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Electron microscope

The first electron microscope prototype was built in 1931 by German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll

John Calvin

Calvin's doctrine of predestination teaches that salvation is given only to those whom God has chosen, and that it is a free gift not contingent on anything they have done or will do

Guerrilla warfare

The term guerrillla, from the Spanish "small war," was first used to describe the resistance in Spain against Napoleon


Yupiit believe in benign and evil spirits, and their mediators (shamans) can communicate with both

Aachen Cathedral

Aachen Cathedral in Germany, built by Charlemagne and his burial site, is the oldest cathedral in Northern Europe

Academy Awards

George Bernard Shaw was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature and won an Oscar for screenwriting

Buckingham Palace

The first British monarch to live in Buckingham Palace was Queen Victoria

Zhou Dynasty

The Mandate of Heaven, requiring rulers to rule justly, was introduced by the Zhou Dynasty of China

Otis Chandler

Although Otis Chandler made the LA Times great he did not want to become its publisher and he did not want his sons to take over its leadership when he retired.

Andre Malraux

André Malraux won the Goncourt Prize for French literature for his novel "La Condition humaine" ("Man's Fate")

Toby Riddle

Toby Winema Riddle, one of few Native American women to be so honored, received a military pension by congressional act acknowledging her role as a key participant and mediator during peace and war


Dogen studied Zen Buddhism in China and then spread the teachings and practice of Zen meditation in Japan


Petroglyphs, or rock engravings, have been found dating back at least 10,000 years

Keio University

Keio University, one of the most prestigious universities in Japan, was founded as a school of Western studies

Galileo Galilei

Galileo was accused of heresy in 1633 for his support of Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentrism and it was not until 1992 that Pope John Paul II announced that the Catholic Church's denunciation of Galileo's work had been a tragic error


For over two millennia, the Tuareg operated the trans-Saharan caravan trade connecting the great cities on the southern edge of the Sahara to the northern Mediterranean coast of Africa.

Bhimbetka rock shelters

The rock shelters and caves of Bhimbetka contain numerous cave paintings which depict the lives of the people who lived there over periods spanning thousands of years

Cape Breton Island

The residents of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia in Canada, can be grouped into five main cultures: Scottish, Mi'kmaq, Acadian, Irish, and English

Rock art

The many possible meanings of prehistoric rock art include records of hunts, religious practices, and astronomical calendars


Micronesia is one of three major cultural areas in the Pacific Ocean, the other two being Melanesia and Polynesia

Rudolf Steiner

The life work of Rudolf Steiner was his development of Anthroposophy, a philosophy based on the premise that the human intellect has the ability to contact the spiritual world

Emanuel Swedenborg

Swedenborg was a successful scientist and inventor before his spiritual awakening

Lucien Levy-Bruhl

French anthropologist Lucien Lévy-Bruhl suggested that human beings use two kind of thinking: “mystical thinking” which was the essence of the "primitive mind" and rational thinking which is the hallmark of the "civilized mind"

Joseph Campbell

Joseph Campbell's philosophy is often summarized by his phrase "Follow your bliss"

French Revolution

The French Republican Calendar, created and implemented during the French Revolution, declared 1792 as "Year I" and had a ten-day week


Recidivism refers to a relapse into criminal behavior or substance abuse

Herbert of Cherbury

Herbert of Cherbury is best known as the "father of Deism"

George Washington

Because of his central role in the founding of the United States, George Washington is often called the “Father of the Nation”

Etta James

Etta James bridged the gap between rhythm and blues and rock and roll music

Ethel Merman

Tony Award winning star of musical theater Ethel Merman never took singing lessons


The Talmud contains the opinions of hundreds of rabbis, often including strong disagreements on many subjects. Like the Bible itself, it can be used to support varying positions on many subjects.

Altamira (cave)

Altamira is the only cave where paintings extend into the area where the occupants lived.

Sylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath was the first poet to win a Pulitzer Prize posthumously, for The Collected Poems published almost twenty years after her death by suicide

Greenhouse gas

Without "greenhouse gases" the Earth would be so cold as to be uninhabitable


The "Guelb er Richat" or Richat Structure, also known as the "Eye of the Sahara," is a prominent circular feature in the Sahara desert of west–central Mauritania

Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam is famous not only for his scientific work but also his poetry, having written one thousand four-line verses

Wild Bill Hickok

Wild Bill Hickok was shot and killed while playing poker in Deadwood, in what is now South Dakota

Vivien Leigh

Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier were one of Hollywood's most glamorous couples

Kyoto University

Kyoto University was founded to train scientists to support the rapid industrialization of Japan during the Meiji period

Charles Kingsley

Author Charles Kingsley was one of the first to praise Charles Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species," and seeking a reconciliation between science and Christian doctrine

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