Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 – February 8, 1804) was an English chemist, philosopher, dissenting clergyman, and educator. As an educator, he promoted the teaching of history, science, and the arts, advocating curricula that reflected contemporary discoveries. As a religiously motivated but dissenting clergyman, he followed and preached a heterodox version of Christianity that challenged Trinitarian theology. As a chemist, he experimented with several different gases, becoming famous for his co-discovery of oxygen and his observations that carbon dioxide could be dissolved in water to produce a pleasant-tasting drink (soda water). He is also remembered for supporting the American colonists against British rule and for sympathizing with advocates of the French revolution.
Early life and education
Joseph Priestley was born on March 13, 1733, in Fieldhead, a village near Yorkshire, England. His mother died when he was young and he was sent to live with an aunt who was a devout Protestant. He was educated in nonconformist religious schools and excelled in a variety of languages, both classical and modern, including Arabic and Hebrew. He also studied what was then known as natural history. The school he attended, Batley Grammar School, is still in operation, and it now has a section named Priestley House, for children between the ages of two and ten.
In 1752, he entered the Dissenting Academy at Daventry, Northamptonshire, under the auspices of Nonconformism, and there his religious views took shape. He became an adherent of Arianism and a fervent abolitionist. In September 1755, he started as a parish minister in Needham Market, Suffolk, though he was not officially ordained until May 18, 1762.
Because he stammered, and the parish was neither suited to his heterodox ideas, nor wanting a bachelor for their minister, Priestley was unpopular in his Suffolk parish and ultimately went to Nantwich, Cheshire. He established a private school with 36 students in connection with the church in Nantwich where he preached, and derived his income from that school. He received his LL.D. degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1765.
Subsequently, he went to Warrington Acadamey in Lancashire, the largest of the dissenting academies in England, as a tutor in belles-lettres (the term "belles-lettres," literally meaning "beautiful" or "fine" letters, refers to literary works, particularly fiction, poetry, drama, or essays, a term was once used for literature in general). By this time, his religious ideas had matured to Socinianism, an antecedent of Unitarianism. At Warrington, he associated with other liberal-minded tutors.
A sympathetic printer, William Eyres, was willing to publish Priestley's work. It was here that he published his grammar book in 1761 (a remarkably liberal grammar for its day) and other books on history and educational theory.
While at Warrington, Priestley developed courses that placed an emphasis on history, science, and the arts. He advocated school curricula that reflected contemporary discoveries, reasoning such an approach would better prepare students for the practical realities of life. He taught anatomy and astronomy and led field trips for his students to collect fossils and botanical specimens. Both modern history and the sciences were subjects that had not been taught in any schools before Priestley. Warrington Academy became the foremost school of its kind in England (World of Biology, Gale Group, 1999).
On June 23, 1762, Priestley married Mary Wilkinson of Wrexham. Yet, by September 1767, the combination of his finances and her poor health caused him to accept a pastorate in Leeds, where he took charge of the Mill Hill congregation. During his tenure at Mill Hill, he published two political works, Essay on the First Principles of Government (1768) and The Present State of Liberty in Great Britain and her Colonies (1769). In 1769, he offered Remarks on Dr. Blackstone's Commentaries, where he defended constitutional rights of dissenters against William Blackstone.
Priestley's house was next to a brewery, and he became fascinated with the layer of dense gas that hung over the giant vats of fermenting beer. His first experiments showed that the gas would extinguish lighted wood chips. He then noticed that the gas appeared to be heavier than normal air, as it remained in the vats and did not mix with the air in the room. The distinctive gas, which Priestley called "fixed air," had already been discovered and named "mephitic air" by Joseph Black. It was, in fact, carbon dioxide. Priestley discovered a method of impregnating water with the carbon dioxide by placing a bowl of water above a vat of fermenting beer. The carbon dioxide soon became dissolved in the water to produce soda water, and Priestley found that the impregnated water developed a pleasant acidic taste. In 1773, he published an article on the carbonation of water (soda water), which won him the Royal Society's Copley Medal and brought much attention to his scientific work.
He began to offer the treated water to friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air, in which he described a process of dripping sulfuric acid (or oil of vitriol as Priestley knew it) onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide and forcing the gas to dissolve by agitating a bowl of water in contact with the gas.
As early as 1766, Preistley met Benjamin Franklin in London, and the association between the two men of science was fruitful, leading the former to methodical explorations of electricity and ultimately to publish a definitive history of electrical research. Later, based on the support of Benjamin Franklin, Priestley was hired by Lord Shelburne as his personal librarian and stayed in that post until 1780. It was here that he conducted the majority of his extensive chemical research, including the discovery of various gases.
While tutoring his benefactor's sons at Bowood House near Calne in 1774, he discovered a gas that French scientist Antoine Lavoisier would later name oxygen. Priestley was not yet aware of Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele's prior experiments with the same gas sometime before 1775. J.B. Priestley published his findings in the year 1775, in Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air. Later, in 1777, Scheele's discovery was published in his book, Chemical Treatise on Air and Fire.
Both Priestley and Scheele were unaware that oxygen was a chemical element. Priestley named the gas (which he had generated by heating red mercuric oxide with a "burning lens") "de-phlogisticated air," in accordance with the phlogiston theory commonly held at the time.
Priestley's concept of this new-found "air" (or gas), which dramatically supported and enhanced combustion, was shaped by his attachment to the prevalent "phlogiston" theory. Phlogiston was thought to to be a substance that gave materials their ability to burn. An awkward explanation was offered that somehow this substance (phlogiston) with "negative weight" was released during the burning process and the surrounding air (or gas) must exhibit the capacity to absorb this phlogiston.
Priestley accurately observed that the new gas he discovered could support combustion for longer periods than ordinary air. His interpretation was that this gas contained no phlogiston and could thus absorb more of it than could ordinary air. Following this line of logic, he called the gas "dephlogisticated air." In fact, Priestly rated the quality of various airs by their relative ability to absorb phlogiston, among other important properties. Preistley's writings about his discoveries gave the necessary clue that enabled Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, the French scientist, to recognize the error in Priestley's theory. Lavoisier correctly asserted the gas to be one of the active causes of combustion rather than the receiver of the supposed phlogiston. Lavoisier named the gas "oxygen" and effectively laid the phlogiston theory to rest. Priestley nevertheless defended the outdated theory.
Priestley is considered to have been a better experimentalist than a theorist, as is evidenced by the multitude of his observations and creative experiments.
Priestley's wide interests and capacity to intuitively sense the interrelationship of previously unrecognized phenomena led him from chemistry to biology with relative ease. He recognized that production of "good air" (later known as oxygen) was related to respiration of plants and that this offset the production of carbon dioxide produced by animals. His observations in this area could be seen as seminal in the development of biological science and the awareness of the interdependence between the animal and plant worlds.
"The injury which is continually done to the atmosphere by the respiration of such a large number of animals…is, in part at least, repaired by the vegetable creation."
Preistley held the post of librarian to Lord Shelburne from 1772 to 1780, and was able to research and identify other gases including nitrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrogen chloride, and sulfur dioxide. This he accomplished by means of an ingenious adaptation of the pneumatic trough, using mercury instead of water in isolating his gases.
Priestley's philosophical influence extended beyond his scientific work and included many publications and activities that were considered radical in eighteenth century England. He was involved in controversy over religion and politics. In 1782, he published The History of the Corruption of Christianity, which was officially burned by the Church of England in 1785. He supported the American colonists' war against England and expressed sympathy for supporters of the French Revolution (which broke out in 1789).
In 1780, he moved to Birmingham and was appointed junior minister of the New Meeting Society. He became a member of the Lunar Society, but his admiration for the French Revolution caused him to be driven out of the city in the Priestley Riots of 1791. His home and laboratory were burned to the ground by an unruly mob and he fled to London for a time.
London and United States
In London, Priestley received an invitation to become morning preacher at Gravel Pit Chapel, Hackney. His three sons emigrated to the United States in 1793. The following June, when he was 60 years of age, he and his wife followed them, seeking political and religious freedom. Although never naturalized, he lived in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, for the last decade of his life.
He became a friend of Thomas Jefferson, among other political figures. An essay written by Priestley in 1768, was used by Jefferson as an inspiration for ideas included in the Declaration of Independence.
Priestly quietly slipped away from his earthly life on February 6, 1804, while in the presence of his family at home. He is buried in rural Northumberland, Pennsylvania.
Honors and extras
- There is a statue of Priestley in Leeds City Square.
- He is remembered in Leeds by the Moonstones, and a more traditional statue in Chamberlain Square in the city center. The latter is a 1951 recast, in bronze, of a white marble original by A. W. Williamson, unveiled in 1874.
- There is a Blue Plaque commemorating him on the side of the Church of St. Michael and St. Joseph, New Meeting House Lane, Birmingham, and another on the Warrington Salvation Army Citadel, once the home of Priestley.
- Priestley College in Warrington is a sixth form college (for 16–19 year olds) named in his honor. It is the largest sixth form college in Warrington, and within its main building, a statue of Joseph Priestley stands, watching over the students as they pass through the reception area.
- The writer Hilaire Belloc was Priestley's great-grandson.
- The American Chemical Society's highest honor, the Priestley Medal, is named after him.
- ↑ Ann Holt, A Life of Joseph Priestley (London: Oxford University Press, 1931).
- ↑ Birmingham Civic Society, Blue Plaques. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ↑ Institute of Physics, Blue Plaques Details. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 vols. Gale Research.
- Holt, Anne. 1931. A Life of Joseph Priestley. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0837142407
- "Joseph Priestley," in World of Chemistry. Gale Group, 1999.
- McLachlan, John. 1983. Joseph Priestley, Man of Science, 1733-1804: An Iconography of a Great Yorkshireman. Braunton, Devon: Merlin Books. ISBN 0863030521
- Rhees, David J. 1983. Joseph Priestley, Enlightened Chemist: Catalogue to an Exhibit Celebrating the 250th Birthday of Joseph Priestley and the Inauguration of the Center for History of Chemistry. Philadelphia: Center for History of Chemistry. ISBN 0941901009
- Schofield, Robert E. 1998. The Enlightenment of Joseph Priestley: A Study of His Life and Work from 1733 to 1773. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0271016620
- Schofield, Robert E. 2004. The Enlightened Joseph Priestley: A Study of His Life and Works from 1773 to 1804. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0271024593
- Smith, Edgar Fahs. 1920. Priestley in America, 1794-1804. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co.
- The Joseph Priestley Society. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- A comprehensive Biography at the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- A detailed biographical article from the Thoemmes Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century British Philosophers. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- Priestley Sixth Form College, Warrington, named for Joseph Priestley. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- Priestley artifacts on display at "Revolutionary Players" industrial revolution website. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- Joseph Priestly Biography, part of a series of famous American Unitarians. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
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