Moksha (Sanskrit for “liberation”) is the highest goal of life in the Hindu religion. Also known as mukti (release), moksha refers to the sumum bonum of Hindu thought in which one’s soul is freed from the karmic suffering of the samsaric world. In higher Hindu philosophy, it is seen as a transcendence of phenomenal being, and an escape from all limitations entailed in embodied worldly existence, including any sense of consciousness of time, space, and causation (karma). It signifies the dissolution of the sense of self as an egoistic personality—the undoing of conditioned mentality-materiality or nama-rupa (name-form). During moksha, one allegedly gains self-realization and complete awareness of ultimate reality.
Hinduism provides a number of spiritual paths for a practitioner to attain moksha, allowing such diversity for various types of people. However, it is said that the attainment of moksha is very rare and countless reincarnations are required for a person to reach this state of spiritual perfection. Some Hindu schools restrict the attainment of moksha to males only, while others claim that moksha is available to anyone who demonstrates the requisite effort and/or devotion. In some ways the Hindu concept of moksha resembles the Christian idea of salvation but the two concepts are incommensurate because they are based on different underlying presuppositions about reality.
While early Vedic Hinduism was primarily centered on maintaining order in this world through sacrificial offerings to the gods, a shift away from this practice occurred around the time of the Upanishads (c. 600 C.E.) with the focus turning inward toward the goal of attaining personal liberation. The Upanishads taught that the true self (atman) could be released from suffering when it realizes its intrinsic oneness with Brahman. Whereas the early Vedas dwelt on worldly-affairs in relation to the devas (gods) offering no permanent changes of a metaphysical or psychological nature, the Upanishads encouraged inner sacrifice and abstract introspection. The philosophical Upanishads claimed to lead adherents to advanced states of consciousness, and great important was placed on knowledge (jnana) as a path to ultimate liberation.
Paralleling these developments in Indian thought, was the emergence of the doctrines of karma and samsāra, championed by the Buddhists and Jains, which also facilitated the rise of the concept of moksha. Eventually, these three ideas became inextricably linked. The prospect of an endless chain of births, deaths and rebirths motivated Hindu religious thinkers to formulate some means by which to escape this cycle and find spiritual emancipation.
The Upanishads established moksha as the ultimate goal of all Hindu religious activity, and this idea continued to influence nearly all forms of later Hinduism. Eventually, the concept of moksha became widely acknowledged as one of the four Vedic aims of life, or parusarthas, discussed below.
In classical Hinduism, higher-caste Hindus were encouraged to follow four aims of life known as the (purusarthas). These four aims consisted of wealth (artha), pleasure (kama), right conduct (dharma), and liberation (moksha). They were usually understood in hierarchal fashion with the practitioner working upward from the lower more self-centered goals towards the higher spiritual goals of life. The first and second aims allow for pursuits such as material wealth and are most commonly associated with what is known as the householder stage of life. However, higher still is the goal of dharma (right conduct) that is considered to be a precursor to the pursuit of spiritual liberation. Finally, a Hindu can seek the highest goal of moksha (liberation) if one so wishes. The Hindu texts instruct that one should pursue this goal when one has retired, or when one becomes a sanyassin (renunciate), one who is wholly devoted to attaining liberation.
Unlike other world religions that teach that the path to salvation is narrow, Hinduism allows for a multiplicity of ways to attain moksha depending on the personalities, tastes, and temperaments of its different devotees. In general, four different spiritual paths are widely accepted in Hinduism. They are the ways of selfless work (Karma Yoga), of self-dissolving love (Bhakti Yoga), of absolute discernment (Jnana Yoga), and of 'royal' meditative immersion (Raja Yoga). The paths are not generally seen as mutually exclusive but complimentary. Different schools of Hinduism place varying emphasis on one path or another. These paths are summarized as follows:
The main philosophical schools of India each have different views on the subject of moksha, which can be seen from the brief survey below:
Several theological and philosophical controversies have arisen in Hinduism in regards to the topic of moksha. There are at least three important issues that have been debated:
First, there is some disagreement over whether an enlightened being, one who has achieved moksha (known as a jivan mukti), is above the law of the land as s/he has allegedly transcended all dualisms. According to Hinduism, some gurus who have achieved liberation while still alive and possessing a physical body have then acted in "strange" ways from the perspective of everyday life. Are the actions of gurus justified given that they have moved beyond ethical and moral dualisms?
Second, various philosophical schools of Vedanta disagree over the question of whether moksha involves the complete merging into Brahman and the obliteration of one’s identity in a sea of non-duality, or if it means uniting with the divine but retaining a distinct identity.
Third, it is unclear whether moksha means forsaking the world or staying engaged in the world to help others. Critics have declared that social-service is contradictory to the non-duality of moksha, which seemingly requires complete detachment from all matter. Yet, moksha has also been understood as favorable to social service due to heightened awareness of cosmic oneness and interconnectedness.
In conclusion, the concept of moksha as liberation from rebirth is a constant and widely accepted goal in nearly all-Indian systems of belief. It is also a concept heavily entwined with philosophical matters and questions about the nature of reality, the divine, and salvation, and the human relation to each of these. While the Hindu philosophical schools have different ideas on how moksha may be achieved, they agree that freedom from suffering is the ultimate goal of life.
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