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The Wyandot, an Iroquoian confederacy of four tribes, were called the Huron by French explorers (read more)
Guinea worm disease (GWD), also called dracunculiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Dracunculus medinensis (guinea worm). The disease is spread by drinking water contaminated by copepods that harbor the guinea worm larvae. The larvae mate in the human body and the females mature and develop into two-to-three-foot-long worms, which often forms a painful lesion on a lower limb and may exit excruciatingly through a leg or foot. GWD is the only human disease known to be contracted exclusively by drinking water.
A method used to extract a guinea worm from the leg of a human.
The guinea worm is one of the best historically documented human parasites, even noted in the ancient Ebers Papyrus. Once widely spread through tropical Africa and Asia, the incidence of the disease has gone from an estimate of more than 3 million cases a year in 1986 to only 542 reported cases in 2012. It may become the second human disease to be eradicated, after smallpox, and the first parasitic disease eradicated. And this has been accomplished not with vaccines or medical treatment, but largely through education and behavior change, along with treatment of contaminated water with larvicides and provision of clean water.
Sweatshop is a term often used to describe a manufacturing facility that is physically or mentally abusive, or that crowds, confines, or compels workers, or forces them to work long and unreasonable hours, commonly placed in comparison with slave labor. There exists a fierce debate over the use of factories that have come to be known as sweatshops, especially in relation to globalization. Proponents of free trade claim such factories benefit the citizens of developing nations who would otherwise have no legal employment opportunities. Opponents claim inhumane treatment of workers and abhorrent working conditions.
Sweatshop in Chicago, 1903
Whether sweatshops are ultimately considered a step on the way to improving the opportunities, and standard of living, of those otherwise facing poverty, or an obstacle to that same goal, the resolution is the same—sweatshops should be temporary. The standard of working conditions for all should reach an acceptable level, but the process by which this is achieved must also take into account the real situation of the workers.