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C. Lloyd Morgan (Conwy Lloyd Morgan) (February 6, 1852 - March 6, 1936) was a British psychologist. His experimental approach to animal psychology which helped establish psychology as an experimental science. Morgan is best remembered for his statement that became known as "Morgan's canon," which states that higher psychological processes should not be used to explain behavior that can be explained by processes lower on the evolutionary scale, without independent evidence of the use of such higher processes on other occasions. However, his Canon has often been misrepresented as a principle of parsimony like Ockham's razor, namely that the simplest process should always be invoked as the explanation for behavior, a version that was used by Behaviorists in the early part of the twentieth century to support their approach.
In more recent times, Morgan's work has been seen less as absolutely anti-anthropomorphic and anti-anecdotal and rather as promoting the use of accurate observation and recording of behavior to accompany the use of controlled experiments. At the same time, with the rise of animal cognition as an area of interest, the interpretation of his Canon has returned closer to Morgan's original intention. His ideas on "emergent evolution," initially rejected by many due to his appeal to a supplemental activity (generally interpreted as God) to natural processes of evolution, may also find their place in contemporary thought.
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, meaning they lack the means for self-reproduction outside a host cell. They infect a wide variety of organisms, both eukaryotes (such as animals, insects, and plants) and prokaryotes (such as bacteria). A virus that infects bacteria is known as a bacteriophage, which is used mainly in its shortened form: phage.
While viruses are spread by a variety of means, including insect vectors, their prevention and spread is often tied to a failure of human responsibility. This responsibility can include the practice of good hygiene and sexual discipline, the prevention of mosquito bites through repellents and mosquito nets, the proper care of one's body to build up resistance, or even the taking of vaccines. In some cases, the susceptibility to viruses reflects the need for those individuals and societies with means to help those without means, such as in meeting the cost of purchasing effective mosquito nets or vaccines.