|Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga
Hasekura's portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615, by Claude Deruet, Coll. Borghese, Rome
|Japanese name:||Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga
|Christian name:||Don Felipe Francisco Hasekura|
|Fief:||Sendai Domain (仙台藩)
Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga (1571 – 1622) (Japanese: 支倉六右衛門常長, also spelled Faxecura Rocuyemon in period European sources, reflecting the contemporary pronunciation of Japanese) was a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the daimyo of Sendai. From 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a diplomatic mission, known as the Keichō Embassy, (慶長使節). to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain (arriving in Acapulco and departing from Veracruz) and visiting various ports-of-call in Europe. Hasekura met the King of Spain and Pope Paul V, and delivered letters from his daimyo, Date Masamune, seeking trade with Spain and inviting Catholic missionaries to Japan. On the return trip, Hasekura and his companions re-traced their route across Mexico in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manila, and then sailing north to Japan in 1620. This is considered to be the first Japanese embassy to the Americas and Europe.
Although Hasekura's embassy was cordially received in Europe, during his stay there, the Japanese Shogunate began its suppression of Christianity and its sakoku policy of national isolation. Two days after receiving Hasekura’s report of his mission, Date Masamune issued an edict prohibiting Christianity in his territories. Hasekura’s descendants were eventually executed for being Christian, and his voyage was forgotten until 1873, when a Japanese embassy to Europe was shown the official records of it. Hasekura and his Japanese entourage attracted considerable attention wherever they went, and numerous journals, church records and historical documents in Mexico and Europe contain descriptions of them.
Little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. He was a mid-level noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan, in the service of the daimyo Date Masamune. They were of roughly the same age, and it is recorded that Tsunenaga acted as Date’s representative on several important occasions..
In 1612, Hasekura's father, Hasekura Tsunenari (支倉常成), was indicted for corruption, and he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, and his son should ordinarily have been executed with him. Date, however, gave him the opportunity to redeem his honor by placing him in charge of the embassy to Europe, and soon returned his territories to him.
The Spanish started trans-Pacific voyages between New Spain (Mexico) and the Philippines in 1565. The famous Manila galleons carried silver from Mexican mines westward to the entrepôt of Manila in the Spanish possession of the Philippines. There, the silver was used to purchase spices and trade goods gathered from throughout Asia, including (until 1638) goods from Japan. The return route of the Manila galleons, first charted by the Basque navigator Andrés de Urdaneta, took the ships northeast into the Kuroshio Current (also known as the Japan Current) off the coast of Japan, and then across the Pacific to the west coast of North America, landing eventually in Acapulco.
Spanish ships were periodically shipwrecked on the coasts of Japan due to bad weather, initiating contact between Spain and Japan. Spain’s efforts to expand its influence in Japan were met by stiff resistance from the Jesuits, who had started evangelizing there in 1549, as well as the Portuguese and the Dutch who did not want Spain to participate in Japanese trade. However, some Japanese, such as Christopher and Cosmas, are known to have crossed the Pacific onboard Spanish galleons as early as 1587. It is known that gifts were exchanged between the governor of the Philippines and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who thanked him in a letter dated 1597, writing "The black elephant in particular I found most unusual."
In 1609, the Spanish Manila galleon San Francisco encountered bad weather on its way from Manila to Acapulco, and was wrecked on the Japanese coast in Chiba, near Tokyo. The sailors were rescued and welcomed, and the ship's captain, Rodrigo de Vivero, former interim governor of the Philippines, met with the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Rodrigo de Vivero drafted a treaty, signed on November 29, 1609, allowing for the Spaniards to establish a factory in eastern Japan, mining specialists to be imported from New Spain, Spanish ships to visit Japan in case of necessity, and a Japanese embassy to be sent to the Spanish court.
A Franciscan monk named Luis Sotelo, who was proselytizing in the area of Tokyo, convinced Tokugawa Ieyasu and his son Tokugawa Hidetada to send him as a representative to New Spain (Mexico) on one of their ships, in order to advance the trade treaty. Rodrigo de Vivero offered to sail on the Japanese ship in order to guarantee the safety of their reception in New Spain, but insisted that another Franciscan, named Alonso Muños, be sent instead as the Shogun's representative. In 1610, Rodrigo de Vivero, several Spanish sailors, the Franciscan father, and 22 Japanese representatives led by the trader Tanaka Shosuke, sailed to Mexico aboard the San Buena Ventura, a ship built by the English adventurer William Adams for the Shogun. Once in New Spain, Alonso Muños met with the Viceroy Luis de Velasco, who agreed to send the explorer Sebastian Vizcaino aa ambassador to Japan, with the added mission of exploring the "Gold and silver islands" ("Isla de Plata") that were thought to be east of the Japanese isles.
Vizcaino arrived in Japan in 1611, and met many times with the Shogun and feudal lords. His lack of respect for Japanese customs, the mounting resistance of the Japanese towards Catholic proselytism, and the intrigues of the Dutch against Spanish ambitions made these meetings ineffectual. Vizcaino finally left to search for the "Silver island," encountered bad weather, and returned to Japan with his ships heavily damaged.
Without waiting for Vizcaino, another ship – built in Izu by the Bakufu under the minister of the Navy Mukai Shogen, and named San Sebastian, left for Mexico on September 9, 1612, carrying Luis Sotelo and two representatives of Date Masamune, with the objective of advancing the trade agreement with New Spain. However, the ship foundered a few miles from Uraga, and the expedition had to be abandoned.
The Shogun decided to build a new galleon in Japan to take Vizcaino back to New Spain, together with a Japanese embassy accompanied by Luis Sotelo. The galleon, named Date Maru by the Japanese and later San Juan Bautista by the Spanish, was built in 45 days, with the participation of technical experts from the Bakufu (the Minister of the Navy Mukai Shogen, an acquaintance of William Adams with whom he built several ships, dispatched his Chief Carpenter), 800 shipwrights, 700 smiths, and 3000 carpenters. The daimyo of Sendai, Date Masamune, was put in charge of the project, and named one of his retainers, Hasekura Tsunenaga (his fief was rated at around 600 koku), to lead the mission:
"The Great Ship left Toshima-Tsukinoura for the Southern Barbarians on September 15th [Japanese calendar], with at its head Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga, and those called Imaizumi Sakan, Matsuki Shusaku, Nishi Kyusuke, Tanaka Taroemon, Naito Hanjuro, Sonohoka Kyuemon, Kuranojo, Tonomo, Kitsunai, Kyuji, as well as several others under Rokuemon, as well as 40 Southern Barbarians, 10 men of Mukai Shogen, and also tradespeople, to a total 180" (Records of the Date House, Keichō-Genna 伊達家慶長元和留控, Gonoi, 56).
The objective of the Japanese embassy was both to discuss trade agreements with the Spanish crown in Madrid, and to meet with the Pope in Rome. Date Masamune displayed a great willingness to welcome the Catholic religion in his domain: he invited Luis Sotelo and authorized the propagation of Christianity in 1611. In his letter to the Pope, brought by Hasekura, he wrote: "I'll offer my land for a base of your missionary work. Send us as many padres as possible."
Sotelo’s account of the voyage emphasizes the religious dimension of the mission, claiming that its main objective was to spread the Christian faith in northern Japan:
"I was formerly dispatched as ambassador of Idate Masamune, who holds the reins of the kingdom of Oxu [Japanese:奥州] (which is in the Eastern part of Japan)—who, while he has not yet been reborn through baptism, has been catechized, and was desirous that the Christian faith should be preached in his kingdom—together with another noble of his Court, Philippus Franciscus Faxecura Rocuyemon, to the Roman Senate & to the one who at that time was in charge of the Apostolic See, His Holiness Pope Paul V." (Luis Sotelo De Ecclesiae Iaponicae Statu Relatio, 1634).
The embassy was probably part of a plan to diversify and increase trade with foreign countries, before the participation of Christians in the Osaka rebellion caused the Shogunate to prohibit Christianity in the territories it directly controlled, in 1614.
The Date Maru ship left on October, 28, 1613 for Acapulco, with around 180 people on board, including ten samurai of the Shogun (provided by the Minister of the Navy Mukai Shogen Tadakatsu), 12 samurai from Sendai, 120 Japanese merchants, sailors, and servants, and around 40 Spaniards and Portuguese, including Sebastian Vizcaino who, in his own words, only had the status of a passenger.
The ship first reached Cape Mendocino in today's California, and then continued along the coast to arrive in Acapulco on January 25, 1614, after three months at sea. The Japanese were received with great ceremony, but had to wait in Acapulco until they received orders regarding the rest of their travels.
Fights erupted between the Japanese and the Spaniards, especially Vizcaino, apparently over the handling of presents from the Japanese ruler. A contemporary journal, written by the historian Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin, a noble Aztec born in Amecameca (ancient Chalco province) in 1579, whose formal name was Domingo Francisco de San Anton Muñon, relates that Vizcaino was seriously wounded in the fight:
"Senor Vizcaino is still coming slowly, coming hurt; the Japanese injured him when they beat and stabbed him in Acapulco, as became known here in Mexico, because of all the things coming along that had been made his responsibility in Japan"
Following these fights, orders were promulgated on March 4th and March 5th to restore peace. The orders explained that:
"The Japanese should not be submitted to attacks in this Land, but they should remit their weapons until their departure, except for Hasekura Tsunenaga and eight of his retinue…. The Japanese will be free to go where they want, and should be treated properly. They should not be abused in words or actions. They will be free to sell their goods. These orders have been promulgated to the Spanish, the Indians, the Mulattos, the Mestizos, and the Blacks, and those who don't respect them will be punished".
The embassy remained two months in Acapulco and on March 24, 1614, entered Mexico City, where it was received with great ceremony. The embassy spent some time in Mexico, and then went to Veracruz to board the fleet of Don Antonio Oquendo and continue its mission to Europe.
Chimalpahin gives some account of the visit of Hasekura.
"This is the second time that the Japanese have landed one of their ships on the shore at Acapulco. They are transporting here all things of iron, and writing desks, and some cloth that they are to sell here." (Chimalpahin, "Annals of His Time").
- "It became known here in Mexico and was said that the reason their ruler the Emperor of Japan sent this said lordly emissary and ambassador here, is to go in Rome to see the Holy Father Paul V, and to give him their obedience concerning the holy church, so that all the Japanase want to become Christians" (Chimalpahin, "Annals of His Time").
Hasekura was settled in a house next to the Church of San Francisco, and met with the Viceroy. He explained to him that he was also planning to meet King Philip III to offer him peace and to obtain permission for the Japanese to come to Mexico for trade. On Wednesday, April 9, 1614, 20 Japanese were baptized, and 22 more on April 20, by the archbishop in Mexico, don Juan Pérez de la Serna, at the Church of San Francisco. Altogether, 63 of them received confirmation on April 25. Hasekura waited for his travel to Europe to be baptized there:
"But the lordly emissary, the ambassador, did not want to be baptized here; it was said that he will be baptized later in Spain" (Chimalpahin, "Annals of His Time").
The embassy left for Europe on the San Jose on June 10, 1614. Hasekura had to leave the largest part of the Japanese group behind, to wait in Acapulco for the return of the embassy.
Chimalpahin explains that Hasekura left some of his compatriots behind before leaving for Europe:
"The Ambassador of Japan set out and left for Spain. In going he divided his vassals; he took a certain number of Japanese, and he left an equal number here as merchants to trade and sell things." (Chimalpahin, "Annals of His Time").
Some of them, as well as those from the previous voyage of Tanaka Shosuke, returned to Japan the same year, sailing back with the San Juan Bautista:
"Today, Tuesday the 14th of the month of October of the year 1614, was when some Japanese set out from Mexico here going home to Japan.; they lived here in Mexico for four years. Some still remained here; they earn a living trading and selling here the goods they brought with them from Japan." (Chimalpahin, "Annals of His Time").
The fleet arrived in Sanlucar de Barrameda on October 5, 1614.
"The fleet arrived safely finally, after some dangers and storms, to the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda on the 5th of October, where the Duke of Medina Sidonia was advised of the arrival. He sent carriages to honor them and accommodate the Ambassador and his gentlemen" (Scipione Amati "History of the Kingdom of Voxu").
"The Japanese ambassador Hasekura Rokuemon, sent by Joate Masamune, king of Boju, entered Seville on Wednesday, 23 October 1614. He was accompanied by 30 Japanese with blades, their captain of the guard, and 12 bowmen and halberdiers with painted lances and blades of ceremony. The captain of the guard was Christian and was called Don Thomas, the son of a Japanese martyr. He has come to give his obediences to His Holiness on behalf of his king and queen, who have been baptized. All of them had rosaries around their necks; he has come to receive baptism from the hand of the Pope…." (Library Capitular Calombina 84-7-19 Memorias..., fol.195).
The Japanese embassy met with King Philip III in Madrid on January 30, 1615. Hasekura remitted to the King a letter from Date Masamune, as well as an offer for a treaty. The King responded that he would do what he could to accommodate these requests.
Hasekura was baptized on February 17 by the king's personal chaplain, and renamed Felipe Francisco Hasekura. The baptism ceremony was to have been conducted by the Archbishop of Toledo, though he was too ill to actually carry this out, and the Duke of Lerma – the main administrator of Phillip III's rule and the de facto ruler of Spain – was designated as Hasekura's godfather.
The embassy stayed eight months in Spain before leaving the country for Italy.
After traveling across Spain, the embassy sailed on the Mediterranean Sea aboard three Spanish frigates towards Italy. Due to bad weather, they had to stay for a few days in the French harbour of Saint-Tropez, where they were received by the local nobility, and made quite a sensation with the populace.
The visit of the Japanese Embassy is recorded in the city's chronicles as led by "Philip Francis Faxicura, Ambassador to the Pope, from Date Masamunni, King of Woxu in Japan."
Many picturesque details of their movements were recorded:
The visit of Hasekura Tsunenaga to Saint-Tropez in 1615 is the first recorded instance of Franco-Japanese relations.
The Japanese Embassy went on to Italy where they were able to meet with Pope Paul V in Rome in November, 1615, the same year Galileo Galilei was first confronted by the Roman Inquisition regarding his findings against geocentricism. Hasekura remitted to the Pope two gilded letters, one in Japanese and one in Latin, containing a request for a trade treaty between Japan and Mexico and the dispatch of Christian missionaries to Japan. These letters are still visible in the Vatican archives. The Latin letter, probably written by Luis Sotelo for Date Masamune, reads, in part:
The Pope agreed to the dispatch of missionaries, but left the decision for trade to the King of Spain.
The Roman Senate also gave to Hasekura the honorary title of Roman Citizen, in a document he brought back to Japan, and which is preserved today in Sendai.
Sotelo also described the visit to the Pope, book De ecclesiae Iaponicae statu relatio (published posthumously in 1634):
Besides the official description of Hasekura's visit to Rome, some contemporary communications indicate that political matters were also discussed, and that an alliance with Date Masamune was suggested as a way to establish Christian influence in the whole of Japan:
On his return to Spain, Hasekura met again with the King, who declined to sign a trade agreement, on the ground that the Japanese Embassy did not appear to be an official embassy from the ruler of Japan Tokugawa Ieyasu, who, on the contrary, had promulgated an edict in January 1614 ordering the expulsion of all missionaries from Japan, and started the persecution of the Christian faith in Japan.
The embassy left Seville for Mexico in June 1617 after a period of two years spent in Europe. Some of the Japanese remained in Spain in a town near Seville (Coria del Río), where their descendants to this day still use the surname Japón.
The embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga was the subject of numerous publications throughout Europe. The Italian writer Scipione Amati, who accompanied the embassy in 1615 and 1616, published in 1615 in Rome a book titled "History of the Kingdom of Voxu." This book was translated into German in 1617. In 1616, the French publisher Abraham Savgrain published an account of Hasekura's visit to Rome: "Récit de l'entrée solemnelle et remarquable faite à Rome, par Dom Philippe Francois Faxicura" ("Account of the solemn and remarquable entrance in Rome of Dom Philippe Francois Faxicura").
Hasekura stayed in Mexico for five months on his way back to Japan. The San Juan Bautista had been waiting in Acapulco since 1616, after a second trip across the Pacific from Japan to Mexico. Captained by Yokozawa Shogen, she was laden with fine pepper and lacquerware from Kyoto, which were sold on the Mexican market. Following a request by the Spanish king, in order to avoid too much silver leaving Mexico for Japan, the Viceroy asked for the proceeds to be spent on Mexican goods, except for an amount of 12,000 pesos and 8,000 pesos in silver which Hasekura and Yokozawa could bring back with them respectively.
In April, 1618, the San Juan Bautista arrived in the Philippines from Mexico, with Hasekura and Luis Sotelo on board. The ship was acquired by the Spanish government there, for use in building up defenses against the attacks of the Dutch and the English. The bishop of the Philippines with the local Filipinos and native Tagalog in Manila described the deal to the king of Spain in a missive dated July 28, 1619:
During his stay in the Philippines with local Filipinos and Native Tagalog, Hasekura purchased numerous goods for Date Masamune, and built a ship, as he explained in a letter he wrote to his son. He finally returned to Japan in August 1620, reaching the harbor of Nagasaki.
By the time Hasekura came back, Japan had changed drastically: an effort to eradicate Christianity had been under way since 1614; Tokugawa Ieyasu had died in 1616 and been replaced by his more xenophobic son Tokugawa Hidetada; and Japan was moving towards the "sakoku" policy of national isolation. News of these persecutions arrived in Europe during Hasekura's embassy, and European rulers – especially the King of Spain – became very reluctant to respond favorably to Hasekura's trade and missionary proposals.
Hasekura reported his travels to Date Masamune upon his arrival in Sendai. It is recorded that he remitted a portrait of Pope Paul V, a portrait of himself in prayer (shown above), and a set of Ceylonese and Indonesian daggers acquired in the Philippines, all preserved today in the Sendai City Museum. The "Records of the House of Masamune" describe his report in a rather succinct manner, ending with a rather cryptic expression of surprise bordering on outrage ("奇怪最多シ") at Hasekura's discourse:
The direct effect of Hasekura's return to Sendai was the interdiction of Christianity in the Sendai fief two days later:
It is not known what Hasekura said or did to bring about such a reaction. Later events indicate that he and his descendants remained faithful Christians; Hasekura may have given an enthusiastic – and disturbing – account of the greatness and might of Western countries and the Christian religion. He may also have encouraged an alliance between the Church and Date Masamune to take over Japan (an idea promoted by the Franciscans while in Rome), Hopes of trade with Spain evaporated when Hasekura communicated that the Spanish King would not enter into an agreement as long as persecutions were occurring in the rest of the country.
Date Masamune, who had been very tolerant of Christianity in spite of the Bakufu's prohibition in the land it directly controlled, suddenly chose to distance himself from the Western faith. The first executions of Christians started 40 days later. The anti-Christian measures taken by Date Masumune were, however, comparatively mild, and Japanese and Western Christians repeatedly claimed that they were only undertaken to appease the Shogun:
One month after Hasekura's return, Date Masamune wrote a letter to the Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada, in which he makes a very clear effort to evade responsibility for the embassy, explaining in detail how it was organized with the approval, and even the collaboration, of the Shogun:
Spain, with a colony and an army in the nearby Philippines, was the greatest threat to Japan at that time. Hasekura’s eyewitness accounts of Spanish power and colonial methods in Nueva España (Mexico) may have precipitated the Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada's decision to sever trade relations with Spain in 1623, and diplomatic relations in 1624, although other events such as the smuggling of Spanish priests into Japan and a failed Spanish embassy also contributed to the decision.
Hasekura’s fate is unknown, and there are numerous conflicting accounts of his final years. Contemporary Christian commentators could only rely on hearsay; some rumors claimed that he abandoned Christianity, others that he was martyred for his faith, and others that he practiced Christianity in secret. The fate of his descendants and servants, who were later executed for being Christians, suggests that Hasekura remained strongly Christian himself, and transmitted his faith to the members of his family. Hasekura’s travel companions, such as Yokozawa Shogen are known to have remained faithful Christians even after their return in Japan.
Sotelo, who returned to Japan but was caught and finally burned at the stake in 1624, gave before his execution an account of Hasekura returning to Japan as a hero who propagated the Christian faith, and passed away one year after his return:
"My other colleague, the ambassador Philippus Faxecura, after he reached his aforementioned king (Date Masamune), was greatly honored by him, and sent to his own estate, to rest after such a long and tiring journey, where he made his wife, children, servants, and many other vassals into Christians, and advised other nobles who were his kith and kin to accept the faith, which they indeed did. While he was engaged in these and other pious works, a full year after his return, having provided much instruction and a great example, with much preparation, he piously passed on, leaving for his children by a special inheritance the propagation of the faith in his estate, and the protection of the religious (i.e. "members of religious orders") in that kingdom. The King and all the nobles were greatly saddened by his passing, but especially the Christians and Religious, who knew very well the virtue and religious zeal of this man. This is what I heard by letters from the very Religious who administered the sacraments to him, and who had been present at his death, as well as from others." (Luis Sotelo, De ecclesiae Iaponicae statu relatio).
Hasekura brought several Catholic artifacts back to Japan, but he did not give them to his ruler, and instead kept them in his own estate.
Hasekura Tsunenaga died of illness (according to Japanese as well as Christian sources) in 1622, but the location of his grave is not known for certain. Three graves are claimed as Hasekura's. One is visible in the Buddhist temple of Enfukuji (円長山円福寺) in Miyagi. Another is clearly marked (along with a memorial to Padre Sotelo) in the cemetery of a Buddhist temple in the Kitayama neighborhood, just north of the center of Sendai, located between Shifukuji Temple and Aoba Ginja (Shinto shrine).
Hasekura had a son, named Rokuemon Tsuneyori. Two of his son's servants, Yogoemon (与五右衛門) and his wife, were convicted of being Christian but refused to recant their faith under torture (reverse hanging, tsurushi, 釣殺し) and as a result died in August, 1637. In 1637, Rokuemon Tsuneyori himself also came under suspicion of Christianity after being denounced by someone from Edo, but escaped questioning because he was the master of the Zen temple of Komyoji (光明寺). In 1640, two other servants of Tsuneyori, Tarozaemon (太郎左衛門, 71), who had followed Hasekura to Rome, and his wife (59), were convicted of being Christians, and, also died after refusing to recant their faith under torture. Tsuneyori was held responsible this time, and was decapitated the same day for having failed to denounce Christians under his roof, although it remained unclear whether he was himself Christian or not. Two Christian priests, the Dominican Pedro Vazquez and Joan Bautista Paulo, had given his name under torture. Tsuneyori's younger brother, Tsunemichi, was convicted as a Christian, but managed to flee and disappear.
The privileges of the Hasekura family were rescinded by the Sendai fief, and their property and belongings seized. At this time, in 1640, Hasekura's Christian artifacts were confiscated, and were kept in custody in Sendai until they were rediscovered at the end of the nineteenth century. Around 50 Christian artifacts, such as crosses, rosaries, religious gowns and religious paintings, were seized from Hasekura's estate. An inventory made in 1840 describes the items as belonging to Hasekura Tsunenaga. Nineteen books mentioned in the inventory have since been lost. The artifacts are now preserved in the Sendai City Museum and other museum in Sendai.
Hasekura’s journey was forgotten in Japan until the reopening of the country after the end of the sakoku policy of isolation. In 1873, a Japanese embassy to Europe (the Iwakura mission), headed by Iwakura Tomomi, learned of Hasekura’s visit to Mexico and Europe when they were shown documents in Venice, Italy.
Today, there are statues of Hasekura Tsunenaga in the outskirts of Acapulco in Mexico, at the entrance of Havana Bay in Cuba, in Coria del Río in Spain, in the Church of Civitavecchia in Italy, in Tsukinoura, near Ishinomaki,and in a park in Manila, the Philippines.
Approximately 700 inhabitants of Coria del Río near Seville bear the surname Japón (originally Hasekura de Japón), identifying them as descendants of the members of Hasekura Tsunenaga's delegation.
A theme park describing the embassy and displaying a replica of the San Juan Bautista was established in the harbor of Ishinomaki, from which Hasekura initially departed on his voyage.
Shusaku Endo wrote a 1980 novel, titled The Samurai, based on the travels of Hasekura.
All links retrieved August 25, 2016.
New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:
The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: