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The Mughal Empire ruled parts of Afghanistan and most of the Indian Subcontinent between 1526 and 1857 (read more)

Featured Article: Crow Nation

Crow indians (Karl Bodmer)
The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and the Northern Plains in Montana and Wyoming, and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana. Their tribal headquarters are located at Crow Agency, Montana.

The Crow had migrated west to the plains where they adopted the lifestyle of Plains Indians, hunting bison and living in tipis. They were fierce warriors and renowned for their horses. During the Indian Wars they supported the United States military, providing scouts and protecting travelers on the Bozeman Trail. Chief Plenty Coups encouraged this, believing that the Americans would win the war and would remember their Crow allies, ensuring their survival in the white man's world. Although the Crow were forced to live on a reservation, Plenty Coups succeeded in having that reservation located on part of their homeland in Montana.

Today, the Crow tribe maintain their lifestyle and language on their reservation, celebrating their traditions in an annual festival and educating their youth in both their traditional beliefs and lifestyle as well as for contemporary job opportunities.

Popular Article: Paleolithic Age

Obsidian arrowhead
The Paleolithic Age, also known as the Stone Age, encompasses the first widespread use of technology—as humans progressed from simpler to more complex developmental stages—and the spread of humanity from the savannas of East Africa to the rest of the world. It is generally said to have begun approximately 500,000 years ago and to have ended about 6,000 B.C.E. It ends with the development of agriculture, the domestication of certain animals, and the smelting of copper ore to produce metal. It is termed pre-historical, since humanity had not yet started writing—which is seen as the traditional start of (recorded) history.

Knowledge of human life at this time is confined to generalities. Scientists do not have records of individual lives or of the achievements of individual contributors to human development. As technology enabled humans to settle in larger numbers, however, more rules were needed to regulate life, which gave rise to ethical codes. Religious belief, reflected in cave art, also became more sophisticated. Death and burial rites evolved. As hunting and gathering gave way to agriculture and as some people became artisans, trading implements they produced, even larger settlements, such as Jericho, appear. Art (such as the cave paintings at Lascaux) and music also developed as some people had more time for leisure. Human society emerged as more self-consciously collective. People became aware that they faced the same challenges, so co-operation was better than competition. In the early Paleolithic period, each clan or family group regarded themselves as "the people" to the exclusion of others. Strangers may not even have been thought of as human. With settlement, this changed and community identity became more important than individual identity.