Jehovah's Witnesses

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The sacred Jewish name for God (YHWH) rendered in Phoenician, Aramaic, and Modern Hebrew scripts. The name is pronounced Jehovah by modern Jehovah's Witnesses.

The Jehovah’s Witnesses are an international religious organization, a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. The religion was developed in response to what was perceived to be "compromise and corruption in mainstream Christianity” and it repudiates common Christian doctrines such as the Trinity, hellfire, immortality of the soul, and clergy-laity divisions, interpreting them as illegitimate additions to the original church's teachings.[1]

The name "Jehovah’s Witnesses" is derived from a number of biblical passages in which the disciples of YHWH (pronounced "Jehovah" by the group), considered the personal name of God, are called "Witnesses" (Isaiah 43:10).[2] The community adopted the term "Jehovah's Witnesses" in 1931.


Original witnesses of the Bible

According to the beliefs of the Jehovah's Witnesses, their origins can be traced back to the ancient Israelites. The original Jehovah's Witness is said to have been Abel, son of Adam who is proclaimed to be one of "many witnesses" of God in Hebrews 12:1. Important biblical figures including Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph are also referred to as "Witnesses." Ancient Israelites were a nation dedicated to God, and for that reason they too are also called Jehovah's witnesses (Isaiah 43:10).[3]

Did you know?
Jehovah's Witnesses are so named due to their belief that they are the witnesses to the truth about God, whose personal name they believe to be "Jehovah"

Jesus Christ is also called the faithful witness of God in the Bible, as in Revelations 1:5. After his death, early Christians became witnesses of Jesus as well as of God Himself because they experienced firsthand the glory of God (Phil. 2:9-11). In the year 56 C.E., however, it is said that an apostasy occurred among the immediate followers of Christ, and their philosophies began to grow divided (Acts 20:29, 30). After the death of John, the last apostle, this apostasy began to spread rampantly (2 Timothy 2:17). Jehovah's Witnesses believe that at this point, important biblical teachings were dismissed, with Hellenistic philosophy and other heathen teachings corrupting the true vision of Christ. According to Jehovah's witnesses, these apostate Christians went on to form Christendom as it is known today, which exists as a complete corruption of Christ's original teachings.

Modern origins

Charles Taze Russell
Watchtower Buildings in Brooklyn, New York

The modern institution of Jehovah's Witnesses can be traced back to the religious movement known as the Bible Students, which was founded in the late 1870s by Charles Taze Russell. The group consisted mainly of Russell's friends and family, who came from a variety of religious backgrounds, particularly Second Adventists, a group that arose after the Millerite "Great Disappointment" in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.[4] An interest in Bible prophecy was sparked among group members due in no small part to Jonas Wendell, a passionate Adventist preacher. In 1876, Russell met Nelson H. Barbour, a Millerite Adventist, and subsequently adopted his eschatology, including Barbour's prediction that the visible return of Christ would occur in 1873. However, when that failed to occur, Russell rescheduled the second coming for 1874.[5] Soon after what was apparently Barbour's second disappointment, his group decided Christ had indeed returned to Earth in 1874, although he had come in an invisible form. [6] With this in mind, a gathering of the saints in heaven was expected for 1878, with the year 1914 demarcated as the time of the final end of human governments.[7]

In July 1879, Russell broke with Barbour over the concept of substitutionary atonement, and soon began publishing his own magazine, Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence (now known simply as The Watchtower). After the break, Russell and his followers retained the bulk of Barbour's eschatological views. They also maintained the Adventist rejection of the traditional view of Hell, and by 1882 had rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Charles Taze Russell came to be referred to as "Pastor Russell," and by 1881 had formed the legal entity that would become The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. In 1884, the society was incorporated, with Russell as president. By 1914, Russell's legal entity had extended to the United Kingdom, where he founded the International Bible Students Association.


Joseph Franklin Rutherford (1869-1942)

Following Russell's death on October 31, 1916, an editorial committee of five was set up to supervise the writing of the Watch Tower magazine, as set forth in Russell's Last Will and Testament. On January 6, 1917, Joseph Franklin Rutherford was elected second President of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society to replace Russell. A power struggle soon developed between Rutherford and four of the seven members of the society's Board of Directors, due in part to the fact that new by-laws had been passed at the time of Rutherford's election strengthening the President's authority. The June 20, 1917 meeting of the full board of directors tabled, for one month, a proposal to return control of the Society to the board, but Rutherford prevented the board from meeting again.[8] Rutherford, as chief legal counsel for the Watch Tower Society, had written the new by-laws. Initially, the Board of Directors for the Watch Tower Society accepted this change, but four of the board members withdrew their support.

Matters reached a climax on July 17, 1917 when Russell's book The Finished Mystery (listed as Volume VII of Studies in the Scriptures)[9] was released to the staff of Bethel, which is the name by which the headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses in Brooklyn is known. The book was controversial in its criticism of Catholic and Protestant clergy as well as Christian involvement in war. Citing this book, the United States federal government indicted Rutherford and the new board of directors on May 7, 1918 for violating the Espionage Act. They were found guilty and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. However, in March 1919, the judgment against them was reversed and all parties were released from prison; the charges were later dropped.

In the aftermath, Rutherford promptly announced to the staff that he was dismissing the four directors and replacing them with new members, claiming they had not been legally elected.[10] As a result, the four dismissed directors set up the Pastoral Bible Institute and began publishing their own religious journal. Dissension and schisms ensued in congregations of Bible Students worldwide as a result of these events, and also as the consequences of new predictions made for the years 1918 (in which God was to destroy all churches)[9] and 1920 (in which widespread anarchy would ensue).[9] Those who remained supportive of the Watchtower Society adopted the name Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931 under Rutherford's leadership, while those against Rutherford formed various Bible Student groups that have retained Russell's teachings. Jehovah's Witnesses no longer use the term "Bible Students" in association with their religion.

Rise in membership

The Jehovah's Witnesses began to emphasize their trademark house-to-house preaching in 1922. This followed the 1920 announcement that the Hebrew patriarchs (such as Abraham and Isaac) would be resurrected in 1925, marking the beginning of Christ's thousand-year earthly Kingdom.[11] In spite of these efforts, attendance at their yearly Memorial dropped from a high of 90,434 in 1925 down to 17,380 in 1928, due to the previous power struggle, the failed predictions for the year 1925,[8] and a number of significant doctrinal changes that alienated those who sided with Russell's views.

On July 26, 1931, at a convention in Columbus, Ohio, Rutherford introduced the new name – Jehovah's witnesses – based on Isaiah 43:10: "Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me." —which was adopted by resolution. The name was chosen to distinguish his group of Bible Students from other independent groups that had severed ties with the Society, as well as symbolize the instigation of new outlooks and the promotion of fresh evangelizing methods. In 1932, Rutherford eliminated the system of locally elected elders and in 1938, introduced what he called a "theocratic" (literally, God-ruled) organizational system, under which appointments in congregations worldwide were made from the Brooklyn headquarters.

From 1932, it was taught that the "little flock" of 144,000 would not be the only people to survive Armageddon. Rutherford explained that in addition to the 144,000 "anointed" who would be resurrected—or transferred at death—to live in heaven to rule over earth with Christ, a separate class of members, the "great multitude," would live in a paradise restored on earth; from 1935, new converts to the movement were considered part of that class. By 1933, the year 1914 had been reinterpreted as the beginning of Christ's presence and therefore the start of the "last days" rather than the terminal date in their chronology.

Under Rutherford, the downward trend in membership soon reversed itself, and the movement's membership grew to about 115,000 at the time of his death in 1942.

Nazi persecution

Adolph Hitler's Nazi Germany persecuted Jehovah's Witnesses. Many followers were imprisoned in concentration camps, bearing purple triangles by which they were identified.[12] Under the Nazi regime:

Some five thousand Jehovah's Witnesses were sent to concentration camps where they alone were 'voluntary prisoners,' so termed because if they recanted their views, they could be freed. Some lost their lives in the camps, but few renounced their faith.[13]

Reorganization and beyond

Nathan H. Knorr, third president of the Watch Tower Society

Nathan H. Knorr succeeded Rutherford as president of the Watch Tower Society on January 13, 1942. Membership rose from 115,000 to over two million under Knorr's presidency. Knorr also founded the Gilead school to train missionaries, as well as the Theocratic Ministry School to train preaching and teaching at the congregational level. Several significant Supreme Court victories for Jehovah's Witnesses involving their rights to practice their religion were not only successes for the church, but also had a great impact on legal interpretation of these rights for others. In 1943, for example, the United States Supreme Court ruled in West Virginia State Board of Education vs. Barnette that the children of Jehovah's Witnesses attending school could not be compelled to salute the flag along with their schoolmates.

Knorr's vice-president Frederick W. Franz became the most prominent theologian in the history the Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1976, the leadership of Jehovah's Witnesses was reorganized, and the power of the presidency passed on to the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses. Subsequent presidents of the Watch Tower Society after Knorr's death in 1977 have been Frederick William Franz, Milton George Henschel and Don A. Adams.

During the 1960s and early 1970s, various references were made in Witnesses' literature and at assemblies to the effect that Christ's thousand-year millennial reign might very well begin by 1975. The chronology pointing to 1975 was well-noted in the secular media at the time.[14] Subsequently, from 1975 to 1980, the years following the failure of this prediction, there was a drop in Jehovah's Witnesses membership.[15] In 1980, the Watchtower Society admitted its responsibility in building up hope regarding the year 1975. [16]

The offices of elder and ministerial servant were restored to Witness congregations in 1972, with appointments made from headquarters (and later, also by branch committees). It was announced that, starting in September 2014, appointments would be made by traveling overseers. In a major organizational overhaul in 1976, the power of the Watch Tower Society president was diminished, with authority for doctrinal and organizational decisions passed to the Governing Body.[17] Since Knorr's death in 1977, the position of president has been occupied by Frederick Franz (1977–1992), and Milton Henschel (1992–2000), both members of the Governing Body, and since 2000 by others who are not Governing Body members.

In 1995, Jehovah's Witnesses abandoned the idea that Armageddon must occur during the lives of the generation that was alive in 1914 and in 2010 changed their teaching on the "generation."[18]

Beliefs and practices

Jehovah and Jesus

Jehovah's Witnesses view God as the creator of the universe and the supreme being within it. Witnesses believe that the proper name of this being is Jehovah, a derivative of the Tetragrammaton, and that its use is a requirement for true worship. Jesus, meanwhile, is believed to literally be the only begotten Son of God, His first creation, and thus is considered an entity independent from God. In this sense, Jehovah's Witnesses reject the notion of Trinity. In contrast to trinitarian doctrine, they believe that the holy spirit is not an entity comparable to God or Jesus but is instead God's "active force." [19]

Jesus' most important theological function for Jehovah's Witnesses is as the sole means by which to approach God in prayer. His role as mediator between human beings and God can only be enjoyed by those individuals going to heaven. Witnesses believe that only Jesus Christ is their leader and that he is head of their Congregation. As such, their leaders must obey him (Heb. 13:7).

While Jesus is still acknowledged by Jehovah's Witnesses as the sole means of salvation for all worthy human beings, he is understood somewhat differently. For example, Witnesses believe that Jesus did not die on a cross, as is traditionally recognized by mainstream Christianity, but instead on a "torture stake."[20] This event is commemorated yearly in an event referred to as "the Memorial," the most important annual event for Jehovah's Witnesses. The Memorial is held after sundown on the day of the year corresponding to Nisan 14 on the Hebrew calendar.


Jehovah's Witnesses employ the Bible as their foremost text, specifically the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. This version extensively uses the name "Jehovah" in place of the Greek word for "Lord" over 200 times in the New Testament in order to refer to God. Frederick Wilhelm Franz is believed to have been the principal translator of this version of the scripture, although this has never been officially confirmed since the translation was intended to remain anonymous.[15]

At the Watch Tower Society's annual meeting on October 5, 2013, a significantly revised translation was released. Referring to the new revision, the publishers stated, "There are now about 10 percent fewer English words in the translation. Some key Biblical terms were revised. Certain chapters were changed to poetic format, and clarifying footnotes were added to the regular edition."[21]

Witnesses consider the entire Biblical canon, excluding the Apocrypha, to be the inspired word of God. They interpret many of the scriptures literally, though it is acknowledged that biblical writers and characters employed symbolism, parable, figures of speech, and poeticism. Jehovah's Witnesses hold that the Bible alone should be used for determining issues of doctrine. Interpretation of scripture and codification of doctrines is considered the exclusive responsibility of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses.


Jehovah's Witnesses expect that their faith will allow them to one day live on a renewed paradise on Earth. Their surviving component will not be a soul, at least not in the traditional sense, since they do not believe in the concept of an immortal immaterial entity that dwells inside the body. Instead, the component that survives after death is claimed to be the individual person as he or she is. Thus, souls of deceased persons who are not immediately resurrected to heaven are considered dead, and death itself is a state of non-existence with no consciousness. Jehovah's witnesses do not believe in any sort of Hell wherein a sinner suffers an eternity of fiery torment. Rather, they designate Hades or Sheol to be the common grave of all humankind.

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the eschaton (end times) began in 1914, and that full-fledge Armageddon is imminent. This will commence with the destruction of all false religions, after which point governments will also be annihilated. Any who are not deemed faithful by God will be destroyed at this juncture with no hope of resurrection. The fate of some, such as small children or the mentally ill, remains to be decided by God. After Armageddon, an unknown number of people who died prior to Armageddon will be resurrected, with the prospect of living forever in paradise.

Family and sexuality

Jehovah's Witnesses believe the ideal family structure is patriarchal, with the husband considered the final authority on all family decisions. The husband is, however, strongly encouraged to solicit his wife's thoughts and feelings in reaching any given decision. As is typical in Christianity, marriages are required to be monogamous. Premarital sex, Homosexuality and all other variations of intercourse in which the ends are non-procreative, are considered to be sins. [22] Abortion is considered to be murder.[23] In order to preclude the possibility of temptation, modesty is heavily encouraged in dress and grooming for both females and males. Gambling is also strictly forbidden, as it too is considered a hazard to proper family life.[24]


The Jehovah's Witnesses regard blood as sacred based on an literal interpretation of the Biblical admonition to " abstain from … blood," based on Acts 15:28, 29, and also on Leviticus 17:11, 12, "For the life of the flesh is in the blood … No soul of you shall eat blood." Therefore, Jehovah's Witnesses reject allogeneic and pre-operative autologous transfusions of whole blood, red cells, white cells, platelets or plasma.[25] Despite this prohibition of transfusion, it is left as a personal decision for individual witnesses as to how their own blood will be handled in the course of a medical procedure. Some experts in the medical surgical profession have collaborated with Jehovah's Witnesses to produce information regarding the benefits of bloodless techniques and therapies. [26]

Baptized Witnesses who violate the prohibition on blood were subject to organized communal shunning under Scriptural doctrine. However, a statement issued in 2000 changed this to voluntary revocation of membership, rather than the congregation initiating this step.[27]

Missionary work

Witnesses are known for the vigorous efforts made by members to spread their beliefs throughout the world, primarily by traveling from door to door, visiting the residents of each house in a given community. During these encounters, Witnesses discuss their religion, as well as the nature of religion in general with those who engage them, usually leaving Watchtower publications such as Awake! and The Watchtower for non-members. This missionary work is carried out by Jehovah's Witnesses worldwide, and accordingly, their literature is published in hundreds of languages.

With the advent of digital technology, publications are also available online at the organization's official website.[28] Witnesses use digital tablets to show residents videos and other materials.

Political and cultural views

Since Jehovah's Witnesses firmly believe that their allegiance belongs solely to God's Kingdom (which is viewed as an actual perfected government, of sorts), members abstain from partaking in any observances promoted by the secular state. For example, Witnesses do not salute the flag of any country or sing nationalistic songs, nor do they recognize common celebrations or national holidays such as birthdays, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. They believe that partaking in such observances and celebrations would be tantamount to worshiping false idols, thereby constituting idolatry. Members are still expected to observe the protocols of good citizens, however, obeying all laws and statutes of the country in which they reside so long as these do not violate what they view as God's law. The Jehovah's Witnesses are politically neutral, a sentiment which they express by way of their almost total detachment from secular politics, and their refusal to participate in any sort of military service, even when it is compulsory.

Humanitarian efforts

Aid work after large natural disasters is considered an important part of the Jehovah's Witnesses' mission, although it is secondary to their preaching effort. Large sums of donated money are used within impoverished areas for purposes of rebuilding communities and providing aid. The focus of relief efforts is primarily on helping fellow members and rebuilding Kingdom Halls, while providing assistance to others in need within the area in which they are working. Examples of relief work include help provided to Hutu and Tutsi victims during the Rwandan genocide, as well as that given to refugees of the Congo. Witnesses also had an active share in the relief work responding to hurricane Katrina, which crippled the southeastern United States in 2005. Preaching work is considered to be the ultimate form of humanitarian effort, since it gives people a means of hope for the future.

Polity and institutions

Organizational structure

Jehovah's Witnesses are led by a small Governing Body located at the Watchtower headquarters. This Governing Body has established six committees to oversee various aspects of our work, and each member serves on one or more of these committees.[29] These direct the operation of the branches throughout the world. Individual members volunteer to conduct the hands-on operation of these branches. Within each local congregation, elders assigned by the branch organize the congregation's public ministry and schedule various speakers for congregational teaching. They also decide on qualified members of the congregation for the positions of elder or ministerial servant, which require the approval of higher leadership.

Elders are prominent in congregational matters, particularly in religious instruction and spiritual counseling. Ministerial servants generally assist elders in a limited administrative capacity. Both are unpaid positions.[30] Male Witnesses are encouraged to work towards becoming ministerial servants or elders for their congregation. Within local congregations the role of women is minimal in terms of responsibility; they cannot serve as elders or ministerial servants, though they do carry out a significant proportion of the preaching work.

Congregational discipline

Jehovah's Witnesses employ various levels of congregational discipline in the form of controls administered by elders in the congregation. After a substantial accusation of serious wrongdoing is made by or against a baptized member of the congregation, a committee is formed in order to determine their guilt or innocence. Ultimately, this decision is adjudicated by a 'judicial committee' usually composed of three elders. If a member of the congregation is found guilty, a variety of punitive controls can be enforced, such as marking, which is employed when a member persists in conduct that is considered a clear violation of Scriptural principles, yet not of a sufficient seriousness to warrant excommunication. Alternatively, a shamed member can be given "reproof," in the case of sins which are more serious than those for which one would be "marked," and is given before all who have knowledge of the transgression.

The most severe discipline, administered as a last resort after the aforementioned assistance has failed, is known as disfellowshiping. The main factor determining whether an individual would be disfellowshiped or not is based on whether or not the wrongdoer is showing repentance for his or her actions. Disfellowshiping invariably leads to shunning by the congregation, wherein all congregation members avoid any association with the offending party, a practice which has been criticized by many non-members. Disfellowshiped members are still permitted to attend Kingdom Hall meetings, but are not allowed to take an active part in meetings or the ministry.[31] If a disassociated or disfellowshiped individual requests reinstatement to the congregation, a Judicial Committee, usually consisting of the elders who sat on the original committee if available, is formed to review the evidence. Once a decision is made to reinstate, a brief announcement is made to the congregation that the disfellowshiped member is once again a Jehovah's Witness.


The publishing arm of Jehovah's Witnesses, known as the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, has produced The Watchtower since 1879 and Awake!. They also publish brochures, tracts, books, Bible maps, and the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. Since January 1, 2000, all publications have been offered free of charge around the world.

With the advent of digital technologies, these publications are now available online. In addition, study materials as well as reports on activities are available in video format to watch online.[28]


Jehovah's Witnesses have an active presence in 239 countries, though they do not form a large part of the population of any particular nation. Brazil, Mexico, and the United States are the only countries where the number of active Witness members exceeds half a million. Since the mid-1990s, the number of members actively involved in preaching has increased from 4.5 million to 8.7 million, with almost 120,000 congregations.[32][33]


The theology of the Jehovah's Witnesses has incurred much controversy. Most of the doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses differ from those of mainstream Christianity, and are considered heresy by most Christian scholars. In contrast, the Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Christian church gradually diverged from the original teachings of Jesus on several major points.

Some have also criticized the publications produced by the Jehovah's Witnesses, including the New World Translation of the Bible, which is believed by some scholars to have been unreasonably shaped by the group so as to suit their doctrine.[34] [35] [36][37] Critics state that the Watchtower Society has made a number of unfulfilled predictions and doctrinal changes over the years, while claiming that it is the "one and only channel" used by God to continually dispense truth.

Critics have also argued that various Witness policies and practices — including the treatment of members who dissociate themselves or who have been disfellowshiped by the congregation, limiting of external information about the group from former members, and the regulation of members' lives — limit the ability of members to exercise personal freedom.


  1. Jolene Chu, God’s things and Caesar’s: Jehovah’s Witnesses and political neutrality Journal of Genocide Research 6(3) (September 2004):319-342. Jolene Chu is a researcher for the Watch Tower Society.
  2. How Did Jehovah’s Witnesses Get Their Name? Jehovah’s Witnesses. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  3. “Jehovah Gathers and Equips His People for Work” in Jehovah’s Witnesses – Proclaimers of God’s Kingdom (Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, 1993), 11.
  4. Zion's Watch Tower, February 1881.
  5. Nelson H. Barbour, Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873: or the Midnight Cry, 1871. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  6. A Conspiracy Exposed Zion's Watch Tower, April 25, 1894.
  7. Nelson H. Barbour, The Three Worlds, and the Harvest of this World (Rochester, NY: N.H. Barbour and C.T. Russell, 1877).
  8. 8.0 8.1 M. James Penton, Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0802079732).
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Charles Taze Russell, The Finished Mystery (Wentworth Press, 2019 (original 1917), ISBN 978-0469287839).
  10. Alexander Hugh Macmillan, Faith on the March (Lulu Publishers, 2010, ISBN 978-0557206711).
  11. J.F. Rutherford, Millions now living will never die! (International Bible Students Association, 1920).
  12. Nazi Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  13. Hans Hesse (ed.), Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi Regime (Manchester University Press, 2002, ISBN 3861087502).
  14. Sects: Witnessing the End TIME, July 18, 1969. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience (Commentary Press, 2002, ISBN 0914675230).
  16. Hold to Your Choice! The Watchtower, March 15, 1980, 17. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  17. George D. Chryssides, Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses (Scarecrow Press, 2008, ISBN 0810860740).
  18. M. James Penton, Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses (University of Toronto Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0802079732).
  19. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, Insights on the Scriptures Vols 1 and 2 (Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1988).
  20. The Ransom​—God’s Greatest Gift Jehovah's Witnesses. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  21. The 2013 Revision of the New World Translation Jehovah’s Witnesses. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  22. Young People Ask... What's Wrong With Premarital Sex? Awake!, July 22, 2004. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  23. Why Living a Godly Life Brings Happiness Knowledge that Leads to Everlasting Life. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  24. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, Knowledge That Leads to Everlasting Life. (Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1995), 120.
  25. Blood—Vital for Life Jehovah's Witnesses. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  26. Nicholas Jabbour, Transfusion-Free Medicine and Surgery (Wiley-Blackwell, 2005, ISBN 978-0470674086), 15-22
  27. Osamu Muramoto, Bioethical aspects of the recent changes in the policy of refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses BMJ 322(7277) (2001): 37–39. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Jehovah's Witnesses. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  29. What Is the Governing Body of Jehovah’s Witnesses? Jehovah's Witnesses. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  30. Do Jehovah’s Witnesses Have a Paid Clergy? Jehovah's Witnesses. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  31. What Disfellowshiping Means Jehovah's Witnesses. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  32. How Many of Jehovah’s Witnesses Are There Worldwide? 2021 Report. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  33. To be counted, an individual must be qualified to share in the preaching work and be active in preaching each month.
  34. Robert M. Bowman, Jr., Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1992, ISBN 978-0801009952).
  35. Randall Watters, Thus Saith the governing body of Jehovah's Witnesses (Free Minds, 1984).
  36. Edmond Gruss, Jehovah's Witnesses: Their Claims, Doctrinal Changes, and Prophetic Speculation. What Does the Record Show? (Longwood, FL: Xulon Press, 2001, ISBN 193123230X).
  37. David A. Reed, (ed.) Index of Watchtower Errors, 1879 to 1989 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1990, ISBN 978-0801077562).

ISBN links support NWE through referral fees

  • Barbour, Nelson H. The Three Worlds, and the Harvest of this World. Rochester, NY: N.H. Barbour and C.T. Russell, 1877. OCLC 41016956
  • Bowman, Jr., Robert M. Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses: Why They Read the Bible the Way They Do. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1992. ISBN 978-0801009952
  • Chryssides, George D. Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses. Scarecrow Press, 2008. ISBN 0810860740
  • Franz, Raymond. Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press, 2002. ISBN 0914675230
  • Gruss, Edmond. Jehovah's Witnesses: Their Claims, Doctrinal Changes, and Prophetic Speculation. What Does the Record Show? Longwood, FL: Xulon Press, 2001. ISBN 193123230X
  • Hesse, Hans (ed.). Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi Regime. Manchester University Press, 2002. ISBN 3861087502
  • Holden, Andrew. Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. London: Routledge, 2002. ISBN 9780415266109
  • Jabbour, Nicolas. Transfusion-Free Medicine and Surgery. Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. ISBN 978-0470674086
  • Jonsson, Carl O. The Gentile Times Reconsidered: Chronology & Christ's Return Commentary Press, 1998. ISBN 0914675060
  • Macmillan, Alexander Hugh. Faith on the March. Lulu Publishers, 2010. ISBN 978-0557206711
  • Penton, M. James. Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0802079732.
  • Reed, David A. (ed.). Index of Watchtower Errors, 1879 to 1989. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1990. ISBN 978-0801077562
  • Russell, Charles Taze. The Finished Mystery. Wentworth Press, 2019 (original 1917). ISBN 978-0469287839
  • Rutherford, J.F. Millions now living will never die! International Bible Students Association, 1920. ASIN B00086MIMY
  • Stafford, Greg. Jehovah's Witnesses Defended. Elihu Books, 2006. ISBN 0965981479
  • Watchtower Bible & Tract Society. Insights on the Scriptures Vols 1 and 2. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1988. ASIN B0012LCK1S
  • Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc., 1993. ASIN B0012ZL9IO
  • Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Knowledge that leads to Everlasting Life. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, 1995. ASIN B000I146NS
  • Watters, Randall. Thus Saith the governing body of Jehovah's Witnesses. Free Minds, 1984. ASIN B0006YKNCU
  • Wills, Tony. A People for His Name: A History of Jehovah's Witnesses and an Evaluation. Lulu Press, 2006. ISBN 9781430301004

External links

All links retrieved July 30, 2022.


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