Lage Raho Munna Bhai

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Lage Raho Munna Bhai
Directed by Rajkumar Hirani
Produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra
Written by Rajkumar Hirani (screenplay)
Abhijat Joshi (screenplay)
Vidhu Vinod Chopra (screenplay associate)
Starring Sanjay Dutt
Arshad Warsi
Vidya Balan
Boman Irani
Dilip Prabhavalkar
Dia Mirza
Jimmy Shergill
Kulbhushan Kharbanda
Saurabh Shukla
Music by Shantanu Moitra
Cinematography C.K. Muralidharan
Editing by Rajkumar Hirani
Distributed by Vinod Chopra Productions
Release date(s) September 1, 2006[1]
Running time 144 minutes
Country Flag of India India
Language Hindi
Budget Rs 12 crores[2] (120 million) (estimated)
Gross revenue Rs 69.97 crores<

(699.7 million) (estimated)

Preceded by Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. (2003)
Followed by Munna Bhai Chale Amerika
All Movie Guide profile
IMDb profile

Lage Raho Munna Bhai (Hindi: , IPA: [ləgeː ɾəhoː mʊnːaːbɦaːɪ]; English: Carry on Munna Bhai), the name of a film Indian musical comedy film directed by Rajkumar Hirani and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra, the second film in the popular Munna Bhai series of Bollywood. Sanjay Dutt stars in the film as Munna Bhai, a Mumbai (Bombay) underworld don, who begins to see the spirit of Mahatma Gandhi. Through his interactions with the image of Gandhi, Munna Bhai begins to practice what he calls Gandhigiri (Satyagraha, non-violence, and truth) to help ordinary people solve their problems. Arshad Warsi portrayed his sidekick, Circuit.

Lage Raho Munna Bhai has had a strong cultural impact in India, popularizing Gandhism under Munna Bhai's notion of Gandhigiri.[3][4] As noted by critics,[4][5] the film has "stirred the popular imagination," leading to a number of Gandhigiri protests in India and in the United States: "For generations born after Gandhi's assassination, Munnabhai, the eponymous hero of the film, has rendered “Gandhism” passé and “Gandhian” arcane. “Gandhigiri” constitutes the new buzzword, a value, and valuable, addition to the lexicon of a culture suffused with every abominable kind of “Dadagiri” and “Goondagiri”.[5]

Praised by the Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, stating (using Gandhi's nickname, "Bapu" or father) that the film "captures Bapu's message about the power of truth and humanism."[6] Critics generally received the film well and reviews at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival,[7][8] declared the film a "blockbuster", receiving of a number of awards. The film marked the first time a Hindi film had been shown in the United Nations.[9]

Contents

Plot

The central protagonist, Munna Bhai (Sanjay Dutt), interacts with an image of Mahatma Gandhi and learns the principles of Gandhian philosophy in Lage Raho Munna Bhai. His sidekick, Circuit (Arshad Warsi), helps him. They both speak in Bambaiya Hindi, a dialect specific to the Indian city of Mumbai.

Munna loves the voice of Jahnavi (Vidya Balan), a radio jockey. He devises a plan to meet her when she announces a contest on the life and beliefs of Mahatma Gandhi set for October 2—Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday celebrating the birth of Gandhi. Circuit helps Munna win the contest by kidnapping and then bribing a group of professors. As the winner, Jahnavi grants Munna an interview where he lies to her, presenting himself as a professor of history and a Gandhi specialist. Jahnavi subsequently asks Munna to present a lecture on Gandhi to a community of senior citizens who live in her home, called the "Second Innings House". To prepare for that event, Munna engages in a period of intense study of the life and works of Gandhi.

During that period that the image of Mahatma Gandhi (portrayed by Dilip Prabhavalkar), referred to by his nickname, "Bapu," or "father," appears and offers help and advice to Munna. He also encourages Munna to tell the truth about himself to Jahnavi. Gandhi continues to appear each time Munna sings Raghupathi Raghava Rajaram (a song often sung in Gandhi's memory). With Gandhi's help, Munna succeeds in impressing Jahnavi and cultivates a new life based upon Gandhism (particularly non-violence and truth) which transforms everyone with whom he comes into contact. Indeed, Munna starts to co-host a radio-show with Jahnavi and Gandhi's image, guiding his audience to use Gandhigiri (a neologism for Gandhism) to solve everyday problems.

Several subplots in the film highlight the power of Gandhigiri, one of the most prominent the story of Lucky Singh (Boman Irani) and his daughter Simran (Dia Mirza). Lucky, an unscrupulous businessman, employs Circuit and Munna Bhai to conduct "underworld" activities for him. His daughter, Simran, became engaged with Sunny (Abhishek Bachchan), the son of a powerful businessman, Kkhurana (Kulbhushan Kharbanda). Kkhurana, superstitious, directs all his activities based on the readings astrologer, Batuk Maharaj (Saurabh Shukla). Maharaj's particular use of numerology led Kkhurana to add an extra "K" to his real name (Khurana) as well as to the conclusion that the "Second Innings House" would be the most auspicious place for Sunny and Simran to live. Maharaj convinces Kkhurana to reject the marriage between Simran and Sunny; he revealed that some consider Simran a manglik (an individual whose Vedic astrological makeup some believe devastating for marriage).

Meanwhile, Lucky appropriates the "Second Innings House" through unethical means. In response, Munna launches a "non-violent" protest to reclaim it. He calls that protest, "Get Well Soon, Lucky" and asks his radio show audience to send Lucky flowers to help him recover from the "disease of dishonesty." Munna, along with Circuit, Jahnavi and the senior citizens of "Second Innings House", begin a peaceful satyagraha in front of Lucky's house. During that time Munna decides to tell Jahnavi the truth (via a letter he gives to her). Heartbroken, Jahnavi leaves Munna. Munna receives another setback when Lucky tricked him into revealing his conversations with Gandhi before a public audience; he finds that only after he has learned something about "Bapu"'s life can the Gandhi image talk about it, which serves as proof for a psychiatrist in the audience that Munna suffers delusions. Gandhi's monologue at the end of the film questions that conclusion. Munna continues to use Gandhigiri, a decision which transforms Lucky, brings Jahnavi back to him, and resolves Simran's marriage. Lucky Singh, himself, eventually becomes a student of "Gandhigiri": Gandhi's image greets him not long after he has begun to study "Bapu"'s life (at which point he calls for a photograph to be taken of them together; that perplexes the photographer, unable see the Gandhi image).

Additional subplots include the story of Victor D'Souza (Jimmy Shergill) who, having lost his father's (Parikshat Sahni) money in stock market, promises to earn back the money by working as a taxi driver. Victor returns Simran to her family, when she had fled to escape her father's shame and had heard the advice of Munna. Another includes the story of a retired teacher who, having been denied his pension, offers everything he owns to the corrupt official in the pension office.

In that manner, the application of Gandhi's concept of satyagraha (non-violence) to day-to-day modern life (and thus the revival of Gandhi's "spirit") becomes the central thematic issue of the film. The film also tackles issues related to social justice such as the impact of astrology and numerology on daily life.

Production

The two main characters—Munna Bhai (left) and Circuit
Vidya Balan as featured in the film

The Munna Bhai series began after Vidhu Vinod Chopra agreed to produce Rajkumar Hirani's film Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. when no one else would (Hirani had worked as an editor on Chopra's Mission Kashmir). They also collaborated on the script for the film.[10] Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. emerged a runaway success that prompted the duo to contemplate a sequel. The sequel became initially known as Munnabhai Meets Mahatma Gandhi, later retitled Munnabhai 2nd Innings before being given its current name.[11][12]

Film director and screenwriter Rajkumar Hirani admitted in an interview that he felt the burden of expectation while writing the screenplay for Lage Raho Munna Bhai, as he had to create "something to match" the first film.[13] Initially some effort went into incorporating scenes or particulars of the first film into the sequel (such as the idiosyncratic laugh of Dr. Asthana, portrayed by Boman Irani), but the risks of repetition had been then consciously averted.[13]

In making the film, Hirani intended to revive an interest in Mahatma Gandhi, a figure whom he felt had been forgotten in contemporary India. To highlight that fact, Hirani recounted (during an interview) an incident with a chai-wallah boy (a boy who brings tea to the crew) during production:

{{cquote|The boy was curious, he was a big Munnabhai fan and kept asking the name of the film. The first working title was 'Munnabhai Meets Mahatma Gandhi,' and Shantanu (Moitra, the music director) told him. So he said, "Munnabhai to theek hai, yeh Mahatma Gandhi kaun hai?" ('Munnabhai is fine, but who is this Mahatma Gandhi?') So this is the sad state of affairs today. I was shocked. And it's not just the chai-wallah. A few days ago on TV a lot of politicians were asked India-related questions on the news channels, and I can't believe a lot of them don't know October 2 is Gandhiji's birthday! Many didn't know his first name. They kept saying, 'what's in a name, we respect his ideals,' but come on! How can you not know his name?[14]

The other screenwriter, Abhijat Joshi (who teaches in the department of English at Otterbein College in Westerville, Ohio), stated that he had been conducting extensive research on Gandhi for some time,[15] a fact which inspired producer Chopra to involve Joshi in the creation of the second Munna Bhai screenplay.[15]

While writing the screenplay, Hirani and Joshi stayed together for more than four months. They developed scenes by going out for a walk and discussing the scene. They returned home only when they had created a scene that would make them laugh, or cry, or had some provocative thought.[15] While experiencing a shortage of resources during the shooting of Munna Bhai M.B.B.S., the crew stayed within budget during the filming of Lage Raho Munna Bhai, as the team managed to receive whatever deemed necessary (including a Jimmy Jib, a specific kind of camera crane, just for a single crane shot).[13] The film, shot on location in and around Mumbai, used with Goa as a backdrop for the filming of a song.[13]

Only two characters—those of Munna Bhai (portrayed by Sanjay Dutt) and Circuit (portrayed by Arshad Warsi)—came from the Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. cast. Several actors, also from Munna Bhai M.B.B.S., appeared in Lage Raho Munna Bhai but as different characters. Vidya Balan was chosen to play the leading lady in the film as her voice was thought to be appropriate for that of a radio jockey.[16]

The actors used several techniques to develop their characters. Arshad Warsi ("Circuit") encountered some initial problems reviving his character from the first film. On the first day of the shoot when Arshad, "said his first line, he didn't sound like Circuit at all. He sounded like Arshad Warsi speaking with an accent". Warsi admits that he had "forgotten" the character of Circuit and had to watch the DVD of Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. three times before being able to film the scene in the correct way. Sanjay Dutt ("Munna Bhai") also confessed that he had to watch the first film eight to nine times to recapture the "persona" of Munna Bhai. In addition, Dutt stated in an interview that he never read Gandhi's autobiography My Experiments with Truth as a preparation for Lage Raho Munna Bhai. Rather, he comments, both his father, Sunil Dutt (who portrays Munna Bhai's father in the first film, Munna Bhai M.B.B.S.) and his mother (the late actress Nargis) served as his role models as they "were basically Gandhians. We were brought up with those values".[17] Dilip Prabhavalkar, who portrays Gandhi in the film, did read Gandhi "once again" to prepare for his role.[18] Boman Irani prepared for the role of Lucky Singh by spending time with Sardarjis (male Sikhs) in auto spare parts shops to research his role.[19] Vidya Balan ("Jahnavi") also met with a couple of radio jockeys and watched them at work.[20]

Influences and allusions

Jahnavi (with Munna Bhai) delivering her trademark "Gooooooood Moooooooorninnnng Mumbai!"

Rather than follow the traditional sequel format, each film in the Munna Bhai series features Munna and Circuit in a story comprehensive unto itself without continuation or reference to another film in the series. Indeed, director Rajkumar Hirani has compared that format to the films of Charlie Chaplin and Laurel and Hardy, as well as to the James Bond series.[13] Others have also likened the series to the work of Laurel and Hardy.[21] Some have negated that comparison, stating that the series has more in common with Road to… "buddy films" of Bob Hope and Bing Crosby.[22] Director Rajkumar Hirani admitted that the films of Hrishikesh Mukherjee deeply inspired his work.[14]

Cinematic works by Vidhu Vinod Chopra (such as Parineeta) often contain allusions to other important films and works of music or literature. In Lage Raho Munna Bhai, Jahnavi's opening line for her radio show, "Gooooooood Moooooooorninnnng Mumbai!," resembles Robin Williams' opening for his radio show ("Gooooooooood morning, Vietnaaaaaaaaammm!") in the 1987 film Good Morning, Vietnam.[23][24] Critics have also noted similarity with the 1977 film Oh, God!, in which God appears as a kindly old man to the protagonist.[24] In addition, parts of the melody of the song "Pal Pal…Har Pal" recall the Cliff Richard song "Theme for a Dream".[25]

Reception

Box office and ratings

Lage Raho Munna Bhai is the third top grossing Bollywood film of the twenty-first century, according to boxofficeindia.com, earning Rs 69.97 crores (699 million) net gross in India alone (and has also been rated a "Blockbuster"). It has also been financially successful overseas,[26] earning Rs 7 crores (70 million) gross in the United Kingdom, Rs 10.25 crores (102 million) gross in North America, and Rs 4.25 crores (42 million) gross for the rest of the overseas proceeds.

The film received the rating of "U" (Universal: Suitable for all ages) by the Central Board of Film Certification of India and "PG–13" by the Motion Picture Association of America. Other countries such as Australia and the United Kingdom awarded similar ratings.

Reviews and critiques

Lage Raho Munna Bhai has received high praise from many critics,[14] particularly Poonam Joshi of the BBC who notes that "everything about this film works […] It's rare to see a film that bounces between humour and sentiment so seamlessly. And it is rarer still to see characters become etched in the memory so enduringly that audiences become almost protective of them. It's testimony both to the quality of the writing and the performances, that Munna and Circuit have taken on a life of their own."[27] Phelim O'Neill of the The Guardian supports that view, stating "as western romantic comedies become more vapid and even stalkerish, this delivers a credible message of peace, while never forgetting to be magnificent entertainment."[28] Nikhat Kazmi of The Times of India also observes that "Vidhu Vinod Chopra gives the great Indian family one more let's-go-goodwill-hunting entertainer, even as director Raju Hirani proves that sequels needn't have the been there-done that feel…"[29] Furthermore Sparn Verma of Rediff.com adds that "we live in a cynical world, but even in such times, sometimes a person, book or film comes along and shows you a tiny crack in the wall behind which there is a lot of light, and suddenly your heart is full of happiness. Lage Raho Munnabhai is one such film that makes you laugh, makes you cry, and also makes you feel good to be a human being."[30] Taran Adarsh in "IndiaFM.com" (via Yahoo! India) cites Lage Raho Munna Bhai as "a sparkling example of qualitative cinema" arguing that it "not only entertains, it also enlightens." Sarita Tanwar states in a review for Mid-Day, "Lage Raho… is just what this generation needs, a revival of values and ideals without being preachy. The film's impact is far greater than all the textbooks you've read (and forgotten) in school. Mahatma Gandhi is back—and well, what a comeback."[31] Shastri Ramachandaran further notes, "True, there have been memorable films on Mahatma Gandhi by distinguished directors, namely Richard Attenborough and Shyam Benegal; one offering a respectful cinematic acquaintance and the other being didactic but inspiring. For all their earnestness, neither film stirred the popular imagination like LRM has done now."[5]

Others disagree. Ajit Duara argues in The Hindu that "the accomplished cultural sophistication and political genius of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi has to be dumbed down to the astoundingly moronic levels of 'Lage Raho Munnabhai' "[32] and S. Ganesh in The Economic and Political Weekly adds that the film "trivialises Gandhi: history as farce". A blurb in the LA Weekly film review section by David Chute notes a preference for Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. over Lage Raho Munna Bhai, stating that "this odd-duck sequel to one of Bollywood's smartest recent crowd pleasers edges perilously close to repudiating the beloved original", while filmmaker Jahnu Barua notes, "Gandhian philosophy is serious business and Lage Raho Munna Bhai is not the right way to show it."[33]

Awards

Lage Raho Munna Bhai received four awards for Best Film/Critics Best Film (Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie, Bollywood Movie Award - Best Film, GIFA Best Film, Star Screen Award Best Film). Rajkumar Hirani won Best Director award in Broadcast India 2006 Awards for Excellence in Film & Television, and in 2007 IIFA Awards.[34] The film also won other awards including best story and best dialogue in several award ceremonies.

High profile screenings

United Nations

Screened on November 10, 2006 in the United Nations auditorium, Lage Raho Munna Bhai became the first Hindi film to be shown at the UN. Shashi Tharoor, UN Under-Secretary General for Communications and Public Information introduced the film. Rajkumar Hirani, Abhijat Joshi and actor Boman Irani (Lucky Singh) entertained questions afterwards. The audience of diplomats and journalists received Lage Raho Munna Bhai well although "an evening that had started with massive security arrangements in the sombre UN setting, [and] concluded in a festive atmosphere in the lounge of the UN with diplomats from other tables joining in raising a toast for the film."[9] On June 15, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly announced that it had "unanimously adopted" a resolution declaring October 2 (Gandhi's birthday, a national holiday in India) "the International Day of Non-Violence".[35]

2007 Cannes film festival

The 2007 Cannes Film Festival received Lage Raho Munna Bhai (shown with six other films from India as part of the Tous Les Cinemas Du Monde or World Cinema program) well on May 19, 2007. Screened with French subtitles to an audience who had lined "up in long queues to catch the film that had been strongly recommended in festival reviews […] not one person who entered the screening left before the end of the two-hours-thirty-minutes film."[36] In addition, "the screening of the movie at the festival saw people sitting on the aisles as the theatre was completely packed […] there was also a big group of French students that clapped till the credits were finished."[37]

Indian Prime Minister and Gandhi's descendants

The Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, received a private screening of Lage Raho Munna Bhai. After viewing the film, he stated that the film "captures Bapu's message about the power of truth and humanism."[6] In a speech during his visit to South Africa, Singh said, "I was heartened to see recently that back home in India the most popular movie this festival season is a film about a young man's discovery of the universal and timeless relevance of the Mahatma's message."[38]

Tushar Gandhi, Gandhi's great-grandson, stated in an interview that Lage Raho Munna Bhai has introduced the philosophies of Gandhi to a new generation.[39] Gandhi's grandson, Rajmohan Gandhi, a writer and scholar, who completed his own biography of his famous grandfather, Mohandas: A True Story of a Man, his People and an Empire, stated in an interview that Gandhi would have enjoyed Lage Raho Munna Bhai.[40]

Global summit and university screenings

The film also screened at a global judiciary summit in Lucknow in December 2006. After viewing the film, Justice Kenneth Mithyane from South Africa commented, "The movie has re-enlivened the non-violence philosophy practiced by Mahatma Gandhi who continues to remain close to the hearts of the South Africans." Fatima Chouhan, a young member of the South African parliament, noted that, "'Munnabhai' will be widely appreciated in South Africa. I'm carrying a couple of video discs for my family and friends."[41]

Several universities have held screenings of the film, including at the October 27, 2006 film festival Melodramas Of Change: USC's First Indian Film Festival, organized by the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts. A question and answer session with Vidhu Vinod Chopra, Rajkumar Hirani, and Abhijat Joshi followed the screening. Filmmaker Gurinder Chadha also attended and spoke at the conclusion of the question and answer session.[42] Concordia University screened the film on January 26, 2007; Old Dominion University on March 20, 2007 (as a part of Old Dominion University and City of Norfolk ONFilm Festival); the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lecture Series Committee on March 23 & 24, 2007; and Harvard Law School on April 3, 2007 (as part of a series on nonviolence).

Social and cultural impact

Overview

The decision to include Mahatma Gandhi as a central character in the film introduces, through his interactions with Munna Bhai, important thematic concepts and ideas that draw upon the period of Colonial India and the Indian independence movement. Gandhi emerged as a leader in that movement, challenging the British Empire's presence in India through the use of Satyagraha (non-violence). In that context, Jahnavi and Munna Bhai's non-violent protest against Lucky Singh serves as a metaphor for the Indian independence movement and the battle against the British Raj.

"Do Gandhigiri" advertisement

The thematic attention to Gandhi's theories in Lage Raho Munna Bhai has revived an interest in Gandhism in India under the new term Gandhigiri[3] and has likewise "made Gandhi suddenly hip. Inspired by the hit movie, Indians are increasingly embracing his philosophy, staging nonviolent protests, starting Web sites, handing out roses to enemies and putting on peaked white caps from the Gandhi era."[43] and as Arunabha Ghosh notes, "Gandhi, the man, was once the message. In the India of the post-liberalization brand, gandhigiri is the message."[44] Several websites and internet forums sprung up, encouraging people to return to the Gandhian philosophy. As chronicled by the International Herald Tribune article, "Does urbanized India have room for Gandhi?" (September 20, 2006):

The real excitement was a Bollywood film […] which has rapidly become the unexpected box-office hit of the year […] With its big Bollywood soundtrack and dance routines, the movie brings Gandhi firmly into the mainstream and theaters have been packed for the past three weeks. The Congress Party recommended that all party members see the film. The Delhi authorities declared that tickets to the film would be sold tax free because of its assiduous promotion of Gandhian values."[45]

Theories for that sudden revival vary. Some have suggested that the phenomenon could be attributed to the film simplifying Gandhi's "lofty ideals" and conveying them "in contemporary, colloquial language. Others, according to The Christian Science Monitor, have noted that the appeal of the film lies in the fact that "Gandhi gets his hands dirty. He appears as an apparition only visible to the wayward gangster, counselling him on how to help others deal with everyday problems."[46] Whatever the reason, an October 13, 2006, article in The Boston Globe suggests that the revival has had a positive impact in India, and states: "What America needs is a film that encourages people to take up Gandhigiri, Kinggiri, or Kennedygiri. If it worked for Bollywood, it could work for Hollywood."[4]

Gandhigiri-style protests

Gandhi leading Salt Satyagraha, a notable example of Satyagraha

Since the release of the film, a number of Gandhigiri-style protests have been staged. In the United States July 2007, individuals legally in the U.S. but caught in a green card backlog sent hundreds of flower bouquets to the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services office, an act attributed by some to Lage Raho Munna Bhai.[47] In response, the USCIS shipped the flowers to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bethesda Naval hospitals. In addition, Producer Vidhu Vinod Chopra commented that, "Mahatma Gandhi has influenced several personalities, including American Civil Rights Leader Martin Luther King, Jr. Those young, law-abiding professionals have set out to strive for reform the right way – the Gandhigiri way." Director Rajkumar Hirani also noted that "when you feel you have been wronged, you feel angry. The best way to overcome what you think is unjust, is to protest peacefully. Be nice to your opponent and let him see your point of view. My well-wishes go out to these educated, highly-skilled professionals who have abided by the law and have been eagerly waiting in line for their green cards for nearly ten years."[48]

On July 17, the USCIS announced that "it will accept applications from foreign professionals seeking permanent residency through an expedited process, reversing its earlier decision." USCIS Director Emilio T. Gonzalez noted, "The public reaction to the July 2 announcement made it clear that the federal government's management of this process needs further review […] I am committed to working with Congress and the State Department to implement a more efficient system in line with public expectations."[49]

Excerpt from The Story of My Experiments with Truth - by Mahatma Gandhi in its original Gujarati script

There have also been numerous Gandhigiri protests in India. Farmers staged a protest with flowers in the Vidarbha region,[50] and people who organized a protest in Lucknow claimed to have been inspired by Lage Raho Munna Bhai to use roses to convey their message.[51] In Lucknow, students claimed to have been inspired by Lage Raho Munna Bhai to do volunteer work, planting trees "to conserve nature which is bound to benefit public health."[52] Mafia don Babloo Srivastava claimed to have been inspired by Lago Raho Munna Bhai to distribute roses as a "message of love and peace".[53]

Political and social influence

The Gandhigiri movement has also had a political and social impact. In New Delhi, on January 29 and 30, 2007, a two-day conference (which included about 400 world leaders) to celebrated the 100th anniversary of satyagraha in South Africa. Partial inspiration for the conference came from Lage Raho Munna Bhai. The Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, announced the creation of a new Public Services Bill to combat corruption in a press release dated 17 November 2006, and cited Lage Raho Munna Bhai as one of its influences. The film inspired a new interest in books about Gandhi, including requests for copies of Gandhi's autobiography, My Experiments with Truth, from prison inmates. Management teachers in Indian management institutes have planned to incorporate Gandhian strategies shown in the film as well as the success story of the film in teaching courses. In addition, due to its influence, the film sold tax-free in Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Mumbai and Uttar Pradesh.

Notes

  1. Moviefone.Moviefone: Lage Raho Munna Bhai. movies.aol.com. accessdate 2007-05-03
  2. Lage Raho Munnabhai. accessdate 2007-05-03 The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mridula Chunduri, Gandhigiri, a cool way to live. Times Internet Limited. 2006-09-29. accessdate 2006-09-29
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Swati Gauri Sharma, How Gandhi got his mojo back. boston.com. The New York Times Company, October 13, 2006, accessdate 2006-10-13
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Shastri Ramachandaran, Jollygood Bollywood: Munnabhai rescues Mahatma. tribuneindia.com. The Tribune Trust. September 23, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-28
  6. 6.0 6.1 Manmohan watches Munnabhai. hinduonnet.com. The Hindu, 2006-10-26. accessdate 2006-10-26
  7. Rajeev Masand, Lage Raho … is hot at Cannes. ibnlive.com. CNN 2007-05-20. accessdate 2007-05-20
  8. Taran Adarsh, 'Lage Raho Munnabhai' stuns Cannes. IndiaFM, 2007-05-22, accessdate 2007-05-22
  9. 9.0 9.1 Indo-Asian News Service, UN members laughed and applauded at 'Lage Raho…. glamsham.com. Fifth Quarter Infomedia Pvt. Ltd. November 14, 2006. accessdate 2006-11-14
  10. IndiaFM News Bureau, Features, [http://www.indiafm.com/features/2007/02/20/2282/index.html From the director's diary… Vidhu Vinod Chopra]. indiafm.com. February 20, 2007. accessdate 2007-04-20
  11. Nitin Sethi. Vinod Chopra Productions 3-in-1. glamsham.com. Fifth Quarter Infomedia Pvt. Ltd. May 1, 2006. accessdate 2006-09-29
  12. Taran Adarsh, Munnabhai' gets a new name, Also new release date. indiafm.com. May 4, 2006. accessdate 2006-09-29
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Munna and Circuit are divine fools'. Rediff.com. India Limited. September 1, 2006. accessdate 2007-01-18
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Lage Raho will make you laugh with moist eyes. Rediff.com India Limited. September 4, 2006. accessdate 2006-09-29
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 How Gandhigiri found a place in Munnabhai. Rediff.com India Limited. September 26, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-25
  16. Interviews,Rajkumar Hirani. MovieTalkies.com. September 4, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-20
  17. Nandini Nair, 'My father was modern day Gandhi'. Times Internet Limited. October 1, 2006. accessdate 2006-10-01
  18. The Verdict: Does Gandhigiri work? Yahoo India News, Global Broadcast News, Yahoo Web Services India Pvt Ltd. October 1, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-25
  19. Nandini Nair, A tortoise who won. The Hindu, October 13, 2006. accessdate 2006-11-17
  20. Rana Siddiqui, The grace of Munnabhai. The Hindu, September 1, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-20
  21. Sangeetha K. Devi, Our answer to Laurel and Hardy? The Hindu, September 1, 2006. accessdate 2006-10-06
  22. Piroj Wadia, Carry on with Munnabhai. screenindia.com. October 6, 2006. accessdate 2006-10-06
  23. Anthony Mili, Movie reviews: Lage Raho Munna Bhai. helium.com. accessdate 2007-05-04
  24. 24.0 24.1 Khalid Mohamed, 'Lage Raho Munnabhai' is terrific!. dnaindia.com. Diligent Media Corporation Ltd, September 2, 2006. accessdate 2006-11-17
  25. Satyajit - Eye TV India Bureau, Music Review of Lage Raho Munnabhai. smashits.com. accessdate 2006-11-18
  26. Arthur Pais, Sanjay Dutt's biggest hit abroad. Rediff.com India Limited. September 7, 2006. accessdate 2006-09-29
  27. Poonam Joshi, Review:Lage Raho Munna Bhai. BBC August 29, 2006. accessdate 2006-12-10
  28. Phelim O'Neill, Review:Lage Raho Munna Bhai. guardian.co.uk. September 1, 2006. accessdate 2006-12-10
  29. Nikhat Kazmi, Review: Lage Raho Munna…. Times Internet Limited. September 2, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-26
  30. Suparn Verma, Munnabhai is better than ever!. Rediff.com India Limited. September 1, 2006. accessdate 2006-12-10
  31. Suparn Verma, [http://www.mid-day.com/hitlist/2006/september/143037.htm Samjho, hit ho hi gaya!. Mid-Day Multimedia Ltd. September 2, 2006 accessdate 2007-04-26
  32. Ajit Duara, Nothing Gandhian about it. The Hindu, October 1, 2006. accessdate 2006-12-10
  33. Pratim D. Gupta, ‘Gandhism is serious business’. The Telegraph, October 10, 2006. accessdate 2006-12-10
  34. Indo-Asian News Service,'Rang De' steals the show with Best Film. hindustantimes.com. June 10, 2007. accessdate 2007-06-10
  35. Nilova Chaudhury, October 2 is global non-violence day. Hindustan Times, June 15, 2007. accessdate 2007-06-15
  36. Rajeev Masand, Lage Raho … is hot at Cannes. ibnlive.com. CNN 2007-05-20, accessdate 2007-05-20
  37. Taran Adarsh, 'Lage Raho Munnabhai' stuns Cannes. indiafm.com. 2007-05-22. accessdate 2007-05-22
  38. Manmohan Singh, [1], "PM's speech at Satyagraha Centenary Commemoration at Kingsmead Stadium, Durban." Prime Minister's Office, Government of India. October 1, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-27
  39. Subhash Jha, 'I'm pleased with Hirani's Gandhigiri,' says Gandhi's grandson. Indo-Asian News Service, INFOCON LLC. March 19, 2007. accessdate 2007-03-19
  40. Piyush Srivastava, Bapu would have loved Gandhigiri, says grandson Rajmohan. Indian Express Newspapers (Mumbai) Ltd. January 12, 2007. accessdate 2007-01-12
  41. 'Munnabhai' charms South Africans. Diligent Media Corporation Ltd. December 13, 2006. accessdate 2006-12-15
  42. Taran Adarsh, Munna's tryst with Oscars begins. indiafm.com, November 1, 2006. accessdate 2006-11-01
  43. Kim Barker, Inspiration Renewed Kansas City Star. November 8, 2006. gandhiserve.org. accessdate 2007-04-24
  44. Arunabha Ghosh, [2]. (PDF) "Lage Raho Munna Bhai: Unravelling Brand Gandhigiri: Gandhi, the man, was once the message." In post-liberalization India, 'Gandhigiri' is the message. Economic and Political Weekly. December 23, 2006. (by Subscription) accessdate 2007-05-01
  45. Amelia Gentleman, Does urbanized India have room for Gandhi?. International Herald Tribune, September 20, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-28
  46. Mark Sappenfield, It took a comedy to revive Gandhi's ideals in India. The Christian Science Monitor, New Delhi, October 3, 2006. accessdate 2006-10-10
  47. Gandhigiri works magic for Indians seeking green card. CNN IBN, July 19, 2007. accessdate 2007-07-18
  48. Gandhigiri wave in USA. bollyvista.com. July 15, 2007. accessdate 2007-07-15
  49. 'Gandhigiri works! Green Card seekers make US change heart. CNN IBN. July 18, 2007. accessdate 2007-07-18
  50. =Zubair Ahmed, Gandhi-style protest by farmers. BBC news October 12, 2006. accessdate 2006-10-12
  51. Sharat Pradhan, Lucknow citizens go Gandhian on liquor merchant. Rediff.com India Limited. September 21, 2006. accessdate 2007-04-25}
  52. Bollywood's Lage Raho Munna Bhai inspires Lucknow's medical students. Sawf News. September 27, 2006. accessdate 2006-09-29}
  53. Express News Service, Munnabhai effect: Guns to roses. Indian Express Newspapers (Mumbai) Ltd. September 27, 2006. accessdate 2006-09-29


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