Enemy of the people

From New World Encyclopedia
Maximilien Robespierre often used the expression against his enemies

The term enemy of the people or enemy of the nation, is a term used against political or class opponents of the person or group in power. The term implies that by opposing the ruler or ruling party, these opponents are not merely wrong in their opposition, but are acting against the best interests of the society as a whole. The term originated in Roman times as hostis publicus, typically translated into English as the "public enemy" or enemy of the state. The term "enemy of the people" has been used for centuries in literature (See Coriolanus, the play by William Shakespeare, c. 1605) or An Enemy of the People, the play by Henrik Ibsen, 1882.

Totalitarian governments like the Soviet Union made extensive use of the term until 1956, especially during the period of the Great Purges. It was also also used by other communist rulers in Maoist China and Albania during the Enver Hoxha regime. More recently it has been used by journalists during the period of "Brexit" and by former U.S. President Donald Trump to refer to news organizations and journalists whom he perceives as critical of and biased against him.

Origins of the expression

Roman Republic and Empire

The expression dates back to Roman times.[1] The Senate declared emperor Nero a hostis publicus in 68 C.E.[2] The literal translation is "public enemy." "Public" is frequently used in English to denote government or state agencies. The Latin word "publicus" could, in addition to that meaning, also refer directly to people, making it the equivalent of the genitive of populus ("people"), populi ("popular" or "of the people.") Thus, "public enemy" and "enemy of the people" are, etymologically, near synonyms.

French Revolution

The phrase "ennemi du peuple" was used extensively by revolutionaries during the French Revolution. Jacques Hébert often characterized Queen Marie Antoinette as an evil enemy of the people, also referring to her as "Madame Veto" and addressing King Louis XVI as "drunken and lazy; a cuckolded pig."[3] The term would come to be used extensively during the revolutionary period as different factions fought for power.

Jean-Paul Marat fought bitterly with the Girondins, whom he believed to be covert enemies of republicanism. Marat's hatred and suspicion of the Girondins became increasingly heated which led him to call for the use of violent tactics against them. The Girondins fought back and demanded that Marat be tried before the Revolutionary Tribunal. On April 24, he was brought before the Tribunal on the charges that he had printed in his paper statements calling for widespread murder as well as the suspension of the Convention. Marat successfully defended himself was acquitted of all charges to the riotous celebrations of his supporters. However, the practice of revolutionaries calling out their political opponents as enemies did not end with this episode.

France was entering into civil war and the practice of calling out political rivals as enemies of the people was only beginning. Shortly after Marat's acquittal, the Jacobins retaliated. On July 28, 1793, a decree of the Convention proscribed 21 deputies, five of whom were from the Gironde, as traitors and enemies of the state. They were purged from the government in the Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793, and later executed. The interparty warfare then degenerated into intraparty strife. The insurrection would be followed by purges against Jacques Hébert and Georges Danton as enemies of the revolution.

These purges were conducted by Robespierre, and were not an accidental feature of the revolution. He led the Jacobin purge that began in 1791, convinced that "patriots must either close their ranks, or be overwhelmed by the forces of counter-revolution."[4] He later argued on December 25, 1793 that: "The revolutionary government owes to the good citizen all the protection of the nation; it owes nothing to the Enemies of the People but death."[5] By this point in the revolution, Robespierre was firmly in charge and those whom he viewed as his political rivals met the same fate as the "enemies of the people."

The National Convention enacted the Law of 22 Prairial in 1794 that extended the remit of the Revolutionary Tribunal to punish "enemies of the people." The Revolutionary Tribunal was part of the machinery of the Reign of Terror. Some political crimes became punishable by death, including "spreading false news to divide or trouble the people."[6] A new round of purges were in the works when some of the deputies, led by Joseph Fouché organized a counter-revolution against Robespierre, ending not only his Reign of Terror, but also the revolutionary period and the accusations and counter-accusations.[7] The innovation of the French Revolution was to create instruments of state power to punish those deemed enemies of the people, which would then be abused by those in power to go after their political rivals.

Marxist–Leninist states

Bolshevism in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union made extensive use of the term (Russian: враг народа, vrag naroda) (literally "enemy of the people.") The term was first used in a speech by Felix Dzerzhinsky, the first chairman of the Cheka(Secret Police}, after the October Revolution. The Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee printed lists of "enemies of the people," and Vladimir Lenin invoked it in his decree of November 28, 1917:

All leaders of the Constitutional Democratic Party, a party filled with enemies of the people, are hereby to be considered outlaws, and are to be arrested immediately and brought before the revolutionary court.[8]

Lenin and the Bolsheviks closely followed the French Revolution and the use of this term is likely not accidental.

Other similar terms were in use as well:

  • enemy of the workers (враг трудящихся, vrag trudyashchikhsya)
  • enemy of the proletariat (враг пролетариата, vrag proletariata)
  • class enemy (классовый враг, klassovyi vrag), etc.

In particular, the term "enemy of the workers" was formalized in the Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code), instituted on February 27, 1927.[9] Similar articles in the codes of the other Soviet Republics followed suit.

These terms were applied to wide swaths of the population, including Tsar Nicholas II and the Imperial family, aristocrats, the bourgeoisie, clerics, business entrepreneurs, anarchists, kulaks, monarchists, Mensheviks, Esers, Bundists, Trotskyists, Bukharinists, the "old Bolsheviks", the army and police, emigrants, saboteurs, wreckers (вредители, "vrediteli"), "social parasites" (тунеядцы, "tuneyadtsy"), Kavezhedists (people who administered and serviced the KVZhD (China Far East Railway), particularly the Russian population of Harbin, China), and those considered bourgeois nationalists (notably Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Armenian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian nationalists, Zionists, Basmachi).


During the period of Stalinism a series of purges, known as the Great Purges were used to denote the prosecution of people recognized as counter-revolutionaries and enemies of the people. As in the case of the French Revolution, the search for enemies of the people moved for interparty political opponents, to intraparty opponents. The purge was motivated by the desire on the part of the leadership to remove dissident elements from within the Party, orchestrated by Josef Stalin to help consolidate his power. The show trials of Stalin's political opponents, like Leon Trotsky and Nikolai Bukharin accused them of being enemies of the state. Additional campaigns of repression were carried on against various other sectors of society and other social groups accused, for ulterior political motives, for opposing the Soviet state and the politics of the Communist Party.

Those deemed to be an "enemy of the people" could be imprisoned, expelled, or executed, and lose their property to confiscation. Close relatives of enemies of the people were labeled as "traitor of Motherland family members" and prosecuted. They could be sent to the Gulag, punished by the involuntary settlement in unpopulated areas, or stripped of citizen's rights. Simply being a friend of an enemy of the people automatically placed the person under suspicion.

A majority of the enemies of the people were given this label not because of their hostile actions against the workers' and peasants' state, but simply because of their social origin or profession before the revolution.[10] These included those who used hired labor, high-ranking clergy, former policemen, merchants, and other class enemies. Some of them were commonly known as lishentsy (лишенцы, derived from Russian word лишение, deprivation), because by the Soviet Constitution they were deprived of the right to vote. This automatically translated into a deprivation of various social benefits including the rationing of goods, which were at times critical for survival. Since 1927, Article 20 of the Common Part of the penal code that listed possible "measures of social defense" had the following item 20a: "declaration to be an enemy of the workers with deprivation of the union republic citizenship and hence of the USSR citizenship, with obligatory expulsion from its territory." Nevertheless, most "enemies of the people" suffered exile to labor camps, rather than expulsion.

Repudiation of the phrase

On February 25, 1956 Nikita Khrushchev delivered a speech to the Communist Party in which he (incorrectly) identified Stalin as the author of the phrase and distanced himself from it, saying that it made debate impossible.[11][12] "This term automatically made it unnecessary that the ideological errors of a man or men engaged in a controversy be proven," Khrushchev said. "It made possible the use of the cruelest repression, violating all norms of [...] legality, against anyone who in any way disagreed with Stalin, against those who were only suspected of hostile intent, against those who had bad reputations ... The formula ‘enemy of the people’ was specifically introduced for the purpose of physically annihilating such individuals."[13]

For decades afterwards, the phrase "was so omnipresent, freighted and devastating in its use under Stalin that nobody [in Russia] wanted to touch it. ... except in reference to history and in jokes," according to William Taubman in his biography of Khrushchev.[6]

However, the term returned to Russian public discourse in the late 2000s with a number of nationalist and pro-government politicians (most notably Ramzan Kadyrov) calling for restoration of the Soviet approach to the "enemies of the people" defined as all non-system opposition.[14][15]

Maoist China

In Mao Zedong's 1957 speech On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, he claims that "At the present stage, the period of building socialism, the classes, strata and social groups which favor, support and work for the cause of socialist construction all come within the category of the people, while the social forces and groups which resist the socialist revolution and are hostile to or sabotage socialist construction are all 'enemies of the people'."[16] According to Philip Short, an author of biographies of Mao and Cambodia's Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot, in domestic political struggles Chinese and Cambodian communists rarely if ever used the phrase "enemy of the people" as they were very nationalistic, and saw it as an alien import.[6] If they rarely used the term, they did follow the tradition of persecuting the enemies of the people, enemies of the state and class enemies.

Denunciation Rallies

Denunciation rallies, or struggle sessions, were violent public spectacles in Maoist China where people accused of being "class enemies" were publicly humiliated, accused, beaten and tortured by people that were close to them.[17][18] Usually conducted at the workplace, classrooms and auditoriums, "students were pitted against their teachers, friends and spouses were pressured to betray one another, [and] children were manipulated into exposing their parents."[18] Staging, scripts and agitators were prearranged by the Maoists to incite crowd support.[17] The aim was to instill a crusading spirit among the crowd to promote the Maoist thought reform. These rallies were most popular in the mass campaigns immediately before and after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and during the Cultural Revolution.[19][20]

The denunciation of prominent class enemies was often conducted in public squares, and marked by large crowds who surrounded the kneeling victim, raised fists, and outbursts of hatred and accusations.[17][19]


Enemy of the people (Alb: Armiku i popullit) in Albania was the enemy typology the Communist Albanian government used to denounce political or class opponents. In contemporary Albania the term is considered totalitarian, derogatory and hostile, but there are still some politicians who use the term on political opponents with the intention of dehumanization.[21]

After the communist take-over in Albania, many who were labeled with this term were executed or imprisoned.[22] Enver Hoxha declared religious leaders, landowners, disloyal party officials, clerics and clan leaders as "enemies of the people." From 1945 to 1992, around 5000 to 6000 men and women were executed[23] and close to 100,000 were sent to prison as enemies of the people.[24]

As in previous revolutions, many who were targeted held important leadership positions in the party and state structures of the regime.[25] Hoxha also used the term against the Soviet Union and the US when he spoke: "While the steeled fists of the workers and oppressed peoples of the world were further welded, the U.S. imperialists and Soviet social-imperialists stood out as the main enemies of the peoples of the world."[26]

On June 1, 1945 the Albanian Central Commission for the Discovery of Crimes, of War Criminals and Enemies of the People requested the International Commission for the Discovery of Crimes and War Criminals to hand over a number of Albanian war criminals found in concentration camps in Italy such as Bari, Lecce, Salerno and others.[27] In 1954, Hoxha condemned the American and British liberation of Albania calling them "enemies of the people." In the 1960s, many Albanian migrants returned from Austria and Italy after having fled in the 1940s, and despite promises not to punish them, they were immediately arrested as "enemies of the people."[28] In 1990, Ismail Kadare applied for political asylum in France, which was granted, resulting in his condemnation by Albanian officials as an "enemy of the people."[29]

Nazi Germany

The Nazis used the term Untermensch to identify non-Aryan ethnic groups that were considered as enemies of the people, literally branding them as subhuman groups that require elimination. Such dehumanization takes the concept of enemy of the people to an extreme. They are not enemies because their ideology is considered wrong or dangerous. Using a pseudo-biological argument, they are enemies by their very identity.

Regarding the Nazi plan to relocate all Jews to Madagascar, the Nazi tabloid Der Stürmer wrote that "The Jews don't want to go to Madagascar – They cannot bear the climate. Jews are pests and disseminators of diseases. In whatever country they settle and spread themselves out, they produce the same effects as are produced in the human body by germs. ... In former times sane people and sane leaders of the peoples made short shrift of enemies of the people. They had them either expelled or killed."[30]

While the Jews were the primary target, other groups were also considered Untermensch. One such example of the use of the term Untermensch is its use in connection with anti-Soviet propaganda. It is used in the brochure entitled "Der Untermensch", edited by Himmler and distributed by the Race and Settlement Head Office. SS-Obersturmführer Ludwig Pröscholdt, Jupp Daehler and SS-Hauptamt-Schulungsamt Koenig are associated with its production. Published in 1942 after the start of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, it is around 50 pages long and consists for the most part of photos portraying the enemy in an extremely negative way. 3,860,995 copies were printed in the German language. It was translated into Greek, French, Dutch, Danish, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Czech and seven other languages. The pamphlet states:

Just as the night rises against the day, the light and dark are in eternal conflict. So too, is the subhuman the greatest enemy of the dominant species on earth, mankind. The subhuman is a biological creature, crafted by nature, which has hands, legs, eyes and mouth, even the semblance of a brain. Nevertheless, this terrible creature is only a partial human being.

Although it has features similar to a human, the subhuman is lower on the spiritual and psychological scale than any animal. Inside of this creature lies wild and unrestrained passions: an incessant need to destroy, filled with the most primitive desires, chaos and coldhearted villainy.

A subhuman and nothing more!

Not all of those who appear human are in fact so. Woe to him who forgets it!


Mulattoes and Finn-Asian barbarians, Gypsies and black skin savages all make up this modern underworld of subhumans that is always headed by the appearance of the eternal Jew.[31]

Modern democracies

Given its history, the term "Enemy of the people" is more rarely used in modern democracies, but there are some examples of its use. However, without the administrative apparatus to punish the accused enemies, it has not resulted in the same consequences, which had previously been imprisonment, torture and frequently death. In the wake of the use of the term in fascist and communist countries, those using it have received backlash from the media, especially when they are the target.

Black Panthers

In the United States during the 1960s, organizations such as the Black Panther Party[32][33] and Students for a Democratic Society[34] were known to use the term. In one inter-party dispute in February 1971, for example, Black Panther leader Huey P. Newton denounced two other Panthers as "enemies of the people" for allegedly putting party leaders and members in jeopardy.[33]


During the aftermath of the referendum on membership of the European Union, the Daily Mail was criticized for a headline describing judges (in the Miller case) as "Enemies of the People" for ruling that the process for leaving the European Union (i.e. the triggering of Article 50) would require the consent of the British Parliament. The May administration had hoped to use the powers of the royal prerogative to bypass parliamentary approval.[35] The paper issued character assassinations of all the judges involved in the ruling (Lord Chief Justice Lord Thomas, Sir Terence Etherton, and Lord Justice Sales), and received more than 1,000 complaints to the Independent Press Standards Organisation.[36][37] The Secretary of State for Justice, Liz Truss, issued a three-line statement defending the independence and impartiality of the judiciary, which some saw as inadequate due to the delayed response and failure to condemn the attacks.[38][39]

Donald Trump

Donald Trump at the Conservative Political Action Conference in 2017

In 2012, longtime Democratic pollster Patrick Caddell gave a speech at a conference sponsored by Accuracy in Media, a conservative watchdog group, in which he called the media “the enemy of the American people.”[40] In 2013, Caddell signed on as a contractor for Robert Mercer. On February 17, 2017 hours after meeting Caddell while touring a Boeing aircraft plant in North Charleston, South Carolina, President of the United States Donald Trump declared on Twitter that The New York Times, NBC News, ABC, CBS, and CNN were "fake news" and "the enemy of the American People."[41] Trump repeated the assertion on February 24 at the Conservative Political Action Conference, saying, "A few days ago I called the fake news the enemy of the people and they are. They are the enemy of the people."[6] At a June 25, 2018 rally in South Carolina, Trump singled out journalists as "fake newsers" and again called them "the enemy of the people."[42] Some commentators tried to link these comments to a mass shooting at the offices of a newspaper publisher in Annapolis, Maryland, that took place only days later, on June 28.[43][44]The incident turned out not to be related.[45]

On July 19, 2018, following the critical reaction to his meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin on July 15, 2018 in Helsinki, Finland, Trump tweeted "The Summit with Russia was a great success, except with the real enemy of the people, the Fake News Media." The New York Times connected Trump's use of this phrase during his "moments of peak criticism" and use of the term by Nazi and Soviet propaganda.[46]

On August 2, 2018 after Trump tweeted "FAKE NEWS media... is the enemy of the American People",[47] multiple international institutions such as the United Nations and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights criticized Trump for his attacks on the free press.[48] On August 16, 2018 the United States Senate, in a symbolic rebuke to Trump, passed by unanimous consent a resolution affirming that the media is not "the enemy of the people" and reaffirming "the vital and indispensable role the free press serves."[49]

From his inauguration on January 20, 2017 through October 15, 2019, Trump used Twitter to call the news media the "enemy of the people" 36 times.[50]


  1. see also Paul Jal, Hostis (publicus) dans la littérature latine de la fin de la République, Revue des Études Anciennes 65(1-2) (1963): 53-79, footnotes 1 and 2. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  2. Albino Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines: A History of the Roman Empire AD 14–192 (Methuen, 1974, ISBN 0416168000), 220.
  3. Elizabeth Colwill, "Just Another 'Cistsitoyenne?' Marie-Antoinette on Trial, 1790–1793." History Workshop volume 28, (1989): 72–73.
  4. J. M. Thompson, Robespierre (Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1988, ISBN 063115504X), 198.
  5. Robespierre, "Le but du gouvernement constitutionnel est de conserver la République; celui du gouvernement révolutionnaire est de la fonder. […] Le gouvernement révolutionnaire doit au bon citoyen toute la protection nationale; il ne doit aux Ennemis du Peuple que la mort" (speech at the National Convention
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Andrew Higgins, "Trump Embraces ‘Enemy of the People,’ a Phrase With a Fraught History" The New York Times, February 26 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  7. Stanley Loomis, Paris in the Terror (Philadelphia, PA and New York, NY: J. B. Lippincott Books, 1964), 354-381.
  8. Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, and Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999, ISBN 0674076087).
  9. Article 58, Criminal Code of the RSFSR, "Article 58", (1934) an online excerpt. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  10. Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0195071320), 250, 257-258.
  11. Nikita Khrushchev, "Secret Speech - On the Cult of Personality," Modern History Sourcebook, 1956. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  12. David Remnick, Trump and the Enemies of the People The New Yorker, August 1, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  13. Nikita Khrushchev, "The cult of the individual, February 25, 1956," The Guardian, April 26, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  14. "Опубликован шорт-лист претендентов на звание "враг народа в левом движении (The short list of contenders for the title of "enemy of the people in the left movement" has been published)," Pravda, April 16, 2006. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  15. "Кадыров призвал относиться к внесистемной оппозиции как к врагам народа (Kadyrov urged to treat non-systemic opposition as enemies of the people)," Gazeta (Gazette), January 13, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  16. Mao Zedong, On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, February 27, 1957, 2–3. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Lawrence R. Sullivan, "Struggle sessions" in Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Communist Party (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2011, ISBN 1538157233), 390.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Xing Lu, "Denunciation rallies" in Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: The Impact on Chinese Thought, Culture, and Communication (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2004, ISBN 978-1570035432), 140-141.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Jonathan Neaman Lipman and Stevan Harrell, eds., Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0791401132), 154–157.
  20. Fang Jucheng and Jiang Guinong, "第九章 颠倒乾坤的"文化大革命," People's Daily, February 21, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  21. Ambassador Bernd Borchardt, Enemies of the People, History, Ideology Behind the Concept and the Long Shadow of This Concept, (Vienna, AT: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 2019. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  22. Robert Elsie (ed.), A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History (London, UK and New York, NY: I.B. Tauris, 2012, ISBN 978-1780764313).
  23. Bardhyl Selimi, "Enver Hoxha's personality cult lives on in today's Albania," New Eastern Europe, October 5, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  24. "Gendered legacies of Communist Albania: a paradox of progress," openDemocracy, July 9, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  25. Beqir Meta and Ermal Frashëri, Framework Study On prison system, internment and forced labor during communist regime in Albania with a focus on establishing a museum of memory in the former internment camp in Tepelena, Tirana, Albania, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  26. "Regarding China's Withdrawl [sic] of Aid from Albania," Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  27. "Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1945, Europe, Volume IV – Office of the Historian," United States Department of State. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  28. Shannon Woodcock, "'Against a Wall': Albania's Women Political Prisoners' Struggle to be Heard," Cultural Studies Review, 20(2) (August 7, 2014): 39–65. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  29. "Albania Condemns Writer's Defection as 'Ugly Act'," AP News. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  30. "The Germ," Der Stürmer, Issue 38, September 1938. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  31. Reichsführer-SS, Der Untermensch (The subhuman), SS Office, Berlin, DE, 1942. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  32. David Hilliard (ed.), The Black Panther (Atria Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1416532590), 48.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Edith Evans Ashbury, "Newton Denounces 2 Missing Panthers," The New York Times, February 10, 1971. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  34. Doug Hogan, "In Search Of The 'Real S.D.S.' Favoring A Campus Worker-Student Alliance," The Stanford Daily February 9, 1970. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  35. Claire Phipps, "British newspapers react to judges' Brexit ruling: 'Enemies of the people'," The Guardian, November 4, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  36. Rachael Pells, "Daily Mail's 'Enemies of the People' front page receives more than 1,000 complaints to IPSO," The Independent, November 10, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  37. Jonathan Coe, "Is Donald Trump 'Mr. Brexit'?" The New York Times, January 27, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  38. Will Worley, "Liz Truss breaks her silence but fails to condemn backlash over Brexit ruling," The Independent, November 5, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  39. "Liz Truss defends judiciary after Brexit ruling criticism," The Guardian, November 5, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  40. Jane Meyer, "The Reclusive Hedge-Fund Tycoon Behind the Trump Presidency," The New Yorker, March 17, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  41. Amanda Erickson, "Trump called the news media an ‘enemy of the American People.’ Here’s a history of the term" The Washington Post, February 18, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  42. Jonathan Chait, "Trump compares his propaganda to North Korea's at Bizarre South Carolina rally," New York Magazine, June 25, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  43. Kyle Pope, "The war against the press comes to the local newsroom," Columbia Journalism Review, June 29, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  44. Mandy Mayfield, "Journalists call out Trump for anti-press rhetoric following Annapolis newsroom shooting," Washington Examiner, June 28, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  45. Timothy Williams and Amy Harmon, "Maryland Shooting Suspect Had Long-Running Dispute With Newspaper" The New York Times, June 29, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  46. William P. Davis, "'Enemy of the People': Trump Breaks Out This Phrase During Moments of Peak Criticism," The New York Times, July 20, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  47. Katie Rogers, "Are Journalists the Enemy of the People? Ivanka Trump Says They're Not," The New York Times, August 2, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  48. Michael M. Grynbaum, "CNN's Jim Acosta Challenges Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Then Makes a Quick Exit," The New York Times, August 2, 2018. Retrieved October 18, 2022.
  49. "S.Res.607 – A resolution reaffirming the vital and indispensable role the free press serves., 115th Congress (2017–2018), Congress.gov. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  50. Michael D. Shear, Maggie Haberman, Nicholas Confessore, Karen Yourish, Larry Buchanan and Keith Collins, "How Trump Reshaped the Presidency in Over 11,000 Tweets," The New York Times, November 2, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2022.

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