May 25 1884
Liverpool, Lancashire, England
|Died||October 3 1957 (aged 73)|
Orlando, Florida, U.S.
|Alma mater||Emmanuel College, Cambridge|
Walter Duranty (May 25, 1884 – October 3, 1957) was a Liverpool-born Anglo-American journalist who served as Moscow bureau chief of The New York Times for fourteen years (1922–1936). His tenure there followed the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War (1918-1921), the tenure of Lenin, and the rise of Stalin and Stalinism. Duranty's reporting included the New Economic Policy, collectivization of the peasants and Stalin's war on the kulaks, the famine in Ukraine and finally the Moscow show trials in which Stalin's rivals on the left and then on the right were systematically convicted and executed as enemies of the state.
It is for his series of articles published in June 1931 covering Stalin's implementation of the New Economic Policy and other aspects of Stalinism that Duranty is best known. He received a Pulitzer Prize. In these articles he dismissed the idea that there was famine in the Soviet Union. He admitted that there was "malnutrition" but denied famine. He was criticized for his subsequent denial of the widespread famine (1932–1933) in the USSR, most particularly the famine in Ukraine in which millions perished. There have been continual calls to revoke his Pulitzer. In 1990, The New York Times, which had submitted his works for the prize in 1932, did its own investigation and admitted the fallacy of the much of the reporting. The Pulitzer committee refused to revoke the award.
Early life and career
Duranty was born in a middle-class Merseyside family to Emmeline (née Hutchins) and William Steel Duranty. His grandparents had moved to Birkenhead on the Wirral from the West Indies in 1842 and established a successful merchant business in which his father worked. He studied at Harrow, one of Britain's most prestigious public schools, but a sudden collapse in the family business led to a transfer to Bedford College. Nevertheless, he gained a scholarship to study at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he graduated with a first-class degree.
After completing his education, Duranty moved to Paris, where he met Aleister Crowley and participated in magic rituals with him. Duranty became involved in a relationship with Crowley's mistress, Jane Cheron, and eventually married her. In Magick Without Tears, Crowley terms Duranty "my old friend" and quotes from Duranty's book I Write as I Please.
During World War I, Duranty worked as a reporter for The New York Times. A story Duranty filed about the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 gained him wider notice as a journalist. He moved to Riga, Latvia, to cover events in the newly independent Baltic states.
Career in Moscow
Duranty moved to the Soviet Union in 1921. On holiday in France in 1924, his left leg was injured in a train wreck. After an operation, the surgeon discovered gangrene and the leg was amputated. Once he had recovered, Duranty returned to the Soviet Union.
With the Soviet Union under Lenin's leadership during the New Economic Policy, which implemented a mixed economy, Duranty's articles failed to draw widespread attention. After Lenin's death and the rise to power of Joseph Stalin, economic policy changed. This change saw the advent of the first five-year plan (1928–1933), which aimed at transforming Soviet industry and agriculture through collectivization of the peasantry and ambitious industrial goals. It was during this period that he was granted an exclusive interview with Joseph Stalin that greatly enhanced his reputation as a journalist. Duranty remained in Moscow for twelve years.
After settling in the United States in 1934, Duranty was placed on retainer with The New York Times, the terms of which required him to spend several months a year in Moscow. In this capacity, he reported on the show trials of Stalin's political opponents in 1936–1938. The articles for the Times during this period would come to largely define his career.
Views on the Soviet Union
In the 1931 series of reports for which he received the 1932 Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence, Duranty argued that the Russian people were "Asiatic" in thought, valuing communal effort and requiring autocratic government. He claimed that they viewed individuality and private enterprise as alien concepts that led to social disruption and were just as unacceptable to them as tyranny and Communism were unacceptable to the Western world.
Failed attempts since the time of Peter the Great to apply Western ideals in Russia were a form of European colonialism, he wrote, that had been finally swept away by the 1917 Revolution. After 1921, with the countryside ravaged by Civil War, Vladimir Lenin proposed his New Economic Policy (NEP). It allowed for some measure of a market economy and was designed to help get the country back on its feet. Lenin died in 1923. Stalin later scrapped the policy in favor of the collectivization of the peasants in what was still primarily an agrarian nation and the Five Year Plan that called for rapid, state-sponsored industrialization. Duranty argued that Peter's reforms and Lenin's NEP were both failures because they were tainted by Western thought. It was not suited to Russia's Asiatic bent.
Stalinism, too, has done what Lenin only attempted. It has re-established the semi-divine, supreme autocracy of the imperial idea and has placed itself on the Kremlin throne as a ruler whose lightest word is all In all and whose frown spells death. Try that on free-born Americans or the British with their tough loyalty to old things, or on France’s consciousness of self. But it suits the Russians and is as familiar, natural and right to the Russian mind as it is abominable and wrong to Western nations.
He further praised Stalin's leadership style.
That is what Stalin did and is doing to our boasted Western individualism and spirit of personal initiative—which was what the NEP meant—not because Stalin is so powerful or cruel and full of hate for the capitalist system as such, but because he has a flair for political management unrivalled since Charles Murphy died.
Views on Stalinism
Duranty argued that the Soviet Union's mentality in 1931 greatly differed from the perception created by the ideas of Karl Marx. He viewed Stalinism as an integration of Marxism with Leninism. In one of his articles submitted for the Pulitzer Prize, Duranty reflects on the Soviet actions that led to the famine.
Marx theorized about “the elimination of class distinctions” in his proletarian Utopia, but Leninism and Stalinism showed what the words meant in practice... It is hard and horrible, for twentieth century America to hear this, but facts are facts. Stalinism not only aims but boasts of aiming at the complete smashing of class boundaries, at the death of all distinctions save talent and State service between man and man. Rank may replace class in the Bolshevik cosmogony to satisfy human needs, but rank based on merit, not on wealth or birth... That, reduced to its harsh essentials is Stalinism today. It is not lovely, nor, in the outside world, of good repute, and your correspondent has no brief for or against it, nor any purpose save to try to tell the truth. But truth it is—ant-heap system, ant-heap morality—each for all and all for each, not each for self and the devil take the hindmost. An ugly, harsh, cruel creed this Stalinism, flattening and beating down with, so far, no more than a hope or promise of a subsequent raising up. Perhaps this hope, is vain and the promise a lie. That is a secret of the future. But whatever happens later, it is the key and core of: present Russia.
Duranty claimed that individuals being sent to the labor camps in the Russian North, Siberia, or Kazakhstan were given a choice between rejoining Soviet society or becoming underprivileged outsiders. However, he admitted that for those who could not accept the system, "the final fate of such enemies is death." He argued that the brutal collectivization campaign was motivated by the "hope or promise of a subsequent raising up" of Asian-minded masses in the Soviet Union that only history would be able to judge.
Duranty both admitted the brutality of the Stalinist system and defended the necessity of it. He repeated Soviet views as his own opinion, as if his 'observations' from Moscow had given him deeper insights into the country as a whole. His motivations have been hotly debated and his reporting is faulted for being too uncritical of the USSR, presenting Soviet propaganda as legitimate reporting.
In 1933, Stalin rewarded this praise and appreciation by saying that Duranty tried "to tell the truth about our country."
Reporting the 1932–1933 famine
In The New York Times on March 31, 1933, Walter Duranty denounced reports of a famine and, in particular, he attacked Gareth Jones, a British journalist who had witnessed the starving in Ukraine and issued a widely published press release about their plight two days earlier in Berlin. (Jones' release was itself immediately preceded by three unsigned articles by Malcolm Muggeridge describing the famine in the Manchester Guardian.)
Under the title "Russians Hungry, But Not Starving" Duranty's article described the situation as follows:
In the middle of the diplomatic duel between Great Britain and the Soviet Union over the accused British engineers, there appears from a British source a big scare story in the American press about famine in the Soviet Union, with "thousands already dead and millions menaced by death from starvation".
The "diplomatic duel" was a reference to the arrest of engineers from the Metropolitan-Vickers company who were working in the USSR. Accused with Soviet citizens of "wrecking" (sabotaging) the plant they were building, they were the subjects of one in a series of show trials presided over by State Prosecutor, Andrey Vyshinsky, an architect of Stalin's Great Purges. during the First Five Year Plan.
Five months later (August 23, 1933), in another New York Times article, Duranty wrote:
Any report of a famine in Russia is today an exaggeration or malignant propaganda. The food shortage, however, which has affected the whole population in the last year and particularly in the grain-producing provinces — the Ukraine, North Caucasus [i.e. Kuban Region], and the Lower Volga — has, however, caused heavy loss of life.
Duranty concluded "it is conservative to suppose" that, in certain provinces with a total population of over 40 million, mortality had "at least trebled." The duel in the press over the famine stories did not damage esteem for Duranty. The Nation then described his reporting as "the most enlightened, dispassionate dispatches from a great nation in the making which appeared in any newspaper in the world."
Following sensitive negotiations in November 1933 that resulted in the establishment of relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., a dinner was given for Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov in New York City's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. Each of the attendees' names was read in turn, politely applauded by the guests, until Duranty's. Whereupon, Alexander Woollcott wrote, "the one really prolonged pandemonium was evoked ... Indeed, one quite got the impression that America, in a spasm of discernment, was recognizing both Russia and Walter Duranty."
Sally J. Taylor, author of the critical Duranty biography Stalin's Apologist, argues that his reporting from the USSR was a key factor in U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1933 decision to grant official recognition to the Soviet Union.
Later career and death
In 1934, Duranty left Moscow and visited the White House in the company of Soviet officials, including Litvinov. He continued as a Special Correspondent for The New York Times until 1940.
He wrote several books on the Soviet Union after 1940. His name was on a list maintained by writer George Orwell of those Orwell considered to be unsuitable as possible writers for the British Foreign Office's Information Research Department, owing to the possibility of them being too sympathetic to communism or possible paid communist agents.
Duranty died in Orlando, Florida in 1957 and is interred at Greenwood Cemetery.
Scholarship on Duranty's work
Duranty has been criticized for deferring to Stalin and the Soviet Union's official propaganda rather than reporting news, both when he was living in Moscow and later. He was not alone. He was reporting at a time when opinions were strongly divided on the Soviet Union and its leadership. Many reporters of Duranty's time slanted their coverage in favor of the Soviet Union. Some drew a contrast with the capitalist world, struggling with the Great Depression. Others wrote out of a true belief in Communism. Some acted out of fear of expulsion from Moscow, which would result in a loss of livelihood. At home many of their editors found it hard to believe a state would deliberately starve millions of its own people. Duranty's reports for The New York Times were a source of much frustration for the paper's readers in 1932, because they directly contradicted the line taken on the paper's own editorial page.
The 1930's was marked both by a global depression and the rise of Nazism in Germany. At the same time, the Soviet economy was growing steadily, fueled by intensive investment in heavy industry. This early success of Stalin's Five Year Plan stood in contrast to the economic crisis of the capitalist world. The admission of the USSR to the League of Nations in 1934 was also viewed optimistically by some. Others saw an inevitable confrontation between fascism and communism as requiring individuals to take one side or the other. Many Western intellectuals were disposed to view the Soviet system favorably. "As the Great Depression ground on and unemployment soared, intellectuals began unfavorably comparing their faltering capitalist economy to Russian Communism."
The Ukrainian Famine (1932-1933) and the 1938 Moscow Show Trials
Duranty was clearly a staunch defender of Stalin. Later in the 1930's he supported the Moscow Trials of 1938, part of the Great Purges, which were staged to eliminate potential challengers to Stalin's authority.But the major controversy regarding Duranty's work remains his reporting on the great famine of 1932–33. His published reports stating "there is no famine or actual starvation nor is there likely to be" and "any report of a famine in Russia is today an exaggeration or malignant propaganda," were clearly false. Based on Russian Archives we know that the famine was a deliberate policy designed to consolidate Soviet power over the peasantry and a part of Stalin's successful attempt to gain power over Ukraine.
The dreadful famine that engulfed Ukraine, the northern Caucasus, and the lower Volga River area in 1932–1933 was the result of Joseph Stalin's policy of forced collectivization. The heaviest losses occurred in Ukraine, which had been the most productive agricultural area of the Soviet Union. Stalin was determined to crush all vestiges of Ukrainian nationalism. Thus, the famine was accompanied by a devastating purge of the Ukrainian intelligentsia and the Ukrainian Communist party itself. The famine broke the peasants' will to resist collectivization and left Ukraine politically, socially, and psychologically traumatized.
However, even before the fall of the Soviet Union and the ability to gain access to the archives, western academics were critical of Duranty's reporting. Robert Conquest was critical of Duranty's reporting in The Great Terror (1968), The Harvest of Sorrow (1986) and, most recently, in Reflections on a Ravaged Century (1990). More significantly, there were correspondents in Moscow, like Malcolm Muggeridge ventured out and saw for himself what was happening.
In May of 1933, Muggeridge gave the following description of what he saw; "On a recent trip to the North Caucasus and Ukraine, I saw something of the battle that is going on between the Government and their peasants. The battlefield was as desolate as in any war, and stretches wider..... On one side, millions of peasants, starving, often their bodies swollen, with lack of food; on the other, soldiers, members of the GPU, carrying out the instruction of the dictatorship of the proletariat. They had gone over the country like a swarm of locusts and taken away everything edible; they had shot and exiled thousands of peasants sometimes whole villages; they had reduced some of the most fertile land in the world to a melancholy desert."
Unsurprisingly, Malcolm Muggeridge called him "the greatest liar I ever knew."
What Duranty knew and when
It was clear from Duranty's comments to others that he was fully aware of the scale of the calamity. In 1934 he privately reported to the British embassy in Moscow that as many as 10 million people may have died, directly or indirectly, from famine in the Soviet Union in the previous year.
Both British intelligence and American engineer Zara Witkin (1900–1940), who worked in the USSR from 1932 to 1934, confirmed that Duranty knowingly misrepresented information about the nature and scale of the famine.
There are some indications that Duranty's deliberate misdirection concerning the famine may have been the result of duress. Conquest believed Duranty was being blackmailed over his sexual preferences. 
In his 1944 book, Duranty wrote in a chastened tone about his 1932–34 reporting, but he offered only a Stalinist defense of it. He admits that people starved, including not just "class enemies" but also loyal communists, but he says that Stalin was forced to order the requisitions to equip the Red Army enough to deter an imminent Japanese invasion (a reprise of the Siberian Intervention of a decade earlier)—in other words, to save the Soviet Union from impending military doom, not because Stalin wanted to collectivize the population at gunpoint, on pain of death. Although it is likely that Stalin did expect a Japanese invasion (expecting foreign attacks all the time), most historians today do not accept the view that it was his sole motivation.
"More than ten years after the Revolution, Communism was finally reaching full flower, according to New York Times reporter Walter Duranty, a Stalin fan who vigorously debunked accounts of the Ukraine famine, a man-made disaster that would leave millions dead."
Calls for revocation of Pulitzer Prize, 1990–2003
The concern over Duranty's reporting on the famine in Soviet Ukraine led to a move to posthumously and symbolically strip him of the Pulitzer Prize he received in 1932.
In response to Stalin's Apologist (1990), the critical biography by Sally J. Taylor, The New York Times assigned a member of its editorial board, Karl Meyer, to write a signed editorial about Duranty's work for the Times. In a scathing piece, Meyer said (June 24, 1990) that Duranty's articles were "some of the worst reporting to appear in this newspaper." Duranty had bet his career on Stalin's rise and "strove to preserve it by ignoring or excusing Stalin's crimes." He wrote that his later articles denying the famine constituted "some of the worst reporting to appear in this newspaper."
The Pulitzer Board in 1990 reconsidered the prize but decided to preserve it as awarded. Four years earlier, in a review of Robert Conquest's The Harvest of Sorrow (1986), former Moscow bureau reporter Craig Whitney wrote that Duranty effectively ignored the famine until it was almost over.
In 2003, following an international campaign by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association, the Pulitzer Board began a renewed inquiry, and The New York Times hired Mark von Hagen, professor of Russian history at Columbia University, to review Duranty's work as a whole. Von Hagen found Duranty's reports to be unbalanced and uncritical, and that they far too often gave voice to Stalinist propaganda. In comments to the press he stated, "For the sake of The New York Times' honor, they should take the prize away." The Times sent Von Hagen's report to the Pulitzer Board and left it to the Board to take whatever action they considered appropriate. In a letter accompanying the report, The New York Times publisher Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. called Duranty's work "slovenly" and said it "should have been recognized for what it was by his editors and by his Pulitzer judges seven decades ago." Journalists Joseph Alsop and Andrew Stuttaford spoke out against Duranty during the Pulitzer Prize controversy. "Lying was Duranty's stock in trade," commented Alsop.
Ultimately, Sig Gissler, administrator of the Pulitzer Prize board, declined to revoke the award. In a press release of November 21, 2003, he stated that with regard to the 13 articles by Duranty from 1931 submitted for the award "there was not clear and convincing evidence of deliberate deception, the relevant standard in this case."
- O. Henry Awards, First Prize, 1928, for "The Parrot", Redbook, March 1928.
Duranty is portrayed by Peter Sarsgaard in the film Mr. Jones (2019). The film depicts the story of journalist Gareth Jones as he seeks to find the truth about what was happening in Ukraine and then to have that story reported to the world in the face of opposition and denials from Stalin's Kremlin and Duranty.
- The Curious Lottery and Other Tales of Russian Justice. New York: Coward–McCann, 1929
- Red Economics. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932
- Duranty Reports Russia. New York: The Viking Press, 1934
- I Write As I Please. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1935
- Europe—War or Peace? World Affairs Pamphlets No. 7. New York: Foreign Policy Association and Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1935.
- Solomans Cat. Grand Rapids: Mayhew Press, 1937.
- One Life, One Kopeck – A Novel. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1937
- Babies Without Tails, Stories by Walter Duranty. New York: Modern Age Books, 1937
- The Kremlin and the People. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1941
- USSR: The Story of Soviet Russia. New York: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1944
- Stalin & Co.: The Politburo, The Men Who Run Russia. New York: W. Sloane Associates, 1949
- "The Parrot", Redbook, March, 1928.
- ASIA Magazine, Volume XXXV, Number 11; November, 1935.
- ASIA Magazine, Volume XXXVI, Number 2; February, 1936.
Articles submitted for 1932 Pulitzer Prize
Eleven-part series in The New York Times
- "Red Russia of Today Ruled by Stalinism, Not Communism," June 14, 1931,
- "Socialism First Aim in Soviet's Program; Trade Gains Second," June 16, 1931
- "Stalinism Shelves World Revolt Idea; To Win Russia First," June 18, 1931
- "Industrial Success Emboldens Soviet in New World Policy," June 19, 1931
- "Trade Equilibrium is New Soviet Goal," June 20, 1931
- "Soviet Fixes Opinion by Widest Control," June 22, 1931
- "Soviet Censorship Hurts Russia Most," June 23, 1931
- "Stalinism Smashes Foes in Marx's Name," June 24, 1931
- "Red Army is Held No Menace to Peace," June 25, 1931
- "Stalinism Solving Minorities Problem," June 26, 1931
- "Stalinism's Mark is Party Discipline," June 27, 1931
Two articles in The New York Times magazine
- "The Russian Looks at the World," March 29, 1931
- "Stalin's Russia Is An Echo of Iron Ivan's," December 20, 1931
- The Story of the Lafayette Escadrille, told by its Commander, Captain Georges Thenault. Translated by Walter Duranty. Boston: Small, Maynard & Company (1921).
- ↑ Elizabeth A. Brennan and Elizabeth C. Clarage, Who's Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners (Greenwood, 1998, ISBN 978-1573561112), 71.
- ↑ Sally J. Taylor, Stalin's Apologist: Walter Duranty: The New York Times's Man in Moscow (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1990, ISBN ISBN 0195057007), 28–50.
- ↑ Aleister Crowley, Magick Without Tears Ordo Templi Orientis, 1954, 38. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ Taylor, 28-50.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Walter Duranty, "Red Russia of Today Ruled by Stalinism, Not Communism" The New York Times, June 14, 1931. Retrieved December, 13, 2021.
- ↑ Walter Duranty, Duranty Reports Russia (Literary Licensing, LLC, 2011, ISBN 978-1258214883), 238.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Walter Duranty, "Stalinism Smashes Foes in Marx's Name" The New York Times, June 24, 1931. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
- ↑ Jacques Steinberg, "Times Should Lose Pulitzer From 30's, Consultant Says" The New York Times, October 23, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Karl E. Meyer, "The Editorial Notebook; Trenchcoats, Then and Now" The New York Times, June 24, 1990. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ Malcolm Muggeridge, Chronicles of Wasted Time: The Green Stick v. 1 (London, England: Fontana, 1975, ISBN 978-0006339663), 286. The articles appeared on March 25, 27, and 28, 1933.
- ↑ Gordon W. Morrell, Britain confronts the Stalin Revolution: Anglo-Soviet Relations and the Metro-Vickers crisis (Waterloo, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-1554585588).
- ↑ Eugene Lyons, Assignment in Utopia (Transaction Publishers, 1991, ISBN 978-0887388569).
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Robert Conquest, Reflections on a Ravaged Century (New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0393048186).
- ↑ Taylor, 28-50.
- ↑ John Ezard, "Blair's babe: Did love turn Orwell into a government stooge?" The Guardian, June 21, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ Jennifer Burns, Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 0195324870), 34.
- ↑ Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0195316995).
- ↑ Arnold Beichman, Pulitzer-Winning Lies The Washington Examiner, June 12, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ Internal Workings of the Soviet System Revelations from the Russian Archives. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
- ↑ Malcolm Muggeridge, "The Soviet and the Peasantry: an Observer's Notes. II. Hunger in the Ukraine." Manchester Guardian, March 27, 1933, 10.
- ↑ John Gray, "Fellow travelers and useful idiots" The New Statesman, May 8, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ Marco Carynnyk, Lubomyr Y. Luciuk, and Bohdan S. Kordan (eds.), The Foreign Office and the Famine: British Documents on Ukraine and the Great Famine of 1932–1933 (Anchorage, AK: Limestone Press, 1988, ISBN 978-0919642294).
- ↑ Joyce Ingraham, "Zara Witkin" Findagrave.com, November 23, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ Zara Witkin, An American Engineer in Stalin's Russia: The Memoirs of Zara Witkin, 1932–1934 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0520071346).
- ↑ Peter Murphy, The Collective Imagination: The Creative Spirit of Free Societies (Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2012, ISBN 978-1409421351), 25.
- ↑ Pamela Jackson-Malik, "Maki Dobczansky : Worse than Blair: Duranty's sins," The Summer Pennsylvanian, July 31, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2021. It is alleged these included homosexuality and necrophilia.
- ↑ Walter Duranty, USSR: The Story of Soviet Russia (Hassell Street Press, 2021, ISBN 978-1013943904).
- ↑ Burns, 34.
- ↑ Taylor, 28-50.
- ↑ N.Y. Times Urged to Rescind 1932 Pulitzer" USA Today, October 22, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2021. (article authored by The Associated Press, 2005. Mentioned, without decision date, in New York Times Statement About 1932 Pulitzer Prize Awarded to Walter Duranty,". Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ "N.Y. Times urged to rescind 1932 Pulitzer". Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ The Washington Times "National" section, October 22, 2003.
- ↑ Andrew Stuttaford, "Prize Specimen – The campaign to revoke Walter Duranty's Pulitzer" National Review, May 7, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
- ↑ "Statement on Walter Duranty's 1932 Prize" The Pulitzer Prizes, November 20, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
ReferencesISBN links support NWE through referral fees
- Brennan, Elizabeth A., and Elizabeth C. Clarage. Who's Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners. Greenwood, 1998. ISBN 978-1573561112
- Burns, Jennifer. Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN 0195324870
- Carynnyk, Marco, Lubomyr Y. Luciuk, and Bohdan S. Kordan (eds.). The Foreign Office and the Famine: British Documents on Ukraine and the Great Famine of 1932–1933. Anchorage, AK: Limestone Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0919642294
- Conquest, Robert. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0195316995
- Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. New York, NY: Hutchinson, 1986. ISBN 978-0091637507
- Crowl, James W. Angels in Stalin's Paradise: Western Reporters in Soviet Russia, 1917–1937; A Case Study of Louis Fischer and Walter Duranty. Washington, DC: The University Press of America, 1981. ISBN 978-0819121851
- Duranty, Walter. Duranty Reports Russia. Literary Licensing, LLC, 2011. ISBN 978-1258214883
- Duranty, Walter. USSR: The Story of Soviet Russia. Hassell Street Press, 2021. ISBN 978-1013943904
- Luciuk, Lubomyr Y. (ed.). Not Worthy: Walter Duranty's Pulitzer Prize and the New York Times. Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Kashtan Press, 2004. ISBN 978-1896354347
- Lyons, Eugene. Assignment in Utopia. Transaction Publishers, 1991. ISBN 978-0887388569
- Morrell, Gordon W. Britain confronts the Stalin Revolution: Anglo-Soviet Relations and the Metro-Vickers crisis. Waterloo, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1995. ISBN 978-1554585588
- Muggeridge, Malcolm, Winter in Moscow. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1934. ISBN 978-1131091839
- Muggeridge, Malcolm. Chronicles of Wasted Time: The Green Stick v. 1. London, England: Fontana, 1975. ISBN 978-0006339663
- Murphy, Peter. The Collective Imagination: The Creative Spirit of Free Societies. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2012. ISBN 978-1409421351
- Taylor, Sally J. Stalin's Apologist, Walter Duranty: The New York Times's Man in Moscow. New York, NY and Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1990. ISBN 0195057007
- Witkin, Zara. An American Engineer in Stalin's Russia: The Memoirs of Zara Witkin, 1932–1934. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0520071346
All links retrieved May 3, 2023.
Defense of Stalin's purges
Pulitzer Prize articles by Walter Duranty
- "Red Russia of Today Ruled by Stalinism, Not Communism"
- "Socialism First Aim in Soviet's Program; Trade Gains Second"
- "Stalinism Shelves World Revolt Idea; To Win Russia First"
- "Industrial Success Emboldens Soviet in New World Policy"
- "Trade Equilibrium is New Soviet Goal"
- "Soviet Fixes Opinion by Widest Control"
- "Soviet Censorship Hurts Russia Most"
- "Stalinism Smashes Foes in Marx's Name"
- "Red Army is Held No Menace to Peace"
- "Stalinism Solving Minorities Problem"
- "Stalinism's Mark is Party Discipline"
- "The Russian Looks at the World"
- "Stalin's Russia Is An Echo of Iron Ivan's"
The Pulitzer Prize controversy
- The section of articles regarding the campaign to revoke Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize
- The Association of Ukrainians in Great Britain – Duranty Protest Site
- The Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (UCCLA) – W. Duranty Protest
- Pulitzer Prize Board Statement on Walter Duranty's 1932 Prize
- Markian Pelech, "Critique of Sigvard Gissler's Statement on Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize"
- New York Times Statement About 1932 Pulitzer Prize Awarded to Walter Duranty
- Markian Pelech, "The New York Times Admits the Invalidation of Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize"
- "Ukrainians want pro-Stalin writer stripped of Pulitzer", The Guardian, 4 May 2003.
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