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Iran-Iraq War

The First Persian Gulf War was between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran and lasted from September 1980 until August 1988

Wahhabism

Wahhabism subscribes to the doctrine of oneness of God ("Tawhid"), rejecting aspects of contemporary Islam as polytheism

May Day

In Europe, May Day originated as a pagan holiday celebrating the beginning of summer

Uganda

Winston Churchill called Uganda "the pearl of Africa"

Francisco Pizarro

Francisco Pizarro founded the city of Lima, which he named la Ciudad de los Reyes (the City of Kings), to serve as the capital of Peru on January 18, 1535

Augustus Caesar

Augustus Caesar ended a century of civil wars and gave Rome an era of peace, prosperity, and imperial greatness, known as the Pax Romana, "Roman peace"

Native Americans in the United States

The first Native American group encountered by Christopher Columbus in 1492, were the Island Arawaks (more properly called the Taino)

Posidonius

The Greek polymath Posidonius attempted to create a unified worldview, showing the interconnectedness of the world and how all forces have an effect on each other and on human life

Yellow River

The Yellow River is known as the "Mother River of China" and "the Cradle of Chinese Civilization"

Bahadur Shah II

Bahadur Shah II, the last Moghul emperor of India, had little political power and was finally exiled for treason by the British

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman is considered the most influential economist of the second half of the twentieth century

Howard Carter (archaeologist)

William Flinders Petrie, from whom Howard Carter learned his archaeological skills, had little faith in Carter's ability to be a great archaeologist

Victor Turner

Victor Turner coined the term "communitas," referring to an unstructured state in which all members of a community are equal allowing them to share a common experience, usually through a rite of passage

Hogan

The Navajo word for hogan (hooghan) means "the place home"

Mary Baker Eddy

A central tenet of the Church of Christ, Scientist founded by Mary Baker Eddy is spiritual healing of disease

Picts

The Picts - "painted people" - were ancient inhabitants of Scotland who lived north of Hadrian's Wall

Gandhinagar

Gandhinagar, the capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat, was named after Mahatma Gandhi who was himself a Gujarati

Joseph Campbell

Joseph Campbell's philosophy is often summarized by his phrase "Follow your bliss"

University of Tokyo

The University of Tokyo is commonly known as "Todai" in Japan, an abbreviation of the Japanese characters that make up "Tokyo Daigaku," the Japanese name of the University

Eggplant

The eggplant or aubergine is widely used in Indian cuisine where it is called brinjal, and is considered the "King of Vegetables"

Jujutsu

Jujutsu means "gentle art" and is rooted in the ancient cultural traditions of Japan

Alimony

Alimony has deep roots in history, going back thousands of years to the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia was a country in Central Europe that existed from October 28, 1918, when it declared independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until January 1, 1993, when it split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Dybbuk

Belief in dybbuks, souls of the dead that attach themselves to living persons on earth, became widespread in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

Rebecca Latimer Felton

The first woman to serve in the United States Senate was Rebecca Latimer Felton, aged 87, who served for one day

Concentration camp

The term "concentration camp" was coined to signify the "concentration" of a large number of people in one place

Curse of Ham

In the Genesis story Ham is not cursed directly but rather his youngest son, Canaan

George Peter Murdock

Peter Murdock's research showed that the family of parents and children is a central social structure in all cultures

Espionage

The use of espionage dates back well into ancient history.

Distance education

Distance education has been around at least since Isaac Pitman taught shorthand in Great Britain via correspondence in the 1840s.

Nigerian Civil War

The suffering in Biafra during the Nigerian Civil War led to the development of international humanitarian agencies designed to respond to complex emergencies anywhere in the world

Structural engineering

Structural engineering has advanced significantly through the study of structural failures

Incense

All of the major religions incorporate the burning of incense in their rites

Agricultural technology

The Industrial Revolution led to advances in agricultural technology that greatly increased food production allowing large numbers of people to pursue other types of work

Centaur

The most common theory of the origin of centaurs is that when non-riding cultures first saw nomads mounted on horses they thought they were half-horse, half-man creatures.

Ajivika

Ajivika was an ancient Indian philosophical and ascetic movement that did not believe in karma or the possibility of free will

Donatist

The Donatists were the first Christian movement to oppose the union of church and state

Shawnee

The Shawnee had their own version of the "Golden Rule"

Sylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath was the first poet to win a Pulitzer Prize posthumously, for The Collected Poems published almost twenty years after her death by suicide

Xiuzhen

Xiuzhen means “to practice and learn the way of the truth” and is the principal technique in the Taoist quest for immortality

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