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Formed mostly as the result of volcanic events, Java is the 12th largest island in the world and the fourth largest island of Indonesia. A chain of volcanic mountains form an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, and most residents are bilingual, with Indonesian as their second language. While the majority of Javanese are Muslim, Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs and cultures.
A biome may also be defined as an extensive ecosystem (ecological unit of living organisms and their abiotic environment) spread over a wide geographic area, or as a grouping of many ecosystems that share similar environmental features and communities (organisms living together in a certain area). Collectively, biomes comprise the biosphere, which is the thin area of the earth's surface where all organisms live.