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Victor Turner coined the term "communitas," referring to an unstructured state in which all members of a community are equal allowing them to share a common experience, usually through a rite of passage (read more)

Featured Article: Shirley Temple

16-year-old Temple in 1944 in Ottawa, Canada
Shirley Temple Black (née Temple; April 23, 1928 – February 10, 2014) was an American film and television actress, singer, dancer, and public servant, most famous as a child star in the 1930s. Temple began her film career in 1932 at the age of three. In 1934, she found international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her talents. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s. Her box office popularity waned as she reached adolescence. She appeared in a few films of varying quality in her mid-to-late teens, and retired completely from films in 1950 at the age of 22.

Following her Hollywood career she spent a brief time in television but then moved on from acting. She entered politics and became a diplomat with an appointment to represent the United States at a session of the United Nations General Assembly, and then serving as United States Ambassador to Ghana and later to Czechoslovakia, and as Chief of Protocol of the United States. She also sat on the boards of many corporations and organizations including The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, and the National Wildlife Federation.

Temple was the recipient of numerous awards and honors including the Kennedy Center Honors and a Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. She remains an inspirational cinematic legend, beloved by the public for her brilliant performances when just a child. Unlike many Hollywood child stars who lost their way, Temple retained her dignity and went on to serve her country both at home and abroad for many years.

Popular Article: Japan

Flag of Japan
Japan (日本, Nihon or Nippon, officially日本国, Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku) is an island country that sits off the east coast of Asia. Japan comprises over three thousand islands, the largest of which are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, and Shikoku. Most of the islands are mountainous, and many are volcanic; Japan’s highest peak, Mount Fuji, is a volcano. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin," which is why Japan is sometimes called the "Land of the Rising Sun." Japan's capital, Tokyo, and its surrounding prefectures make up the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.

Archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as 35,000 B.C.E. The first written records of Japan appear in Chinese history texts from the first century C.E. Ancient Japan had extensive cultural exchange with the neighboring countries of China and Korea. Japan's cultural development has been characterized by foreign influences, developed in a uniquely Japanese way.

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