|Born||February 18 1931
Ohio, United States
|Genres||African American literature|
|Notable work(s)||Beloved, Song of Solomon|
|Notable award(s)||Nobel Prize in Literature
Toni Morrison (born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18, 1931), is a Nobel Prize-winning American author, editor, and professor. Morrison helped promote Black literature and authors when she worked as an editor for Random House in the 1960s and 1970s, where she edited books by authors including Toni Cade Bambara and Gayl Jones. Morrison herself would later emerge as one of the most important African American writers of the twentieth century.
Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed black characters; among the best known are her novels The Bluest Eye, published in 1970, Song of Solomon, and Beloved, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988. This story describes a slave who found freedom but killed her infant daughter to save her from a life of slavery. Another important novel is Song of Solomon, a tale about materialism and brotherhood.
Morrison is the first African American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. In 2001 she was named one of the "30 Most Powerful Women in America" by Ladies' Home Journal.
Early life and career
Toni Morrison was born in Lorain, Ohio, the second of four children in a working-class family. As a child, Morrison read constantly; among her favorite authors were Jane Austen and Leo Tolstoy. Morrison's father, George Wofford, a welder by trade, told her numerous folktales of the Black community (a method of storytelling that would later work its way into Morrison's writings).
In 1949 Morrison entered Howard University to study English. While there she began going by the nickname of "Toni," which derives from her middle name, Anthony. Morrison received a B.A. in English from Howard University in 1953, then earned a Master of Arts degree, also in English, from Cornell University in 1955, for which she wrote a thesis on suicide in the works of William Faulkner and Virginia Woolf. After graduation, Morrison became an English instructor at Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas (from 1955-1957) then returned to Howard to teach English. She became a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.
In 1958 she married Harold Morrison. They had two children, Harold and Slade, but divorced in 1964. After the divorce she moved to Syracuse, New York, where she worked as a textbook editor. Eighteen months later she went to work as an editor at the New York City headquarters of Random House.
As an editor, Morrison played an important role in bringing African American literature into the mainstream. She edited books by such Black authors as Toni Cade Bambara, Angela Davis and Gayl Jones.
Morrison began writing fiction as part of an informal group of poets and writers at Howard University who met to discuss their work. She went to one meeting with a short story about a black girl who longed to have blue eyes. The story later evolved into her first novel, The Bluest Eye (1970), which she wrote while raising two children and teaching at Howard.In 2000 it was chosen as a selection for Oprah's Book Club.
In 1973 her novel Sula was nominated for the National Book Award. Her third novel, Song of Solomon (1977), brought her national attention. The book was a main selection of the Book-of-the-Month Club, the first novel by a Black writer to be so chosen since Richard Wright's Native Son in 1940. It won the National Book Critics Circle Award.
Her novel, Beloved, won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize. The novel is loosely based on the life and legal case of the slave Margaret Garner, about whom Morrison later wrote in the opera Margaret Garner (2005). The Book's Epigraph says: "Sixty Million and more." Morrison is referring to the estimated number of slaves who died in the slave trade. More specifically, she is referring to the Middle Passage.
A survey of eminent authors and critics conducted by The New York Times found Beloved the best work of American fiction of the past 25 years; it garnered 15 of 125 votes, finishing ahead of Don DeLillo's Underworld (11 votes), Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian (8) and John Updike's Rabbit series (8). The results appeared in The New York Times Book Review on May 21, 2006.
When the novel failed to win the National Book Award as well as the National Book Critics Circle Award, a number of writers protested the omission. Beloved was adapted into the 1998 film of the same name starring Oprah Winfrey and Danny Glover. Morrison later used Margaret Garner's life story again in an opera, Margaret Garner, with music by Richard Danielpour.
In 1993 Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the first Black woman to win the award. Her citation reads: Toni Morrison, "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality." Shortly afterwards, a fire destroyed her Rockland County, New York home.
Although her novels typically concentrate on black women, Morrison does not identify her works as feminist. She has stated that she thinks "it's off-putting to some readers, who may feel that I'm involved in writing some kind of feminist tract. I don't subscribe to patriarchy, and I don't think it should be substituted with matriarchy. I think it's a question of equitable access, and opening doors to all sorts of things."
In addition to her novels, Morrison has also co-written books for children with her youngest son, Slade Morrison, who works as a painter and musician.
Morrison taught English at two branches of the State University of New York. In 1984 she was appointed to an Albert Schweitzer chair at the University at Albany, The State University of New York. From 1989 until her retirement in 2006, Morrison held the Robert F. Goheen Chair in the Humanities at Princeton University.
Though based in the Creative Writing Program, Morrison did not regularly offer writing workshops to students after the late 1990s, a fact that earned her some criticism. Rather, she has conceived and developed the prestigious Princeton Atelier, a program that brings together talented students with critically acclaimed, world-famous artists. Together the students and the artists produce works of art that are presented to the public after a semester of collaboration. In her position at Princeton, Morrison used her insights to encourage not merely new and emerging writers, but artists working to develop new forms of art through interdisciplinary play and cooperation.
In November 2006, Morrison visited the Louvre Museum in Paris as the second in its Grand Invité program to guest-curate a month-long series of events across the arts on the theme of "The Foreigner's Home."
She currently holds a place on the editorial board of The Nation magazine. Despite her literary accomplishments, she became more widely known for her comments on President Bill Clinton during his impeachment.
Comments about President Clinton
Morrison caused a stir when she called Bill Clinton "the first Black President;" saying "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald's-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas." This opinion was both adopted by Clinton supporters like the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) and ridiculed by critics. It should be noted that, in the context of the 2008 Democratic Primary campaign, during which Clinton made some remarks that were construed as unsympathetic to African-Americans, Morrison revisited her statement. Morrison stated to Salon magazine: "People misunderstood that phrase. I was deploring the way in which President Clinton was being treated, vis-à-vis the sex scandal that was surrounding him. I said he was being treated like a black on the street, already guilty, already a perp. I have no idea what his real instincts are, in terms of race." In the 2008 Democratic primary, Morrison endorsed Senator Barack Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton.
- American Literature
- African American literature
- The Bluest Eye (1970 ISBN 0452287065)
- Sula (1974 ISBN 1400033438)
- Song of Solomon (1977 ISBN 140003342X)
- Tar Baby (1981 ISBN 1400033446)
- Beloved (1987 ISBN 1400033411)
- Jazz (1992 ISBN 1400076218)
- Paradise (1999 ISBN 0679433740)
- Love (2003 ISBN 0375409440)
- A Mercy (2008 ISBN 0307264238)
Children's literature (with Slade Morrison)
- The Big Box (2002)
- The Book of Mean People (2002)
- "Recitatif" (1983)
- Dreaming Emmett (performed 1986)
- Margaret Garner (first performed May 2005)
- The Black Book (1974)
- Birth of a Nation'hood (co-editor) (1997)
- Playing in the Dark (1992)
- Remember:The Journey to School Integration (April 2004)
- "This Amazing, Troubling Book" (An analysis of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain)
Awards and Nominations
- Nobel Prize for Literature 1993
- Pulitzer Prize for Fiction 1988 for "Beloved"
- Anisfield-Wolf Book Award 1988 for "Beloved"
- Grammy Awards 2008 Best Spoken Word Album for Children - "Who's Got Game? The Ant or the Grasshopper? The Lion or the Mouse? Poppy or the Snake?"
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American novelist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 18, 1931|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Lorain, Ohio|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|
All links Retrieved July 7, 2008.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Claudia Dreifus, "CHLOE WOFFORD Talks about TONI MORRISON." The New York Times, September 11, 1994. . accessdate 2007-06-11
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Susan Larson. "Awaiting Toni Morrison." The Times-Picayune, April 11, 2007. . accessdate 2007-06-11
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "Toni Morrison: Words Of Love" CBS News, April 4, 2004. . accessdate 2007-06-11
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 William Grimes, "Toni Morrison Is '93 Winner Of Nobel Prize in Literature" The New York Times, October 8, 1993 . accessdate 2007-06-11
- ↑ "The Bluest Eye" at Oprah's Book Club official page.oprah. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- ↑ A. O. Scott, Sunday book review.In Search of the Best - New York Times
- ↑ What Is the Best Work of American Fiction of the Last 25 Years?, The New York Times May 21, 2006 Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- ↑ Beloved - ALL-TIME 100 Novels - TIME. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- ↑ Louis Menand. "All That Glitters - Literature's global economy" The New Yorker, December 26, 2005 . accessdate 2007-06-11
- ↑ "New York Home of Toni Morrison Burns." The New York Times, December 26, 1993. . accessdate 2007-06-11
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Zia Jaffrey, "The Salon Interview with Toni Morrison" February 2, 1998. . Salon.com. accessdate 2007-06-11
- ↑ "Clinton as the first black president," The New Yorker, October 1998, accessed February 16, 2007.
- ↑ "Congressional Black Caucus," CNSNews.com., October 2001.
- ↑ Andrea Sachs, "10 Questions for Toni Morrison", TIME, May 7, 2008.
- ↑ Elizabeth Alexander, "Our first black president?, It's worth remembering the context of Toni Morrison's famous phrase about Bill Clinton so we can retire it, now that Barack Obama is a contender.", Salon.com. January 28, 2008.
- Bloom, Harold, Toni Morrison. Chelsea House, 2000. ISBN 9780791052587
- McKay, Kellie. Y, Critical Essays on Toni Morrison. G.K. Hall, 1988. ISBN 9780816188840
- Samuels, Wilfred D, and Clenora Hudson-Weeks. Toni Morrison. Twayne Publishers, 1990. ISBN 9780805776010
All links Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Literary Encyclopedia biography
- Voices from the Gaps biography
- The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993
- 1987 audio interview by Don Swaim of CBS Radio, 31 min 2 s, RealAudio at Wired for Books.org
- Toni Morrison biography and video interview excerpts by The National Visionary Leadership Project
1976: Bellow | 1977: Aleixandre | 1978: Singer | 1979: Elytis | 1980: Miłosz | 1981: Canetti | 1982: García Márquez | 1983: Golding | 1984: Seifert | 1985: Simon | 1986: Soyinka | 1987: Brodsky | 1988: Mahfouz | 1989: Cela | 1990: Paz | 1991: Gordimer | 1992: Walcott | 1993: Morrison | 1994: Oe | 1995: Heaney | 1996: Szymborska | 1997: Fo | 1998: Saramago | 1999: Grass | 2000: Gao
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