100 Million Moon Trip: Space Tourism's Hot Ticket? National Geographic News. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Space hotels. Space Future. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ A Room with a View of Mars, Please. tfot.info. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Hilton to back space hotel. BBC News. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ The Space Island Group's Mission. Space Island Group. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Vision. Space Island Group. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Prospects of Space Tourism. Space Future. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Home Page. Space Tourism Society. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Journal. Space Future. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Space Tourism: Personal Spaceflight for you … Hobby Space. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Tourism Survey. Space.com. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Do Not Call Me A Space Tourist. Richard in Space. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ "Space tourist" insists on pioneering role. New Scientist. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Space millionaire to mix science with pleasure. MSNBC. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Home Page. anoushehansari.com. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Tim Arango, 2007. From the Iron Curtain to the Final Frontier. Fortune magazine. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ Jeff Foust, Is it time to dump the t-word? The Space Review. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
ReferencesISBN links support NWE through referral fees
- Comins, Neil. 2007. The Hazards of Space Travel: A Tourist's Guide. New York, NY: Villard. ISBN 1400065976.
- Seedhouse, Erik. 2008. Tourists in Space: A Practical Guide. Berlin, UK; New York, NY: Springer; Chichester, UK: Praxis Pub. ISBN 0387746439.
- van Pelt, Michel. 2005. Space Tourism: Adventures in Earth Orbit and Beyond. New York, NY: Springer. ISBN 0387402136.
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