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Robert K. Merton coined the expression "self-fulfilling prophecy" (read more)
David Warren "Dave" Brubeck (December 6, 1920 – December 5, 2012) was an American jazz pianist and composer, considered to be one of the foremost exponents of progressive jazz. Brubeck's style ranged from refined to bombastic, reflecting his mother's attempts at classical training and his improvisational skills. Brubeck's popularity was widespread both geographically, as he toured extensively throughout the United States and internationally, and in terms of audience. While jazz, particularly pieces as complex and unusual as those favored by Brubeck, was often considered challenging and popular only with a limited audience, Brubeck played on college campuses and expanded his audience to students and young adults making cool jazz widely appreciated.
His music is known for employing unusual time signatures, and superimposing contrasting rhythms, meters, and tonalities. Brubeck experimented with time signatures throughout his career. His long-time musical partner, alto saxophonist Paul Desmond, wrote the saxophone melody for the Dave Brubeck Quartet's best remembered piece, "Take Five", which is in 5/4 time. This piece has endured as a jazz classic on one of the top-selling jazz albums, Time Out.
Brubeck was also a recognized composer, with compositions that ranged from jazz pieces to more classical orchestral and sacred music, always interweaving his beloved jazz with more classical forms. Many of these compositions reflected and developed his spiritual beliefs; he became a Catholic in 1980 shortly after completing the Mass To Hope! A Celebration.
The temperance movement attempted to greatly reduce the amount of alcohol consumed or even prohibit its production and consumption entirely. In predominantly Muslim countries, temperance is part of Islam. In predominantly Christian countries, forms of Christianity influenced by Wesleyan views on sanctification have strongly supported it at times. More specifically, religious or moralistic beliefs have often been the catalyst for temperance, though secular advocates do exist. The Women's Christian Temperance Union is a prominent example of a religion-based temperance movement. Supporters have sometimes called for a legal ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol but in the main the movement has called for self-restraint and self-discipline.
A cartoon from Australia ca. 1906
Most of the biggest supporters in all countries have been women, often as part of what some describe as feminism. The strong temperance movements of the early twentieth century found most of their support in women who were opposed to the domestic violence associated with alcohol abuse, and the large share of household income it could consume, which was especially burdensome to the low-income working class.