New World Encyclopedia integrates facts with values.
Written by online collaboration with certified experts.
Spanish painter Francisco Goya is both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the modern artists (read more)
Bullying usually is characterized by direct or overt behavior, observable actions against an individual or group. However, bullying may also be indirect or covert, in which subversive acts that are more difficult to detect are perpetrated against the victim. Bullying may involve physical actions such as hitting, kicking, or hair pulling, or it may be verbal in nature, involving the use of hurtful nicknames, telling lies, or making fun of the victim.
The traditional response to bullying has been to impose the responsibility to change upon the victim—telling them to fight back, to ignore it, to blend in more with the crowd, or to avoid the person bullying them so as not to provoke them. In general, this approach has failed, and in the worst instances has escalated the violence to school shootings and/or suicide of the victim.
A different approach puts the responsibility to change on all those involved, including the individual who bullied, and the bystander—the other members of the community within which bullying has occurred. This approach recognizes that it is not only the victim of bullying who needs support, but the bully also needs both punishment and counseling, and the bystander, often ignored in the problem of bullying, needs empowerment.
The problem of bullying can be seen not as an individual character flaw but rather as a societal problem. The desire for power over others, attained through physical or other forms of violence, is a problem that has been observed in human history. Its solution requires change both in human nature and in human relationships, such that every individual feels valued and respected within their community. When this is achieved, bullying will cease.
Works in the dark romantic spirit were influenced by Transcendentalism, but did not entirely embrace the ideas of Transcendentalism. Such works are notably less optimistic than Transcendental texts about mankind, nature, and divinity.