George II of Great Britain

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George II
King of Great Britain and Ireland; Elector of Hanover; Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg
Reign June 11, 1727 – October 25, 1760
Coronation October 11, 1727
Predecessor George I
Successor George III
Consort Caroline of Ansbach
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal
Princess Amelia Sophia
Princess Caroline Elizabeth
Prince George William of Wales
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland
Princess Mary, Landgravine of Hesse
Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Full name
George Augustus
German: Georg August
HM The King
HRH The Prince of Wales
HRH The Duke of Cornwall and Cambridge
HSH The Duke of Cambridge
HSH The Hereditary Prince of Hanover
HSH Prince Georg August of Hanover
HSH Duke Georg August of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Royal House House of Hanover
Royal anthem God Save the King
Father George I
Mother Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Born 10 1683(1683-Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",".-10)
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover
Died 25 1760 (aged Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",".)
Flag of England Kensington Palace, London
Buried November 11, 1760
Westminster Abbey, London

George II (George Augustus; 10, November 1683 – October 25, 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from June 11, 1727 until his death.

He was the last British monarch to have been born outside of Great Britain, and was infamous for his numerous conflicts with his father and, subsequently, with his son. He was also the last British monarch to personally lead his armies into battle (at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743). [1]As king, he exercised little control over policy in his early reign although for the first two decades he took a close interest in policy. Increasingly, the government was controlled by Great Britain's first de facto Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole. This was a period during which the governance of Britain was evolving from monarchy to a constitutional monarchy with more power devolving from the monarch to Parliament. The Seven Years' War started during his reign, and did not end until after his death. While it did lead to important territorial gains for the British in North America and Asia, the expensive conflict crippled the royal finances. British attempts to tax the Americans to pay for the war resulted in the American Revolutionary War. Great Britain, however, fared much better in India where the British East India Company emerged as the dominant European power within years of George II's death following victory at Battle of Plassey June 23, 1757, over the French. George II is also remembered for having patronized George Frideric Handel who, though like George a German, composed music that will forever be associated with the pageant of the British court. [2]

Early life

HSH Duke Georg August of Hanover was born at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover (Germany). He was the son of Georg Ludwig, then the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of Celle, also known as Sophia Dorothea, Duchess of Braunschweig; both George I and Sophia Dorothea committed adultery but Sophia's refusal to stop her scandalous affair led to her lover's murder and her banishment. George I was free to divorce her in 1694, and she played no part in the life of her son, George II.

George married Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1705, who had already turned down an offer to marry the heir to the Spanish crown, because it would mean denouncing her Catholic faith. As Queen Caroline, she would give birth to nine children, seven of whom would live till adulthood.

Act of Settlement

Under the Act, the Hereditary Prince became a naturalized English subject in that same year. Anne, who had succeeded to the English throne in 1702, admitted him to the Order of the Garter in 1706. She created him Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton and Baron Tewkesbury on November9 [3] of the same year.

When Anne died on August 1, 1714, George Ludwig (Louis) acceded as George I, and the Duke, automatically became Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay and Earl of Carrick. His father created him Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on September 27, 1714.

Quarrel with the King

The Prince of Wales had an extremely poor relationship with his father. When the Princess of Wales gave birth to Prince George William in 1717, a family quarrel ensued; at the baptism, the Prince of Wales insisted on having the Duke of Newcastle (whom the king detested) as a godfather, whilst the King chose his brother, the Duke of York and Albany. When he publicly vituperated his father, the Prince of Wales was temporarily put under arrest. Afterwards, the King banished his son from St. James's Palace, the King's residence, and excluded him from all public ceremonies.

Political opposition

The Prince of Wales did all in his power to encourage opposition to George I's policies. His London residence, Leicester House, became a meeting place for his father's opponents, including Sir Robert Walpole and Viscount Townshend. In 1720, Walpole encouraged the King and his son to reconcile. In the same year, Walpole made a return to political office, from which he had been excluded since 1717.

In 1721, the economic disaster of the South Sea Bubble allowed Sir Robert to rise to the pinnacle of government. Walpole and his Whig Party were dominant in politics, for George I feared that the Tories did not support the succession laid down in the Act of Settlement. The power of the Whigs was so great that the Tories would not come to hold power for another half-century. Sir Robert essentially controlled British government, but, by joining the King's side, lost the favor of the Prince of Wales.

Early reign

Monarchical Styles of
King George II of Great Britain
Saint Edward's Crown.jpg
Reference style: His Majesty
Spoken style: Your Majesty
Alternative style: Sire

George II succeeded to the throne at the time of his father's death on June 11, 1727, but a battle of wills continued with his son and heir-apparent, Prince Frederick. The King may have planned to exile his son to the British colonies, but, in any event, did not actually do so. George was crowned at Westminster Abbey on October 4. The Hanoverian composer Handel was commissioned to write four new anthems for the coronation; one of which, Zadok the Priest, has been sung at every coronation since.

It was widely believed both that George would dismiss Walpole, who had distressed him by joining his father's government, and that he would be replaced by Sir Spencer Compton; George requested Compton, rather than Walpole, to write his first speech for him. Sir Spencer, however, requested Walpole for aid in the task, leading Queen Caroline, an ardent supporter of Sir Robert, to claim that Compton was incompetent. George did not behave obstinately; instead, he agreed with his wife and retained Walpole as Prime Minister, who continued to slowly gain royal favor, securing a generous civil list of £800,000 for the King.

He also persuaded many Tory politicians to accept the succession laid down in the Act of Settlement as valid. In turn, the King helped Sir Robert to gain a strong parliamentary majority by creating peers sympathetic to the Whigs.

British Royalty
House of Hanover
UK Arms 1714.svg
George II
   Frederick, Prince of Wales
   Anne, Princess of Orange
   Princess Amelia Sophia
   Princess Caroline Elizabeth
   William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland
   Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel
   Louise, Queen of Denmark
   Augusta Charlotte, Duchess of Brunswick
   George III
   Edward Augustus, Duke of York
   Princess Elizabeth Caroline
   William Henry, Duke of Gloucester
   Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland
   Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark
   Princess Sophia of Gloucester
   William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester

Whilst the Queen was still alive, Walpole's position was secure. He was the master of domestic policy, and he still exerted some control over George's foreign policy. Whilst the King was eager for war in Europe, the Prime Minister was more cautious. Thus, in 1729, he encouraged George to sign a peace treaty with Spain.

In 1732, by granting a charter to James Oglethorpe, the King created the Province of Georgia in British North America, which was named after him.

Frederick, Prince of Wales

Family problems

George's relationship with the Prince of Wales worsened during the 1730s. When the Prince of Wales married, an open quarrel broke out; the King banished him and his family from the royal court in 1737.

After banishing his son, George also lost his wife, who died on November 20, 1737. Reputedly, when she asked her husband to remarry, he replied, "Non, j'aurai des maitresses!" (French for "No, I will have mistresses!"). George had already had an illegitimate son, Johann Ludwig, Graf von Wallmoden-Gimborn (April 22, 1736 - October 10, 1811) by his mistress Amalie von Wallmoden, Countess of Yarmouth (1704-1765). The most famous of his mistresses was Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, who was one of Caroline's ladies-of-the-bedchamber.

War and rebellion

Against Walpole's advice, George once again entered into war, the War of Jenkins' Ear, with Spain in 1739. The entire continent of Europe was plunged into war upon the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI in 1740. At dispute was the right of his daughter, Maria Theresa, to succeed to his Austrian dominions. George II's war with Spain quickly became part of the War of the Austrian Succession.

Sir Robert Walpole was powerless to prevent a major European conflict. He also faced the opposition of several politicians, led by John, Baron Carteret, later Earl Granville. Accused of rigging an election, Walpole retired, in 1742, after over 20 years in office. He was replaced by Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, George's original choice for the premiership, who had previously failed to gain office due to the manœuvres of Queen Caroline. Lord Wilmington, however, was a figurehead; actual power was held by Lord Carteret. When Lord Wilmington died in 1743, Henry Pelham took his place.

The pro-war faction was led by Lord Carteret, who claimed that if Maria Theresa failed to succeed to the Austrian Throne, then French power in Europe would increase. George II agreed to send more troops to Europe, ostensibly to support Maria Theresa, but in reality to prevent enemy troops from marching into Hanover. The British army had not fought in a major European war in over 20 years, during which time the government had badly neglected its upkeep. Nevertheless, the King enthusiastically sent his troops to Europe. He personally accompanied them, leading them into the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, thus becoming the last British monarch to lead troops into battle. His armies were controlled by his military-minded son, HRH The Duke of Cumberland. The war was not welcomed by the British public, who felt that the King and Lord Carteret were subordinating British interests to Hanoverian ones.

Half-Crown of George II, 1746. The inscription reads GEORGIUS II DEI GRATIA (George II by the Grace of God). Under the King's head is the word LIMA, signifying that the coin was struck from silver seized from the Spanish treasure fleet off Lima, Peru.

Shrewdly, George II's French opponents encouraged rebellion by the Jacobites during the War of the Austrian Succession. The Jacobites were the supporters of the Roman Catholic James II, who had been deposed in 1689 and replaced not by his Catholic son, but by his Protestant daughter. James II's son, James Francis Edward Stuart, known as the Old Pretender, had attempted two prior rebellions; that of 1715, "the Fifteen," which was after he fled to France; and the rebellion of 1719, "the Nineteen," which was so weak that it was almost farcical. The Old Pretender's son, Charles Edward Stuart, popularly known, both then and since, as Bonnie Prince Charlie, however, led a much stronger rebellion on his father's behalf in 1745.

Bonnie Prince Charlie landed in Scotland in July 1745. Many Scots were loyal to his cause; he defeated British forces in September. He then attempted to enter England, where even Roman Catholics seemed hostile to the invasion. The French monarch, Louis XV, had promised to send twelve thousand soldiers to aid the rebellion, but did not deliver. A British army under the Duke of Cumberland, meanwhile, drove the Jacobites back into Scotland. On April 16, 1746, Bonnie Prince Charlie faced the Duke of Cumberland in the Battle of Culloden, the last battle ever fought on British soil. The ravaged Jacobite troops were routed by the British Government Army. Bonnie Prince Charlie escaped to France, but many of his Scottish supporters were caught and executed. Jacobitism was all but crushed; no further serious attempt was made at restoring the House of Stuart.

After the Forty-Five, the War of the Austrian Succession continued. Peace was made in 1748, with Maria Theresa being recognised as Archduchess of Austria. She subsequently dropped Great Britain as a key ally, deeming it "too unreliable."

Later life

For the remainder of his life, George II did not take any active interest in politics or war. During his last years, the foundation of the Industrial Revolution was laid as the population rose rapidly. British dominance in India increased with the victories of Robert Clive at the Battle of Arcot and the Battle of Plassey.

When George II's son and heir, Frederick, the Prince of Wales, died suddenly in 1751, the grandson, Prince George immediately succeeded him as Duke of Edinburgh. The new Duke was soon created Prince of Wales in recognition of his status as heir-apparent. However, his mother, Princess Augusta, the Dowager Princess of Wales, mistrusted the aging King, and kept the two apart.

In 1752, Great Britain reformed its calendar. It had previously operated under the Julian Calendar, but during 1752 adopted the Gregorian Calendar. The calendar change required omitting eleven days; September 2 was followed by September 14. Furthermore, January 1 became the official beginning of the New Year, instead of March 25. The former date had been commonly regarded as the beginning of the New Year for a long time, but the latter was retained in formal usage. To ensure consistency of financial record keeping, and to prevent annual payments falling due before they would have under the Julian Calendar, the fiscal year was not shortened, with the result that in the United Kingdom each tax year has since begun on April 6.

In 1754, King George issued the charter for King's College in New York City, which would later become Columbia University after the American Revolution. George's Prime Minister, Henry Pelham died in 1754, to be succeeded by his brother, the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and, thereafter, by the Duke of Devonshire in 1756. Another notable minister was William Pitt, the Elder. Pitt was appointed a Secretary of State in Lord Devonshire's administration, but was disliked by the King, for he had previously opposed involvement in the War of the Austrian Succession. The hostility was marked by George's criticism of Pitt's speeches in early 1757. In April of the same year, George dismissed Pitt, but later recalled him. At the same time, Lord Newcastle returned as Prime Minister.

As Secretary of State for the Southern Department, Pitt the Elder guided policy relating to the Seven Years' War, which may be viewed as a continuation of the War of the Austrian Succession. Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria, made an alliance with her nation's former enemies, Russia and France, and became the enemy of Great Britain and Hanover. George II feared that this new alliance would invade Hanover; thus, he aligned himself with Prussia. Great Britain, Hanover and Prussia were thus pitted against many major European powers, including Austria, Russia, France, Sweden and Saxony. The war spread from Europe to North America (where the conflict is also known as the French and Indian War) and to India, where it was termed the Second Carnatic War.

Statue of George II in Golden Square, Soho, London. By John Nost the elder, this was erected in 1753, but had actually been made 33 years previously for the Duke of Chandos. It is badly corroded (it has been suggested that this is due to over-zealous cleaning) and the right hand is damaged. The only other public statue of this king in London is at the Royal Naval College in Greenwich.

The King died unceremoniously of aortic dissection while seated on the lavatory on October 25, 1760. He was subsequently buried in Westminster Abbey. He was succeeded by his grandson, who became George III.

Titles, styles, honors and arms


  • 10 November 1683–October 1692: His Serene Highness Duke Georg August of Brunswick-Lüneburg
  • October 1692–23 January 1698: His Serene Highness Prince Georg August of Hanover
  • 23 January 1698–11 June 1727: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Hanover
  • 9 November 1706–1 August 1714: His Serene Highness The Duke of Cambridge
  • 1 August–27 September 1714: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall and Cambridge
  • 27 September 1714–11 June 1727: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
  • 11 June 1727–25 October 1760: His Majesty The King


In Great Britain, George II used the official style "George the Second, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." In some cases (especially in treaties), the formula "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire" was added before "etc."

His full style immediately prior to his succession was His Royal Highness The Prince George Augustus, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Duke of Cambridge, Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Carrick, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Renfrew, Baron of Tewkesbury, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, Hereditary Prince of Hanover, Knight of the Garter


George II's arms were: Quarterly, I Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westfalen), overall an escutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or (for the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire).


16. William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
8. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
17. Dorothea of Denmark
4. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover
18. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
9. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
19. Magdalena of Brandenburg
2. George I of Great Britain
20. Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
10. Frederick V, Elector Palatine
21. Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau
5. Sophia, Princess Palatine of the Rhine
22. James I of England
11. Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland
23. Anne of Denmark
1. George II of Great Britain
24. William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (= 16)
12. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (= 8)
25. Dorothea of Denmark (= 17)
6. George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
26. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (= 18)
13. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt (= 9)
27. Magdalena of Brandenburg (= 19)
3. Sophia Dorothea of Celle
28. Alexander d'Esnier, Seigneur d'Olbreuse
14. Alexander II d'Esnier, Marquis de Desmiers
29. Marie Baudouin
7. Eleonore d'Esnier, Countess of Williamsburg
30. Joachim Poussard, Seigneur de Bas Vandre
15. Jacquette Poussard de Vendre
31. Susan Gaillard


Caroline's nine pregnancies, between 1707 and 1724, resulted in eight live births:

Name Birth Death Notes
Frederick, Prince of Wales 1 February 1707 31 March 1751 married, 1736, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha; had issue
Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange 2 November 1709 12 January 1759 married, 1734, William IV, Prince of Orange; had issue
Princess Amelia Sophia 10 July 1711 31 October 1786  
Princess Caroline Elizabeth 21 June 1713 28 December 1757  
Prince George William of Wales 13 November 1717 17 February 1718 died in infancy
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland 26 April 1721 31 October 1765  
Princess Mary, Landgravine of Hesse 5 March 1723 14 January 1772 married, 1740, Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse; had issue
Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway 18 December 1724 19 December 1751 married, 1743, Frederick V of Denmark; had issue


  • The Seven Years' War continued after George II's death. It concluded during the early reign of George III, and led to important territorial gains for the British in North America and Asia. Nevertheless, the expensive conflict crippled the royal finances. British attempts to tax the Americans would lead to the American Revolution. Great Britain, however, fared much better in India. Company rule (that is, rule by the British East India Company) was secured within years of George II's death.
  • He served as the ninth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin between 1715 and 1718.
  • In 1734 George II founded the Georg August University of Göttingen.
  • George II's disinterest in British government had contributed to the decline of the royal power. His successor, George III, sought to reverse the trend, but failed; thus, the power of ministers became well-established.
  • The patriotic song "God Save the King" was developed during George II's reign. It is thought that the first public performance of the song—sometimes cited as an adaptation of a piece by the French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully—occurred during the Forty-Five. In reference to the Jacobite Rebellion, a fourth verse (which included the words "Rebellious Scots to crush") was added, though it is now rarely sung. "God Save the King" (or "God Save the Queen") is now the unofficial national anthem of the United Kingdom, one of the two national anthems of New Zealand (along with "God Defend New Zealand"), and the royal anthem of Australia and Canada.


  1. "Funeral of George II," The Correspondence of Horace Walpole, edited by W. S. Lewis (Oxford University Press) Funeral of George II Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  2. Such as his music for the royal fireworks (1717). Handel's Messiah (1741) is one of the most popular pieces of choral music in the English language.
  3. "Holders of Peerage Titles" of Peerage Titles Retrieved November 22, 2007.

ISBN links support NWE through referral fees

  • BBC. "George II" "George II," 2004. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  • Chenevix Trench, Charles. George II. London: Allen Lane, 1973. ISBN 978-0713904819
  • "George II." Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press, 1911.
  • Nichols, Frank. Observations concerning the body of His Late Majesty. London: Universal Magazine, 1761.
  • Van der Kiste, John. King George II and Queen Caroline. Stroud, Gloucester: Sutton Pub., 1997. ISBN 978-0750913218
  • Walpole, Horace, and John Brooke. Memoirs of King George II. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985 (original 1751- 1754). ISBN 978-0300031973

House of Hanover
Cadet Branch of the House of Welf
Born: 10 November 1683; Died: 25 October 1760

Preceded by:
George I
King of Great Britain
King of Ireland

11 June 1727 – 25 October 1760
Succeeded by: George III
Elector of Hanover
11 June 1727 – 25 October 1760
British royalty
Preceded by:
George, Elector of Hanover
later became King George I
Heir to the Thrones
as heir apparent
1714 – 1727
Succeeded by: Frederick, Prince of Wales
Peerage of England

New Title Duke of Cambridge
3rd creation
1706 – 1727
Merged in the crown
Peerage of Great Britain

Preceded by:
James Stuart
in English peerage
Prince of Wales
1714 – 1727
Succeeded by: The Prince Frederick


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