Surah

The first Surah of the Qur'an

The Arabic word Surah (or "Sura" سورة sūrah, plural "Suwar" سور) is used in Islam to mean a "chapter" of the Holy Qur'an. Each surah is traditionally ordered roughly in order of decreasing length. Each Sura is named for a word or name mentioned in an ayah (section), of that 'Surah'. Some 'Surah' were surprising to Muslims at the time of the 'Revelation'; for example, the elevated status of Mary—a Jewish woman and the mother of the Christian Jesus at the time of the 'Revelation'—which is mentioned in Surah 19 ("Maryam/Mary"). Literally, Surah means "something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall."

Contents

Structure

Quran In The Book Form

The Qur'an consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths, each known as a surah. The title of each surah is derived from a name or quality discussed in the text or from the first letters or words of the surah. Muslims believe that Prophet Mohammed himself, on God's command, gave the surahs their names. In general, the longer chapters appear earlier in the Qur'an, while the shorter ones appear later. As such, the arrangement is not connected to the sequence of revelation. Each chapter, with the exception of one, commences with the Basmala bismillah Al rahman Al rahimm,[1] an Arabic phrase meaning ("In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful"), with the exception of the ninth chapter. There are, however, still 114 occurrences of the basmala in the Qur'an, due to its presence in verse 27:30 as the opening of Solomon's letter to the Queen of Sheba.

Each Surah is formed from several Ayahs (verses) which originally means a sign or portent sent by God. The number of the ayahs are not the same in various Surahs. An individual ayah may be just few letters or several lines. The ayahs are unlike the highly refined poetry of the pre-Islamic Arabs in their content and distinctive rhymes and rhythms, being more akin to the prophetic utterances marked by inspired sacred scriptures of Judaism and Christianity. Since the beginning of Islam, the proper number of ayahs has been a controversial issue among Muslim scholars, some recognizing 6,000, some 6,204, some 6,219, and some 6,236, although the words in all cases are the same. The most popular edition of the Qur'an, which is based on the tradition of the school of Kufa, contains 6,236 ayahs.

Types of Surahs

There are two types of surahs in the Qur'an: Madinan surahs and Meccan surahs. The division of surahs into 'Meccan surahs' and 'Medinan surahs' is primarily a consequence of stylistic and thematic considerations. Classification of the surahs into these periods is based upon factors such as the length of the verse and the presence or absence of certain key concepts or word (e.g. al-Rahman as name of God).[2]

The Madinan surahs of the Qur'an are those chapters that were revealed at Madina, after Muhammad's hijra from Mecca, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Mecca, an oppressed minority. They are mostly placed at the beginning of the Qur'an, and typically have longer ayat. In accordance with the new situation of the Muslims, these surahs more often deal with details of legislation, and every surah that deals with issues of warfare is Madinan, beginning with surat al-Baqara.

The Meccan surahs are the chronologically earlier surahs of the Qur'an that were revealed at Mecca. They are typically shorter, with relatively short ayat, and mostly come near the end of the Qur'an. Most of the suras containing Muqatta'at are Meccan. The other type of sura is the Madinan sura.

List of Suras

The 114 suras are:

  1. Al-Fatiha (The Opening), seven ayats, one ruku, Makkan sura
  2. Al-Baqara (The Cow), 286 ayat, 40 rukus, Madinan sura
  3. Al-Imran (The Family of Imran), 200 ayat, 20 rukus, Madinan sura
  4. An-Nisa (The Women), 177 ayat, 2four rukus, Madinan sura
  5. Al-Ma'ida (The Table), 120 ayat, 16 rukus, Madinan sura
  6. Al-An'am (The Cattle), 165 ayat, 20 rukus, Makkan sura
  7. Al-A'raf (The Heights), 206 ayat, 2four rukus Makkan sura
  8. Al-Anfal (The Spoils of War), 75 ayat, ten rukus, Madinan sura
  9. At-Tawba (The Repentance), 129 ayat, 16 rukus, Madinan sura
  10. Yunus (Jonah), 109 ayat, 1one rukus, Makkan sura
  11. Hud (Hud), 123 ayat, 10 rukus, Makkan sura
  12. Yusuf (Joseph), 111 ayat, 1two rukus, Makkan sura
  13. Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder), 43 ayat, six rukus, Madinan sura
  14. Ibrahim (Abraham), 52 ayat, seven rukus, Makkan sura
  15. Al-Hijr (Al-Hijr, The Stoneland, The Rock City), 99 ayat, six rukus, Makkan sura
  16. An-Nahl (The Bee), 128 ayat, 16 rukus, Makkan sura
  17. Al-Isra (Isra], The Night Journey, The Children of Israel), 111 ayat, 1two rukus, Makkan sura
  18. Al-Kahf (The Cave), 110 ayat, 1two rukus Makkan sura
  19. Maryam (Mary), 98 ayat, six rukus, Makkan sura
  20. Ta-Ha (Ta-Ha), 135 ayat, 8 rukus, Makkan sura
  21. Al-Anbiya (The Prophets), 112 ayat, seven rukus, Makkan sura
  22. Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage, The Hajj), 78 ayat, ten rukus, Madinan sura
  23. Al-Muminun (The Believers), 118 ayat, six rukus, Makkan sura
  24. An-Noor (The Light), 64 ayat, nine rukus, Makkan sura
  25. Al-Furqan (The Criterion, The Standard), 77 ayat, six rukus, Makkan sura
  26. Ash-Shu'ara (The Poets), 227 ayat, 1one rukus, Makkan sura
  27. An-Naml (The Ant, The Ants), 93 ayat, seven rukus, Makkan sura
  28. Al-Qisas (The Stories), 88 ayat, nine rukus, Makkan sura
  29. Al-Ankabut (The Spider), 69 ayat, seven rukus, Makkan sura
  30. Ar-Rum (The Romans, The Byzantines), 60 ayat, six rukus, Makkan sura
  31. Luqman (Luqman), 34 ayat, four rukus, Makkan sura
  32. As-Sajda (The Prostration, Worship, Adoration), 30 ayat, three rukus, Makkan sura
  33. Al-Ahzab (The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces), 73 ayat, nine rukus, Madinan sura
  34. Saba (Saba, Sheba), 54 ayat, six rukus, Makkan sura
  35. Fatir (The Angels, Originator), 45 ayat, five rukus, Makkan sura
  36. Ya-Seen (Ya-seen), 83 ayat, five rukus, Makkan sura
  37. As-Saaffat (Those Who Set The Ranks, drawn Up In Ranks), 182 ayat, five rukus, Makkan sura
  38. ad (The Letter Sad), 88 ayat, five rukus, Makkan sura
  39. Az-Zumar (The Troops, Throngs), 75 ayat, eight rukus, Makkan sura
  40. Ghafir (The Forgiver), 85 ayat, nine rukus, Makkan sura
  41. Fussilat (Explained In Detail), 54 ayat, six rukus, Makkan sura
  42. Ash-Shura (Council, Consultation), 53 ayat, five rukus, Makkan sura
  43. Az-Zukhruf (Ornaments Of Gold, Luxury), 89 ayat, seven rukus, Makkan sura
  44. Ad-Dukhan (Smoke), 59 ayat, three rukus, Makkan sura
  45. Al-Jathiya (Crouching), 37 ayat, four rukus, Makkan sura
  46. Al-Ahqaf (The Wind-curved Sandhills, The Dunes), 35 ayat, four rukus, Makkan sura
  47. Muhammad (Muhammad), 38 ayat, four rukus, Madinan sura
  48. Al-Fath (Victory, Conquest), 29 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  49. Al-Hujraat (The Private Apartments, The Inner Apartments), 18 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  50. Qaf (The Letter Qaf), 45 ayat, three rukus, Makkan sura
  51. Adh-Dhariyat (The Winnowing Winds), 60 ayat, three rukus, Makkan sura
  52. At-Tur (The Mount), 49 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  53. An-Najm (The Star), 62 ayat, three rukus, Makkan sura
  54. Al-Qamar (The Moon), 55 ayat, three rukus, Makkan sura
  55. Ar-Rahman (The Beneficent, The Mercy Giving), 78 ayat, three rukus, Madinan sura
  56. Al-Waqia (The Event, The Inevitable), 96 ayat, three rukus, Makkan sura
  57. Al-Hadid (The Iron), 29 ayat, four rukus, Madinan sura
  58. Al-Mujadila (She That Disputeth, The Pleading Woman), 22 ayat, three rukus, Madinan sura
  59. Al-Hashr (Exile, Banishment), 24 ayat, three rukus, Madinan sura
  60. Al-Mumtahina (She That Is To Be Examined, Examining Her), 13 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  61. As-Saff (The Ranks, Battle Array), 14 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  62. Al-Jumua (The Congregation, Friday), 11 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  63. Al-Munafiqoon (The Hypocrites), 11 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  64. At-Taghabun (Mutual Disillusion, Haggling), 18 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  65. At-Talaq (Divorce), 12 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  66. At-Tahrim (Banning, Prohibition), 12 ayat, two rukus, Madinan sura
  67. Al-Mulk (The Sovereignty, Control), 30 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  68. Al-Qalam (The Pen), 52 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  69. Al-Haaqqa (The Reality), 52 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  70. Al-Maarij (The Ascending Stairways), 44 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  71. Nooh (Nooh), 28 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  72. Al-Jinn (The Jinn), 28 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  73. Al-Muzzammil (The Enshrouded One, Bundled Up), 20 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  74. Al-Muddaththir (The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak), 56 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  75. Al-Qiyama (The Rising Of The Dead, Resurrection), 40 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  76. Al-Insan (Human), 31 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  77. Al-Mursalat (The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth), 50 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  78. An-Naba (The Tidings, The Announcement), 40 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  79. An-Naziat (Those Who Drag Forth, Soul-snatchers), 46 ayat, two rukus, Makkan sura
  80. Abasa (He Frowned), 42 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  81. At-Takwir (The Overthrowing), 29 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  82. Al-Infitar (The Cleaving, Bursting Apart), 19 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  83. Al-Mutaffifin (Defrauding, The Cheats, Cheating), 36 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  84. Al-Inshiqaq (The Sundering, Splitting Open), 25 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  85. Al-Burooj (The Mansions Of The Stars, Constellations), 22 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  86. At-Tariq (The Morning Star, The Nightcomer), 17 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  87. Al-Ala (The Most High, Glory To Your Lord In The Highest), 19 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  88. Al-Ghashiya (The Overwhelming, The Pall), 26 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  89. Al-Fajr (The Dawn, Daybreak), 30 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  90. Al-Balad (The City, This Countryside), 20 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  91. Ash-Shams (The Sun), 15 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  92. Al-Lail (The Night), 21 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  93. Ad-Dhuha (The Morning Hours, Morning Bright), 11 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  94. Al-Inshirah (Solace, Consolation, Relief), eight ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  95. At-Tin (The Fig, The Figtree), eight ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  96. Al-Alaq (The Clot, Recite), 19 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  97. Al-Qadr (Power, Fate), five ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  98. Al-Bayyina (The Clear Proof, Evidence), eight ayat, one rukus, Madinan sura
  99. Az-Zalzala (The Earthquake), eight ayat, one rukus, Madinan sura
  100. Al-Adiyat (The Courser, The Chargers), 11 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  101. Al-Qaria (The Calamity, The Stunning Blow, The Disaster), 11 ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  102. At-Takathur (Rivalry In World Increase, Competition), eight ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  103. Al-Asr (The Declining Day, Eventide, The Epoch), three ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  104. Al-Humaza (The Traducer, The Gossipmonger), nine ayat, one rukus, Makkan sura
  105. Al-Fil (The Elephant), five ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  106. Quraysh (Quraish), four ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  107. Al-Ma'un (Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Have You Seen), seven ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  108. Al-Kawthar (Abundance, Plenty), three ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  109. Al-Kafirun (The Disbelievers, The Kafirs), six ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  110. An-Nasr (Succour, Divine Support, Victory), three ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  111. Al-Masadd (The Palm Fibre), five ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  112. Al-Ikhlas (Sincerity), four ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  113. Al-Falaq (The Daybreak, Dawn), five ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura
  114. Al-Nas (Mankind), six ayat, one ruku, Makkan sura

Notes

  1. Arabic: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم, transliterated as: bismi-llāhi ar-raḥmāni ar-raḥīmi.
  2. Angelika Neuwirth, Studien zur Komposition der mekkanischen Suren. Reviewed by Andrew Rippin, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 45, No. 1., 1982, pp. 149-150.

References

  • Basit, Abdul. Essence of the Quran: Commentary and Interpretation of Surah Al-Fatihah. Kazi Publications, 1997. ISBN 978-1871031553
  • Elyasee, Halsem (ed.), Maramaduke Pickthall (trans.). Sixteen Surahs. Islamic Book Service, 2004. ISBN 978-8172311773
  • Qazi, Muhmoud Ahmad. Short Surahs for Prayers: A Textbook for Elementary Quranic Studies. Kazi Publications; Bilingual edition, 1994. ISBN 978-1567443844

External links

All links retrieved October 28, 2015.

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