[Emma of Normandy]], or Emma of England as she became known (also known as Ælfgifu) was daughter of Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy, by his second wife Gunnora. She was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England twice, by successive marriages: initially as the second wife to Etherlred (or Æl of England
(1002-1016); and then to Canute the Great of Denmark (1017-1035). Two of her sons, one by each husband, and two stepsons, also by each husband, became kings of England, as did her great-nephew, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy who used his kinship with Emma as the basis of his claim to the English throne. Her first marriage was by arrangement between her brother, Richard II of Normandy and the English king, 20 years her senior, to create a cross-channel alliance against the Viking raiders from the North, with whom Emma was also related. Canute, ten years her junior, as king by conquest not by right, used his marriage with the Queen to legitimize his rule. An innovation in the Queen's coronation rite (her second) made her a partner in Canute's rule, which represents a trend towards Queens playing a more significant role, at least symbolically, as peacemakers and unifiers of the realm. She became one of the most powerful women in England, paving the way for later women, such as Elizabeth I of England to rule in her own right. The Divine Principle describes England as a "feminine nation." (Exposition of the Divine Principle, 373.) In helping to develop English understanding of the role of Queenship, Emma may have contributed to England's identification as a feminine-type nation. Emma's coronation emphasized her role as "peace-weaver." According to most accounts of the Canute-Emma reign, England was ruled justly and lived at peace. Identification of the role of the Queen with peace may represent a balance of the male-female qualities that is required in leadership. The Divine Principle says that unless the masculine and feminine form reciprocal relationships, discord continues.(Exposition, 16) The mothering instinct represented by England and Great Britain's Queens may have contribute to Britain's role in nurturing democracy at home and throughout the world after the granting of independence to its colonial possessions.