Kingdom of Sunda and Galuh
The Kingdom of Sunda and kingdom of Galuh were twin kingdoms in West Java that emerged from the division of Tarumanagara kingdom in 670 C.E.. Information about the two kingdoms is taken mostly from stone inscriptions scattered around Bogor in Java, and from later historical annals and the records of traders and travelers. The inscriptions mention the kingdom of Sunda as the successor of Tarumanagara, while the inscriptions in Sukabumi mention the existence of the Sunda kingdom until the era of Sri Jayabupati. In 669, Tarusbawa succeeded his father in-law as the thirteenth king of Tarumanagara. Chinese chronicles mention that Tarusbawa sent a messenger advising the Chinese king of his enthronement to in 669. Tarumanagara's prestige and power had been declining, probably due to the series of invasions from Srivijaya and the severance of its vassal states. In 670, Tarusbawa, wishing to recapture his kingdom’s former greatness under the Tarumanagara king Purnawarman, who had ruled starting in 397 C.E. from his capital at Sunda Pura (meaning Holy Town or Pure Town), changed the name of Tarumanagara to the “Kingdom of Sunda.”
Wretikandayun, (monarchic founder of Galuh), used this event as a pretext to dissociate his small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara. Galuh had made an alliance through dynastic marriage with the Kingdom of Kalingga, which supported their demands for independence. Wishing to avoid civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun's demand. In 670 C.E., Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: the kingdom of Sunda in the west, and the kingdom of Galuh occupying the east, divided by the Tarum (Citarum) River. The two kingdoms were re-united under Tarumanagara’s successor, Sanjaya, who placed a vassal king on the throne of Galuh in 723. In his travel log of 1513, the Portuguese Tome Pires mentioned that Dayo (Dayeuh) or capital city of Sunda lay two days’ travel to south from Kalapa harbor or Sunda Kelapa (now Jakarta) right on the mouth of Ciliwung river.
The Emergence of Sunda and Galuh
Tarumanagara or “Taruma Kingdom” or just “Taruma” was an early Sundanese kingdom, whose fifth-century ruler, Purnavarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions on Java island. The kingdom was not far from modern Jakarta, and Purnavarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement. In his inscriptions, Purnavarman associated himself with Vishnu, and Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project.
According to Book Nusantara, Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman founded the Tarumanagara kingdom in 358 C.E. Purnawarman, the third king of Tarumnagara (reigned from 395 C.E. to 434 C.E.) held control over 48 small kingdoms with area stretching from Salakanagara or Rajatapura to Purwalingga (current city of Purbaligga in Central Java Province). Tarumanagara maintained extended trade and diplomatic relations in the territory stretching between India and China. The Chinese Buddhist Monk Fa-Hsien reported in his book fo-kuo-chi (414 C.E.) that he stayed on the island of Yavadi (Jawa), most probably western part of Java island, for six months, from December 412 C.E. until May 413 C.E.. He reported that the Law of Buddha was not much known, but that the Brahmans (Hindu) flourished, and heretics (animists) too. In the annals of the Sung Dynasty, the king of Ya-va-da (Java) is His Majesty Purnawarman. Those annals also provide documentary evidence of a diplomatic mission sent by Purnawarman, which arrived in china in 435 C.E..
The Division of Tarumanagara
Around 650, the Tarumanagara kingdom was attacked and defeated by Srivijaya (a kingdom established on Sumatra in 500), and Tarumanegara's influence on its small kingdoms began to decline.
In 669, Tarusbawa succeeded his father in-law as the thirteenth king of Tarumanagara. Chinese chronicles mention that Tarusbawa sent a messenger advising the Chinese king of his enthronement to in 669. He was crowned on the ninth day of the full moon of the month Jesta in 591 Saka, or corresponds to May 18, 669 C.E.. Tarumanagara's prestige and power had been declining, probably due to the series of invasions from Srivijaya and the severance of its vassal states. In 670, Tarusbawa, wishing to recapture his kingdom’s former greatness under the Tarumanagara king Purnawarman, who had ruled from 397 C.E. from his capital at Sunda Pura (meaning Holy Town or Pure Town), changed the name of Tarumanagara to the Kingdom of Sunda.
Wretikandayun, (monarchic founder of Galuh), used this event as a pretext to dissociate the small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara. Galuh had made an alliance with the Kingdom of Kalingga through dynastic marriage; a son of King Wretikandayun had married Parwati, a daughter of Queen Sima from Kalingga, and Sana (Bratasenawa, Sena), a grandson of King Wretikandayun, had married Sanaha, a granddaughter of queen Sima. Kalingga supported King Wretikandayun in demanding that the remnant of Tarumanagara's territory be divided into two kingdoms. Finding himself in an unfortunate position and wishing to avoid civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun's demand. In 670 C.E., Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: the kingdom of Sunda in the west, and the kingdom of Galuh occupying the east, divided by the Tarum (Citarum) River.
The Kingdom of Galuh then comprised many vassal kingdoms which covered areas of present-day West and present-day Central Java Provinces.
Location of Sunda Capital
King Tarusbawa built a new capital city inland near the source of Cipakancilan river. In Carita Parahiyangan ('The Story of Rahiyangs'), a fifteenth-sixteenth-century manuscript, King Tarusbawa was only mentioned as Tohaan (Lord/King) of Sunda. He became the ancestor of a series of Sunda kings that reigned until 723 C.E..
Sunda is recorded as the name of the kingdom in two inscriptions that were found around Bogor and Sukabumi. The Jayabupati inscriptions in Cibadak give rise to speculations that the capital might have been in that area, but this claim is not supported by other historical records. The inscriptions tell that it is forbidden to catch fish in some parts of Citatih river is forbidden, and that the area is considered sacred as part of Kabuyutan Sanghiyang Tapak. It is the same as Purnawarman inscriptions at Pasir Muara and Pasir Koleangkak that did not mention the exact site of Tarumanagara capital. The capital city of Sunda is thought to have been in the area around Bogor, while the capital of Galuh was in the area now known as Ciamis, around the town of Kawali.
Kings of Sunda after Tarusbawa
Since the Crown Prince of Sunda predeceased King Tarusbawa, Princess Tejakencana (the daughter of the Crown Prince) was hailed as heiress of Sunda. She married Rakeyan Jamri, a son of Bratasenawa (the third king of Galuh Kingdom and a son of Wretikandayun) and Princess Sanaha (from Kalingga). In 723, Jamri overcame Tarusbawa and became the second king of Sunda. As the lord of Sunda, he was known as Prabu Harisdarma; when he acquired the throne of Galuh he was known as Sanjaya.
Sanjaya also had legitimate right to the throne of Kalingga (from his grandmother's side). In 732 C.E., he chose to live in Kalingga (in the northern part of it known as Bhumi Mataram) and later established the Ancient Mataram Kingdom and Sanjaya Dynasty. In 732, he gave his right to western Java to his son from Tejakencana, Prince Tamperan (Rakeyan Panaraban). Rakeyan was a half-brother of Rakai Panangkaran, Sanjaya's son from Sudiwara (daughter of Dewasinga, king of southern Kalingga).
The list of kings of Sunda:
- 1. Sanjaya/Harisdarma/Rakeyan Jamri (723 –732)
- 2. Rakeyan Panaraban/Tamperan Barmawijaya (732 - 739)
- 3. Rakeyan Banga (739 – 766)
- 4. Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang (766 – 783)
- 5. Prabu Gilingwesi (783 – 795)
- 6. Pucukbumi Darmeswara (795 – 819)
- 7. Prabu Gajah Kulon Rakeyan Wuwus (819 – 891)
- 8. Prabu Darmaraksa (891 – 895)
- 9. Windusakti Prabu Dewageng (895 – 913)
- 10. Rakeyan Kemuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi (913 – 916)
- 11. Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Wanayasa (916 – 942)
- 12. Prabu Resi Atmayadarma Hariwangsa (942 – 954)
- 13. Limbur Kancana (954 – 964)
- 14. Prabu Munding Ganawirya (964 – 973)
- 15. Prabu Jayagiri Rakeyan Wulung Gadung (973 – 989)
- 16. Prabu Brajawisesa (989 – 1012)
- 17. Prabu Dewa Sanghyang (1012 – 1019)
- 18. Prabu Sanghyang Ageng (1019 – 1030)
- 19. Prabu Detya Maharaja Sri Jayabupati (1030 – 1042). Sri Jayabupati’s father (Sanghyang Ageng) married a Sriwijaya princes (Sri Jayabupati’s mother). Sri Jayabupati married a daughter of Dharmawangsa (sister to Dewi Laksmi, Airlangga's wife)
Contents of the inscription
The use of the name “Sunda” to identify a kingdom originates from an inscription found in Sukabumi area. The inscriptions consist of forty lines, requiring four pieces of stone to contain it. These four stones were found in the Cicatih River bank in the Cibadak area. Three were found near Kampung Bantar Muncang, and one was found near Kampung Pangcalikan. The inscriptions are written in the ancient Javanese script. The four inscriptions are now stored at the National Museum of Indonesia, with code D 73 (Cicatih), D 96, D 97, and D 98. The contents of the first three inscriptions (according Pleyte):
D 73 : //O// Swasti shakawarsatita 952 karttikamasa tithi dwadashi shuklapa-ksa. ha. ka. ra. wara tambir. iri- ka diwasha nira prahajyan sunda ma-haraja shri jayabhupati jayamana- hen wisnumurtti samarawijaya shaka-labhuwanamandaleswaranindita harogowardhana wikra-mottunggadewa, ma-
D 96 : gaway tepek i purwa sanghyang tapak ginaway denira shri jayabhupati prahajyan sunda. mwang tan hanani baryya baryya shila. irikang lwah tan pangalapa ikan sesini lwah. Makahingan sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i hulu, i sor makahingan ia sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i wungkalagong kalih matangyan pinagawayaken pra-sasti pagepageh. mangmang sapatha.
D 97 : sumpah denira prahajyan sunda. lwirnya nihan.
Translation: Peace and well-being. In the year of Saka 952, Kartika month on the twelfth day on the light part, Hariang day, Kaliwon, first day, Wuku Tambir. Today is the day that king of Sunda Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa, makes his marks on eastern part of Sanghiyang Tapak. Made by Sri Jayabupati King of Sunda. And may there be nobody allowed to break this law. In this part of river catching fish is forbidden, in the sacred area of Sanghyang Tapak near the source of the river. Up until the border of sacred Sanghyang Tapak marked by two big trees. So this inscriptions is made, enforced with an oath.
The oath of the king is written on the fourth inscription (D 98). Consisting of 20 lines, it asks a supranatural power, deities from the heavens and earth, to protect and support the king's mandate. Whoever breaks the law will be punished by these supranatural beings, die in a horrible way such as having their brain sucked, blood drunk, intestines destroyed, and chest split in two. This inscription is closed by the words, "I wruhhanta kamung hyang kabeh" (O being known by thee.., all the spirits).
The Inscription's Date
The suggested date of the Jayabupati inscription is October 11, 1030. According to Pustaka Nusantara, Parwa III sarga 1, Sri Jayabupati reigned for twelve years (952 - 964) saka (1030 – 1042 C.E.). Strangely, the style of the inscriptions reveals East Javanese influence not only in the letters, language, and style, but in the noble name of the king, which is similar to royal names in Darmawangsa's court. Sri Jayabupati in Carita Parahiyangan is mentioned as Prabu Detya Maharaja. He was the twentieth king of Sunda after Tarusbawa.
Sanna and Purbasora
Tarusbawa was the good friend of Bratasena or Sena (709 C.E. - 716 C.E.), the third king of Galuh. He also known as Sanna, as mentioned in Canggal inscriptions (732 C.E.), uncle of Sanjaya. This friendship encouraged Tarusbawa to take Sanjaya as his son in-law. Bratasenawa (Sanna or Sena) was displaced from the throne of Galuh by Purbasora in 716 C.E. Purbasora was the grandson of Wretikandayun from his eldest son, Batara Danghyang Guru Sempakwaja, the founder of Galunggung kingdom. Sena was also a grandson of Wretikandayun from his youngest son, Mandiminyak, the second king of Galuh (702-709 C.E.).
Purbasora and Sena were brothers from the same mother because of an affair between Mandiminyak and Sempakwaja's wife. Sempakwaja could not succeeded his father because he was toothless, a shameful physical handicap considered unsuitable for a king at that time. For this reason, his younger brother inherited the Galuh throne from Wretikandayun, but the son of Sempakwaja still felt he deserved the throne of Galuh. There was also the matter of King Sena’s scandalous birth as the result of Purbasora’s mother’s extramarital affair. These circumstances fueled Purbasora’s rebellion and his determination to take the Galuh throne from Sena.
With the aid of his father in-law, King Indraprahasta, from a kingdom near present day Cirebon, Purbasora launch his coup on Galuh throne. Defeated, Sena fled to Kalingga, the kingdom of his wife's grandmother, Queen Shima.
Sanjaya and Balangantrang
Sanjaya, the son of Sannaha (the sister of Sena), determined to take revenge on Purbasora's family. He asked the help of Tarusbawa, friend of Sena. His desire was realized when he became the king of Sunda, reigning on behalf of his wife.
With the help of Rabuyut Sawal, also a close friend of Sena, he prepared a special force located in the Gunung Sawal area. This special force was led by Sanjaya, while the Sunda army is led by Patih Anggada. A surprise attack was launched at nightfall and almost all of Purbasora's family was wiped out, except for Bimaraksa, Purbasora's son–in-law, a minister of Galuh, who escaped with just a handful of guards.
Bimaraksa also known as Ki Balangantrang, was the Senapati (army general) of the kingdom. Balangantrang, also a grandson of Wretikandayun from his second son, Resi Guru Jantaka or Rahyang Kidul, was also considered unfit to be the successor of Wretikandayun because he had suffered a hernia. Balangantrang hid in Gègèr Sunten village and raised anti-Sanjaya forces, supported by kings of Kuningan and the remnants of the army of Indraprahasta, which had been annihilated by Sanjaya in revenge for their support of Purbasora in ousting Sena.
Sena had asked Sanjaya to honor all of the Galuh royal family, except Purbasora. Sanjaya himself was not interested in reigning over Galuh; he attacked it only to fulfill his godfather's wish for revenge on Purbasora's family. After defeating Purbasora, Sanjaya ask his uncle, Sempakwaja, in Galunggung to order Demunawan, younger brother of Purbasora, to reign in Galuh. But Sempakwaja declined, fearing that this was only a trick by Sanjaya to annihilate Demunawan.
Sanjaya could not determine Balangantrang’s whereabouts, so he accepted his rights to the Galuh throne. Realizing that he was unwelcome in the Galuh court, and also because he was a Sunda King who must reside in Pakuan, he put Premana Dikusuma, grandson of Purbasora, in charge of Galuh as a vassal king. The 43-year-old Premana Dikusuma (born 683 C.E.), was already known as a Rsi, or ascetic monk; because of his passion, since a young age, for the study of spiritual teachings, he was also known as Bagawat Sajalajaya.
- Mary Somers Heidhues. Southeast Asia: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 2000.
ReferencesISBN links support NWE through referral fees
- Ayatrohaedi. 2005. Sundakala: Cuplikan Sejarah Sunda Berdasarkan Naskah-naskah "Panitia Wangsakerta" Cirebon. Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. ISBN 9794193305
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