Angela Merkel

From New World Encyclopedia

Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel

Merkel in 2019

Chancellor of Germany
In office
November 22, 2005 – December 8, 2021
  • Horst Köhler
  • Christian Wulff
  • Joachim Gauck
  • Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Preceded by Gerhard Schröder
Succeeded by Olaf Scholz

Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
In office
April 10, 2000 – December 7, 2018
Preceded by Wolfgang Schäuble
Succeeded by Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer

Leader of the Opposition
In office
September 22, 2002 – November 22, 2005
Preceded by Friedrich Merz
Succeeded by Wolfgang Gerhardt

Leader of the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag
In office
September 22, 2002 – November 21, 2005
Preceded by Friedrich Merz
Succeeded by Volker Kauder

Member of the Bundestag
for Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
In office
20 December 1990 – 26 October 2021
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Anna Kassautzki

Born July 17 1954 (1954-07-17) (age 69)
Hamburg, West Germany
Political party Christian Democratic Union (1990–present)
Spouse Ulrich Merkel
(m. 1977; div. 1982)
Joachim Sauer
(m. 1998)​
Residence Am Kupfergraben, Berlin
Alma mater
  • Leipzig University (BS)
  • German Academy of Sciences at Berlin (PhD)[1]
Signature Angela Merkel's signature

Angela Dorothea Merkel (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, July 17, 1954, in Hamburg, West Germany), is a German politician and scientist who served as the chancellor of Germany from 2005 to 2021, the first woman to hold this office. She is also the first German leader who grew up in the communist East. In 2007, Merkel was also President of the European Council and chair of the G8. She played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. In domestic policy, health care reform and problems concerning future energy development were the major issues of her tenure.

Merkel was considered by Forbes Magazine to be the "most powerful woman in the world at the present time." In 2007 she became the second woman to chair the G8 after Margaret Thatcher. In 2008 Merkel received the Charlemagne Prize "for her work to reform the European Union": the prize was presented by Nicolas Sarkozy.

Before entering politics in 1989 she earned a doctorate in quantum chemistry and worked as a research scientist. She published articles as author and co-author in scientific journals. She was Minister for Women and Youth in Helmut Kohl's 3rd cabinet then Minister for the Environment and Reactor Safety from 1994. As the first female leader of the world's third largest economic power, Merkel secured her place in posterity.

Angela Merkal

Early life

Angela Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in Hamburg, the daughter of Horst Kasner (b. August 6, 1926 in Berlin-Pankow), a Lutheran pastor and his wife, Herlind (b. July 8, 1928 in Elbing as Herlind Jentzsch), a teacher of English and Latin. Her mother was a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Her grandparents on her mother's side lived in Elbing in East Prussia; one of them had Polish origin. She has a brother, Marcus (born July 7, 1957), and a sister, Irene (b. August 19, 1964).

Merkel's father studied Theology in Heidelberg and, afterwards, in Hamburg. In 1954 her father received a pastorship at the church in Quitzow near Perleberg in Brandenburg, and the family moved to Templin. Thus Merkel grew up in the countryside 80 km (50 miles) north of Berlin, in the socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR). Gerd Langguth, a former senior member of Merkel's Christian Democratic Union has said that the family's ability to travel freely from East to West Germany, as well as their possession of two automobiles, leads to the conclusion that Merkel's father had a 'sympathetic' relationship with the communist regime, since such freedom and perquisites for a Christian pastor and his family would have been otherwise impossible in East Germany.[2]

Like most pupils, Merkel was a member of the official, socialist-led youth movement Free German Youth (FDJ). Later she became a member of the district board and secretary for "Agitprop" (agitation and propaganda) at the Academy of Sciences in that organization. However, she did not take part in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, which was common in East Germany, and was confirmed instead.

Merkel was educated in Templin and at the University of Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. Angela Merkel speaks Russian fluently, and even earned a statewide prize for her proficiency. After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) based on a doctoral thesis on quantum chemistry[3] she worked in research.

In 1977, Angela Kasner married physics student Ulrich Merkel. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982. Her second husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer. He remains out of the spotlight. She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons. [4]

In 1989, Merkel became involved in the growing democracy movement after the fall of the Berlin Wall, joining the new party Democratic Awakening. Following the first (and only) democratic election of the East German state, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière.[5]

Member of Bundestag

At the first post-reunification general election in December 1990, she was elected to the Bundestag from a constituency which includes the districts of Nordvorpommern and Rügen, as well as the city of Stralsund. This has remained her electoral district until today. Her party merged with the west German CDU and she became Minister for Women and Youth in Helmut Kohl's 3rd cabinet. In 1994, she was made Minister for the Environment and Reactor Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform on which to build her political career. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest cabinet minister, she was referred to by Kohl as "das Mädchen" ("the girl").

Leader of the Opposition

When the Kohl government was defeated in the 1998 general election, Merkel was named Secretary-General of the CDU. She was the first women and East German to serve in this capacity of with either of the two main parties.[6] In this position, Merkel oversaw a string of Christian Democrat election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999 alone, breaking the SPD-Green coalition's hold on the Bundesrat, the legislative body representing the states. Following a party financing scandal, which compromised many leading figures of the CDU (most notably Kohl himself, who refused to reveal the donor of DM 2,000,000 because he had given his word of honor and the then party chairman Wolfgang Schäuble, Kohl's hand-picked successor, who wasn't cooperative either), Merkel criticized her former mentor, Kohl, and advocated a fresh start for the party without him. She was elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female chair of her party, on 10 April 2000. Her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been chosen to lead; Merkel is a Protestant, originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative party with deep Catholic roots, and has its strongholds in western and southern Germany.

Following Merkel's election as CDU leader, she enjoyed considerable popularity among the German population and was favored by many Germans to become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's challenger in the 2002 election. However, she did not receive enough support in her own party and particularly its sister party (the Bavarian Christian Social Union, or CSU), and was subsequently out-maneuvered politically by CSU leader Edmund Stoiber, who had had the privilege of challenging Schröder but squandered a large lead in the opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin. After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU chairwoman, Merkel became leader of the conservative opposition in the lower house of the German parliament, the Bundestag. Her rival, Friedrich Merz, who had held the post of parliamentary leader prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel.

Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda concerning Germany's economic and social system and was considered to be more pro-market (and pro-deregulation) than her own party (the CDU); she advocated changes to German labor law, specifically, removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week, arguing that existing laws made the country less competitive because companies cannot easily control labor costs at times when business is slow.

Merkel argued for Germany's nuclear power to be phased out less quickly than the Schröder administration had planned.

Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favor of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. This led some critics to characterize her as an American lackey. She criticized the government's support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favored a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she was seen as being in unison with many Germans in rejecting Turkish membership of the European Union.

Chancellor of Germany

On November 22, 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany, a position she held for four terms until December 8, 2021.

First CDU–SPD grand coalition, 2005–2009

Merkel in 2007

On November 22, 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on November 14, 2005.[7] Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on November 22, 2005, although 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.[8]

Reports at the time indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differed from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. The coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions, and the top rate of income tax.[9]

When announcing the coalition agreement, Merkel stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment, and that it was this issue on which her government would be judged.[10]

CDU–FDP coalition, 2009–2013

Her party was re-elected in 2009 with an increased number of seats, and could form a governing coalition with the FDP. This term was overshadowed by the European debt crisis. Conscription in Germany was abolished and the Bundeswehr became a volunteer military. Unemployment sank below the mark of 3 million unemployed people.

In the election of September 2013, Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German history, achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority in the Bundestag since 1957.[11]

Second CDU–SPD grand coalition 2013–2017

However, CDU/CSU's preferred coalition partner, the FDP, failed to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, being below the minimum of 5 percent of votes required to enter parliament. An agreement was reached with the SDP to join the coalition instead.[12]

Merkel at the signing of the coalition agreement for the 18th election period of the Bundestag, December 2013

The third Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on December 17, 2013.

Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party.[13] However, she scored well on her handling of the euro crisis. Merkel's approval rating dropped again in October 2015, during the European migrant crisis.

In the 2017 federal election, Merkel led her party to victory for the fourth time. Both CDU/CSU and SPD received a significantly lower proportion of the vote than they did in 2013, and attempted to form a coalition with the FDP and Greens.[14] The collapse of these talks led to stalemate. The German President, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, subsequently appealed successfully to the SPD to change their hard stance and to agree to a third grand coalition with the CDU/CSU.

Third CDU–SPD grand coalition, 2018–2021

The Fourth Merkel cabinet was sworn in on March 14, 2018. The negotiations that led to a Grand Coalition agreement with the Social Democrats (SPD) were the longest in German post-war history, lasting almost six months.

In October 2018, Merkel announced that she had decided not to run for re-election in the 2021 federal election.

In September 2021, she said that "after 16 years one does not automatically ... return to the chancellery, that was clear to everyone in the CDU and CSU," describing the close opinion polls about the upcoming election. The remarks came as the Social Democrats had overtaken her conservatives in recent polls.[15]

On September 26, 2021, elections proved inconclusive, although the SPD won the most votes. This necessitated long negotiations among the various parties to form a government. On November 23, 2021, a new coalition was announced, with Olaf Scholz nominated to succeed Merkel. Merkel continued to serve as chancellor in a caretaker capacity until December 8, 2021, when Scholz was sworn in.[16]

Political positions

Domestic policy

Immigration, refugees and migration

In October 2010, Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed," the so-called "multikulti" concept - where people would "live side-by-side" happily - did not work, and immigrants needed to do more to integrate - including learning German.ref>Merkel says German multicultural society has failed BBC News, October 17, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2022. </ref>

Merkel favored a "mandatory solidarity mechanism" for relocation of asylum-seekers from Italy and Greece to other EU member states as part of the long-term solution to Europe's migrant crisis.[17]

2015 European migrant crisis

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez and Merkel in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, 2018

In late August 2015, during the height of the European migrant crisis, Merkel's government suspended European provisions, which stipulated that asylum seekers must seek asylum in the first EU country they arrive. Instead Merkel announced that Germany would also process asylum applications from Syrian refugees if they had come to Germany through other EU countries.[18] That year, nearly 1.1 million asylum seekers entered Germany.

Merkel insisted that Germany had the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there was no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany could take.[19]

COVID-19 pandemic

On 6 April 2020, Merkel stated: "In my view... the European Union is facing the biggest test since its foundation and member states must show greater solidarity so that the bloc can emerge stronger from the economic crisis unleashed by the pandemic."[20] Merkel won international plaudits for her handling of the pandemic in Germany.[21]

Foreign policy

Merkel's foreign policy focused on strengthening European cooperation and international trade agreements. Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor.

In 2015, with the absence of Stephen Harper, Merkel became the only leader to have attended every G20 meeting since the first in 2008, having been present at a record fifteen summits. She hosted the twelfth meeting at the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit.[22]

United States

One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic relations. She signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House.

Merkel enjoyed good relations with US presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama. Obama described her in 2016 as his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president.[23]

Upon the election of Donald Trump Merkel said that "Germany and America are tied by values of democracy, freedom and respect for the law and human dignity, independent of origin, skin colour, religion, gender, sexual orientation or political views. I offer the next president of the United States, Donald Trump, close cooperation on the basis of these values."[24]

Following the G7 Summit in Italy and the NATO Summit in Brussels, Merkel stated that the US was no longer the reliable partner Europe and Germany had depended on in the past.[25] At an electoral rally in Munich, she said that "We have to know that we must fight for our future on our own, for our destiny as Europeans."[26]


In September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.[27]

In recognition of the importance of China to the German economy, by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to China since assuming office in 2005. The same year, in March, China's President Xi Jinping visited Germany.[28]


Merkel with Russian president Vladimir Putin in Sochi, May 2017

In 2006, Merkel expressed concern about overreliance on Russian energy, but she received little support from others in Berlin.[29]

In June 2017, Merkel criticized the draft of new US sanctions against Russia that target EU–Russia energy projects, including Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline.[30]

Social expenditure

At the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2013, she said that Europe had only 7% of the global population and produced only 25% of the global GDP, but that it accounted for almost 50% of global social expenditure. She went on to say that Europe could only maintain its prosperity by being innovative and measuring itself against the best. Since then, this comparison has become a central element in major speeches.[31] The international financial press has widely commented on her thesis, with The Economist saying:

If Mrs Merkel's vision is pragmatic, so too is her plan for implementing it. It can be boiled down to three statistics, a few charts and some facts on an A4 sheet of paper. The three figures are 7%, 25% and 50%. Mrs Merkel never tires of saying that Europe has 7% of the world's population, 25% of its GDP and 50% of its social spending. If the region is to prosper in competition with emerging countries, it cannot continue to be so generous. ... She produces graphs of unit labour costs ... at EU meetings in much the same way that the late Margaret Thatcher used to pull passages from Friedrich Hayek's Road to Serfdom from her handbag.<refThe Merkel plan The Economist, June 15, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2022.

The Financial Times commented: "Although Ms Merkel stopped short of suggesting that a ceiling on social spending might be one yardstick for measuring competitiveness, she hinted as much in the light of soaring social spending in the face of an ageing population.[32]

International status

Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko, Merkel, and US vice-president Joe Biden, February 7, 2015

Merkel was widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor. Merkel was twice been named the world's second most powerful person following Vladimir Putin by Forbes magazine, the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman.[33] In December 2015, Merkel was named as Time magazine's Person of the Year, with the magazine's cover declaring her to be the "Chancellor of the Free World."[34] In 2018, Merkel was named the most powerful woman in the world for a record fourteenth time by Forbes.[35]


The decisions of Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2015 on migration policies have led to much discussion and commotion, in the whole Western world

Merkel was criticized for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover[36] to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard, who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy.[37] Others praised Mheerkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech.

The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"), which was frequently used by Angela Merkel to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis, was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The wording was criticised as undemocratic, as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable.[38]

Protestors rally against the NSA's mass surveillance, Berlin, June 2013

In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the National Security Agency, and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades."[39] During a visit of U.S. President Barack Obama in Berlin, Merkel said, in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is uncharted territory for us all." This statement led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.[40]

Her statement "Islam is part of Germany" during a state visit of the Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu in January 2015 induced criticism within her party. The parliamentary group leader Volker Kauder said that Islam is not part of Germany and that Muslims should deliberate on the question why so many violent people refer to the Quran.[41]

Merkel's policy of allowing in hundreds of thousands of migrants from the Middle East was strongly criticized.[42] She insisted that Germany had the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there was no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take.[19]

Merkel faced criticism for failing to take a tough line on the People's Republic of China.[43] This criticism intensified with the Covid-19 pandemic and the reduction of Hong Kong’s freedoms, as Merkel continued the path of economic cooperation: "Unlike certain of her European counterparts, her China diplomacy has focused on non-interference in Beijing’s internal affairs. As such, Merkel was reportedly furious when her Foreign Minister Heiko Maas received Hong Kong dissident Joshua Wong in Berlin in September [2019], a move that Beijing publicly protested."[44]


As a female politician from a center right party, and a scientist, Merkel was compared by many in the English language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Some referred to her as "Iron Lady," "Iron Girl," and even "The Iron Frau" (both alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady"—Thatcher had an undergraduate degree in chemistry). It could be argued that for a country that describes itself as the "fatherland" to elect a woman head of government was a sharper break from tradition than was involved for the British, for example, when they elected Margaret Thatcher. A woman was monarch when Thatcher was elected and at earlier points in history Queens had also reigned over the island nation. Germany had not had a female monarch. Political commentators debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar.[45]

In addition to being the first female German chancellor and the youngest German chancellor after the War, Merkel was also the first from East Germany (although born in Hamburg), the first born after World War II, and the first with a background in natural sciences. She studied physics; her predecessors law, business, and history.


In 2007 Angela Merkel was awarded the honorary doctorate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[46] She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) for 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.[47] In January 2008 she was awarded the Bundesverdienstkreuz (Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany). She was also awarded the honorary doctorate from Leipzig University in June 2008 and University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008.


When women such as Merkel step into political prominence they "make all women visible as citizens, with interests that are sometimes distinctive and sometimes overlapping with those of men."[48] Although Merkel was criticized for not campaigning on women's issues, 36 percent of the ministers under Angela Merkel were women" although this is a little "shy of an all-time high of 46 percent women under the previous" government.[49] This suggests that Merkel may have self-consciously regarded strengthening the role of women as a responsibility, even though she responded to criticism that she did not champion women's issues during her election campaigning by saying that "A chancellor has German interests."[50] while Merkel may be "not in any meaningful sense a feminist" she was "not allergic to contact with feminism or incapable of trusting and promoting other women around her." She was well aware of the strategies men use to demean and exclude women.[48]

On unemployment and the economy, the two issues on which Merkel said that her administration would be judged, she made progress at least until the global meltdown of 2008. Forbes cited her as having improved the economy, cut unemployment and as having pushed "through a later retirement age."[51]

Merkel brought three distinctive commitments to her role as Chancellor. First, her commitment to what she described as the "idea" of Europe can be summed up as freedom, peace, and unity. She may have German interests but her vision for Germany was firmly rooted within membership of the European Union: "We, the citizens of Europe, have united for the better. For we know, Europe is our common future." Europe's greatest strength, said Merkel, is "the power of freedom, freedom in all its manifestations." [52]

On human rights, she declared "Human rights are indivisible! "[52] Speaking in Israel, she extended her vision to "a world of freedom, peace and cooperation."[53]

Second, she was committed to sustainable energy: "Europe must also lead the way in renewable energies, energy efficiency and protection of our climate."[52] As president of the G8, she a compromise agreement to halve greenhouse gases by 2050, which she claimed was "a clear commitment to continue the UN climate process."[54]

Third, her desire for rapprochement between Europe and Russia alongside the existing trans-Atlantic Alliance; "We need both a strategic partnership with Russia and the transatlantic alliance." She rejoiced that the former "unnatural" division between East and West Europe had been "consigned to the past."[52]

Merel's legacy as the first East German, and first woman, chancellor of reunified Germany, ranked as the most powerful woman in the world several times over, is assured. Still, in terms of accomplishments, her legacy is mixed. Her leadership and commitment to the idea of Europe kept the EU together. She brought economic stability to Germany, and brought compromise and collaboration to the political scene by leading from the center. She took action on energy, closing nuclear power plants and gaining support for renewable energies. She also opened the doors to refugees, changing the ethnic mix not only of Germany but Europe as a whole. Her foreign policies, however, were inconsistent and subject to criticism, particularly in relation to Russia and China, where she gave the impression of choosing financial cooperation over speaking out against human rights issues.

Selected published works

  • Der, R., Merkel, A., and Czerwon, H.-J. 1980. On the influence of spatial correlations on the rate of chemical reactions in dense gases. I. Quantum statistical theory. Chemical Physics. 53 (3):427-435.
  • Der, R., Merkel, A., and Haberlandt, R. 1980.. “On the influence of spatial correlations on the rate of chemical reactions in dense systems. II. Numerical results.” Chemical Physics 53(3):437-442.
  • Boeger, I., Merkel, A., Lachmann, H-J. Spangenberg, and Turanyi, T. 1982. An Extended Kinetic Model and its Reduction by Sensitivity Analysis for the Methanol/Oxygen Gas-Phase Thermolysis. Acta Chim. Hung. 129(6):855-864.
  • Merkel, Angela, Ilka Böger, Hans Joachim Spangenberg, Zülicke, Lutz. 1982. Berechnung von Hochdruck-Geschwindigkeitskonstanten für Zerfalls- und Rekombinationsreaktionen einfacher Kohlenwasserstoffmoleküle und –radikale. (Calculation of High Pressure Velocity Constants for Reactions of Decay and Recombinations of simple Hydrocarbon Molecules and Radicals.) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie. 263(3): 449-460.
  • Merkel, Angela and Lutz Zülicke, 1985. Berechnung von Geschwindigkeitskonstanten für den C-H-Bindungsbruch im Methylradikal. (Calculation of Velocity Constants for the Break of the[Carbon-Hydrogen-Bond in the Methyl Radical.) 353-361. Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie. 266(2)
  • Merkel, Angela and Lutz Zülicke, 1987. Nonempirical parameter estimate for the |statistical adiabatic theory of unimolecular fragmentation carbon-hydrogen bond breaking in methyl. Molecular Physics 60 (6): 1379-1393.
  • Merkel, Angela, Zdenek Havlas, and Rudolf Zahradník, 1988. Evaluation of the rate constant for the SN2 reaction fluoromethane + hydrid+methane+fluoride in the gas phase. Journal of American Chemical Society 110 (25): 8355-8359.
  • Mix, H., J. Sauer, K-P Schröder, and A. Merjel, 1988. Vibrational Properties of Surface Hydroxyls: Nonempirical Model Calculations Including Anharmonicities. Coll. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 53 (10): 2191-2202.
  • Merkel, Angela and Lutz Zülicke, 1990. Theoretical approach to reactions of polyatomic molecules. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 36: 191-208.
  • Merkel, Angela. 1998. The role of science in sustainable development. 336-337. Science 281: 5375.
  • Schneider, F. and A. Merkel, 1989. The lowest bound states of triplet (BH2)+. Chemical Physics Letters 161 (6):527-531.


  1. Angela Merkel: Her bio in brief The Christian Science Monitor, September 20, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 20222.
  2. Luke Harding, East German past of iron lady unveiled: Biography tells of Merkel family's links to communists The Guardian, June 25, 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  3. Angela Merkel, Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their velocity constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods), 1986, (Berlin: Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic; Langguth, 2007), 109, and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry).
  4. James Klattel, Germany's First Fella CBS News, August 9, 2006. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  5. Gerd Langguth, Angela Merkel: Aufstieg zur Macht: Biografie (DTV Deutscher Taschenbuch, 2007, ISBN 9783423344142), 112-137. (German).
  6. David P. Conradt, Gerald R. Kleinfeld, and Christian Søe, A Precarious Victory: Shroeder and the German Elections of 2002 (New York, NY: Berghahn, 2004), 59.
  7. German parties back new coalition BBC, November 14, 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  8. Merkel becomes German chancellor BBC, November 22, 2006. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  9. German coalition poised for power BBC, November 11, 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  10. Merkel defends German reform plan BBC, November 12, 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  11. Kate Connolly and Philip Olterman, German election: Angela Merkel secures historic third win The Guardian, September 23, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  12. Geir Moulson, Angela Merkel reaches deal with SPD to form German-Grand-Coalition The Independent, November 27, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  13. Helen Pidd, Angela Merkel's party crushed in Hamburg poll The Guardian, February 21, 2011. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  14. Carmen Paun, Angela Merkel Ready to Move Forward with Jamaica Coalition Politico, October 7, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  15. Merkel says her conservatives face hard battle after 16 years in power Reuters, September 9, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  16. Olaf Scholz elected as Germany's new Chancellor, replacing Angela Merkel ABC News, December 8, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  17. Merkel Losing Her Patience with Lack of EU Solidarity Spiegel International. September 18, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  18. Matthew Holehouse, Justin Huggler, and Andrea Vogt, Germany drops EU rules to allow in Syrian refugees The Telegraph, August 24, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Germany: 'No Limit' To Refugees We'll Take In Sky News, September 5, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  20. Andreas Rinke and Markus Wacket, Coronavirus pandemic is historical test for EU, Merkel says Reuters, April 6, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  21. Philip Oltermann, Angela Merkel draws on science background in Covid-19 explainer The Guardian, April 16, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  22. G20-Gipfel in Hamburg: Merkel nennt erstmals Themen Hamburger Abendblatt, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  23. Obama: Merkel was my closest ally The Local, November 15, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  24. Ben Knight, Merkel congratulates Trump as politicians express shock Deutsche Welle, November 9, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  25. Alison Smale and Steven Erlanger, Merkel, After Discordant G-7 Meeting, Is Looking Past Trump The New York Times, May 28, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  26. Jon Henley, Angela Merkel: EU cannot completely rely on US and Britain any more The Guardian, May 28, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  27. Merkel meets Dalai Lama despite Chinese protests Reuters, September 23, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  28. Angela Merkel sets off for China to forge new economic ties Herald Globe, July 14, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 20222.
  29. David Francis, Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries The Christian Science Monitor, March 6, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  30. Germany's Angela Merkel slams planned U.S. sanctions on Russia Deutsche Welle, June 16, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  31. Among others, in her speech on the occasion of her honorary doctoral degree at the University of Szeged in Hungary.
  32. Quentin Peel, Merkel warns on cost of welfare Financial Times, December 16, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  33. Angela Merkel 'world's most powerful woman' The Telegraph, August 24, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  34. Namcy Gibbs, Why Angela Merkel is TIME's Person of the Year TIME, December 9, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  35. Profile Angela Merkel Forbes, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  36. Knut Engelmann, Merkel honours Mohammad cartoonist at press award Reuters, September 8, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  37. Merkel defends 'Muhammad' cartoonist, condemns Koran-burning Deutsche Welle, September 8, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  38. Sprachkritik: "Alternativlos" ist das Unwort des Jahres Der Spiegel, January 18, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  39. German Chancellor Merkel Defends Work of Intelligence Agencies Der Spiegel, July 10, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  40. Hannah Strange, Angela Merkel refers to internet as 'virgin territory' The Telegraph, June 20, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  41. Kauder: 'Der Islam gehört nicht zu Deutschland' (Kauder: "Islam does not belong to Germany") Deutsche Presse-Agentur, January 18, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  42. Michael Nienaber, Merkel splits conservative bloc with green light to refugees Reuters, September 6, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  43. Germany's reluctance to speak out against China Deutsche Welle, July 7, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
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  45. Clay Risen, Deutschland’s Iron Lady: Is Angela Merkel the next Maggie Thatcher?, July 5, 2005. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  46. German Chancellor Angela Merkel receives Honorary doctorate from Hebrew University. American Friends of the Hebrew University. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  47. Charlemagne Prize 2008: Angela Merkek. City of Aachen. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
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  49. Paula Maurie Poindexter, Sharon Meraz, and Amy Schmitz Weiss, Women, men, and News: Divided and disconnected in the news media landscape (New York, NY: Routledge, 2008), 181.
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  53. Angela Merkel, German Chancellor Angela Merkel arrives in Israel Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 16, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
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ISBN links support NWE through referral fees

  • Conradt, David P., Gerald R. Kleinfeld, and Christian Søe. A Precarious Victory: Shroeder and the German Elections of 2002. New York, NY: Berghahn, 2004. ISBN 9781571818645
  • Langguth, Gerd. Angela Merkel: Aufstieg zur Macht: Biografie. DTV Deutscher Taschenbuch, 2007. ISBN 9783423344142 (German).
  • Langenbacher, Eric (ed.). Launching the Grand Coalition: The 2005 Bundestag election and the future of German politics. New York, NY: Berghahn Books, 2006. ISBN 9781845452834
  • Mills, Cliff. Angela Merkel. Modern world leaders. New York, NY: Chelsea House, 2007. ISBN 0791094960
  • Poindexter, Paula Maurie, Sharon Meraz, and Amy Schmitz Weiss. Women, men, and news: divided and disconnected in the news media landscape. (LEA's communication series.) New York, NY: Routledge, 2008. ISBN 9780805861020

External links

All links retrieved July 27, 2023.

Political offices
Preceded by:
Ursula Lehr
Minister for Women and Youth of Germany
1991 – 1994
Succeeded by:
Claudia Nolte
Preceded by:
Klaus Töpfer
Minister for the Environment and Reactor Safety
1994 – 1998
Succeeded by:
Jürgen Trittin
Preceded by:
Gerhard Schröder
Chancellor of Germany
2005 – present
Preceded by:
Vladimir Putin
Chair of the G8
Succeeded by: Yasuo Fukuda
Preceded by:
Matti Vanhanen
President of the European Council
Spring 2007
Succeeded by: José Sócrates
Party Political Offices
Preceded by:
Peter Hintze
Secretary General of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany
1998 – 2000
Succeeded by:
Ruprecht Polenz
Preceded by:
Wolfgang Schäuble
Chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany
2000 – present
Preceded by:
Friedrich Merz
Chairwoman of the CDU/CSU parliamentary group
2002 – 2005
Succeeded by:
Volker Kauder


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