Apple Inc.

Apple Inc.
Apple logo black.png
Type Public (NASDAQ: AAPL, LSE: 0HDZ, FWB: APC)
Founded California, United States (April 1, 1976 (1976-04-01), as Apple Computer Inc.)
Headquarters 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California, United States
Key people Steve Jobs (Co-founder}
Steve Wozniak (Co-founder)
Industry Computer hardware
Computer software
Consumer electronics
Products Mac
iPod
iPhone
iPad
Apple Watch
Apple TV
OS X
iOS
watchOS
iLife
iWork
Services Apple Store
online Apple Store
iTunes Store
iOS App Store
Mac App Store
iBooks Store
iCloud
Apple Music





Website Apple.com


Apple Inc., (NASDAQ: AAPL) formerly Apple Computer Inc., is an American multinational corporation that designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the iPod and the iPhone. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, the iWork suite of productivity software, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. The company operates several hundred retail stores in a number of countries as well as the online online store and iTunes Store.

Contents

Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976, co-founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, the company was called "Apple Computer, Inc." for its first 30 years, but dropped the word "Computer" on January 9, 2007 to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market. Through its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design and its distinctive advertising campaigns, Apple Inc. has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. Apple has attracted a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly in the United States.

History

1976–1980: The early years

The Apple I, Apple's first product. Sold as an assembled circuit board, it lacked basic features such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case.

Apple Computer Inc. was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne,[1] to sell the Apple I personal computer kits hand-built by Wozniak[2][3] He had first shown them to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club.[4] The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips.[5] The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 for US$666.66.[6][7]

Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977[8] without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple.[9]

The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with color graphics and an open architecture. Early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, but were soon superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface, the Disk II.[10]

The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the ground-breaking VisiCalc spreadsheet program.[11] VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II, and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II because it could now be used for office work. Until then, Apple had taken a distant third place to sales of Commodore and Tandy.[12][13]

By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The Apple II was succeeded by the Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.[14]

In December 1979 Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the Xerox PARC facilities in return for $1 million in pre-IPO Apple stock, and Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin went to see the Xerox Alto.[15]It used a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with graphical elements such as windows, menus, radio buttons, check boxes and icons. Jobs became convinced that all future computers would use a GUI, and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.[16]

1981–1985: Lisa and Macintosh

The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh computer.

Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting, and took over Jef Raskin's low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh. A turf war broke out between Lisa's "corporate shirts" and Jobs' "pirates" over which product would ship first and establish Apple’s reputation. In 1983 Lisa became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was initially a commercial failure because of its high price tag and limited software titles.[17]

In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh. Its debut was announced by a famous $1.5 million television commercial, "1984" that aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a landmark in Apple's history[18] and an advertising masterpiece.[19]

The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong.[20] That changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first reasonably-priced PostScript laser printer, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package. The Mac was particularly powerful due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which were necessary to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI. The combination of these three products has been credited with the creation of the desktop publishing market.[21]

Continued strong sales of the Apple II, and the introduction of the Macintosh, took Apple's sales to new highs. Apple Computer’s initial public offering on September 7, 1984, generated more money than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history.

In 1985 a power struggle developed between Jobs and his hand-picked CEO John Sculley.[22] Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley and Jobs was removed from his managerial duties. Jobs later resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year.[23]

Apple's sustained growth during the early 1980s was partly due to its leadership in the education sector, attributed to its adaptation of the programming language LOGO, used in many schools with the Apple II. In California, Apple Computer Inc. donated an Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school in the state.

1986–1993: Rise and fall

The Macintosh Portable was Apple's first "portable" Macintosh computer, released in 1989.

In September 1989, Apple Computer released the Macintosh Portable, featuring a black and white active-matrix LCD screen in a hinged cover that covered the keyboard when the machine was not in use, and a mouse trackball that could be removed and located on either side of the keyboard. It was received with excitement from most critics but did not sell well because of several drawbacks including its bulk and limited battery life. Having learned several painful lessons, Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991, which established the modern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop computer.[24] The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001.

The success of the PowerBook and other products increased operating revenues, and from 1989 to 1991 the Macintosh experienced a "first golden age." [22] Following the success of the LC, Apple introduced the Centris line, a low end Quadra offering, and the ill-fated Performa line which was sold in several confusing configurations and software bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears, Price Club, and Wal-Mart, the primary dealers for these models. Consumers did not understand the difference between models, causing sales to drop. During this time Apple experimented unsuccessfully with other consumer products including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, and TV appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division. Apple’s market share and stock prices continued to slide.

Apple perceived the Apple II family as being expensive to produce, and detracting from sales from the low-end Macintosh.[25] In 1990, Apple released the Macintosh LC with a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform.[26] Apple stopped selling the Apple IIe in 1993.

Apple Computer’s rival Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows, focusing on delivering software with cheap commodity PCs while Apple was offering its customers a richly engineered, but expensive, experience.[27]Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response to the challenge from Windows. Instead it launched a lawsuit accusing Microsoft of using a graphical user interface similar to the Apple Lisa (Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation)[28] which dragged on for years before being thrown out of court. Meanwhile Apple's reputation was damaged by a series of major product flops and missed deadlines, and Sculley was replaced by Michael Spindler as CEO.[29]

1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention

The Newton was Apple's first foray into the PDA markets, as well as one of the first in the industry. A financial failure, it nonetheless helped pave the way for the Palm Pilot and later Apple's own iPhone.

By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as the A/UX. The old Macintosh platform was becoming outdated because it was not built to perform multiple tasks simultaneously, and several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. In addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors like Sun Microsystems. The Macintosh needed to be replaced by a new platform, or reworked to run on more powerful hardware.[30]

In 1994, Apple formed the AIM alliance with IBM and Motorola, to create a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple's software. The AIM alliance hoped that the combination of PReP's performance and Apple's software would outdistance the PC and put an end to Microsoft’s dominance. The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use IBM's PowerPC processor.[31]

In 1996, Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Amelio made many changes at Apple, including massive layoffs. After multiple failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first with the Taligent project, then later with Copland and Gershwin operating systems, Amelio decided to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system, bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple initially as an advisor.[32] On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs became the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line.

At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft had made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock.[33] This boosted industry confidence in Apple's future.

On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store, tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy.[34]

1998–2005: New beginnings

Company headquarters on Infinite Loop in Cupertino, California.

On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive, who later designed the iPod and the iPhone.[35][36]The iMac featured the newest technology and a groundbreaking design. It sold close to 800,000 units in its first five months and returned Apple to profitability for the first time since 1993.[37]

During this period, Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and consumer-oriented digital production software. In 1998, Apple announced the purchase of Macromedia's Final Cut software, signaling its expansion into the digital video editing market.[38] The following year, Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers; and Final Cut Pro for professionals, which has gone on to be a significant video-editing program, with 800,000 registered users in early 2007.[39] In 2002 Apple purchased Nothing Real for its advanced digital compositing application Shake,[40] as well as Emagic for its music productivity application Logic, which led to the development of Apple’s consumer-level GarageBand application.[41][42] iPhoto's release the same year completed the iLife suite.

Mac OS X, based on NeXT's OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was released on March 24, 2001, after several years of development. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications through Mac OS X's Classic environment.

The entrance of the Apple Store on Fifth Avenue in New York City is a glass cube, housing a cylindrical elevator and a spiral staircase that leads into the subterranean store.

On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California.[43] The same year, Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. The product’s success was unprecedented; over 100 million units were sold within six years.[44][45] In 2003, Apple's iTunes Store was introduced, offering online music downloads for $0.99 a song and integration with the iPod. The service quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008.[46]

Since 2001 Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of the translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3, beginning with the titanium PowerBook, followed by the white polycarbonate iBook and the flat-panel iMac.[47]

2005–2011: Success with mobile devices

The MacBook Pro (15.4" widescreen) was Apple's first laptop with an Intel microprocessor. It was announced in January 2006 and is aimed at the professional market.

At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006.[48] On January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to utilize Intel's Core Duo CPU. By August 7, 2006 Apple had transitioned the entire Mac product line to Intel chips, more than one year earlier than announced.[48] The Power Mac, iBook, and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition, the Mac Pro, MacBook, and Macbook Pro became their respective successors.

Apple also introduced Boot Camp software to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X.[49]

Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. Between early 2003 and 2006, the price of Apple's stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (split-adjusted) to over $80. In January 2006, Apple's market cap surpassed that of Dell.

Delivering his keynote at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Steve Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc., was changing its name to Apple Inc. The launches of the iPhone and the Apple TV were also announced.[50] The following day, Apple’s share price hit an all-time high of $97.80. In May 2007,Apple's share price rose above $100.[51]

On February 7, 2007, Apple indicated that it would sell music on the iTunes Store without DRM (which would allow tracks to be played on third-party players) if record labels would agree to drop the technology.[52] On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI's catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May.

On July 11, 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod touch.[53] Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and averaged sale of $1 million daily. By April 2009, one billion App Store applications, many free, had been downloaded.

After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple announced a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, 2010. The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and many iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad. This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, despite very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, 2010, the iPad was launched in the US. It sold more than 300,000 units on its first day, and 500,000 by the end of the first week.[54] In May of the same year, Apple's market cap exceeded that of competitor Microsoft for the first time since 1989.[55]

In June 2010, Apple released the iPhone 4,[56] which introduced video calling, multitasking, and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone's antenna. Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano, an iPod Touch with FaceTime, and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the buttons of earlier generations.[57] Additionally, on October 20, Apple updated the MacBook Air laptop, iLife suite of applications, and unveiled Mac OS X Lion, the last version with the name Mac OS X.[58]

On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence, for an indefinite period, to allow him to focus on his health. Chief operating officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs's day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain "involved in major strategic decisions".[59] Apple became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world.[60] In June 2011, Jobs surprisingly took the stage and unveiled iCloud, an online storage and syncing service for music, photos, files and software which replaced MobileMe, Apple's previous attempt at content syncing.[61]

2011–present: Post-Jobs era

On October 5, 2011, Apple announced that Jobs had died, marking the end of an era for Apple.[62][63] The first major product announcement by Apple following Jobs's passing occurred on January 19, 2012, when Apple's Phil Schiller introduced iBooks Textbooks for iOS and iBook Author for Mac OS X in New York City.[64] Jobs had stated in his biography that he wanted to reinvent the textbook industry and education.

From 2011 to 2012, Apple released the iPhone 4S and iPhone 5, which featured improved cameras, an "intelligent software assistant" named Siri, and cloud-sourced data with iCloud;[65][66] the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays;[67][68] and the iPad Mini, which featured a 7.9-inch screen in contrast to the iPad's 9.7-inch screen. These launches were successful, with the iPhone 5 (released September 21, 2012) becoming Apple's biggest iPhone launch with over 2 million pre-orders[69] and sales of 3 million iPads in three days following the launch of the iPad Mini and fourth generation iPad (released November 3, 2012).[70] Apple also released a third-generation 13-inch MacBook Pro with a Retina display and new iMac and Mac Mini computers.[68]

On October 29, 2011, Apple purchased C3 Technologies, a mapping company, for $240 million, becoming the third mapping company Apple has purchased.[71] On January 10, 2012, Apple paid $500 million to acquire Anobit, an Israeli hardware company that developed and supplied a proprietary memory signal processing technology that improved the performance of the flash-memory used in iPhones and iPads.[72] On July 24, 2012, during a conference call with investors, Tim Cook said that he loved India, but that Apple was going to expect larger opportunities outside of India.[73]

On August 20, 2012, Apple's rising stock rose the company's value to a world-record $624 billion. On August 24, 2012, a US jury ruled that Samsung should pay Apple $1.05 billion (£665m) in damages in an intellectual property lawsuit.[74] Samsung appealed the damages award, which the Court reduced by $450 million.[75] The Court further granted Samsung's request for a new trial. On November 10, 2012, Apple confirmed a global settlement that would dismiss all lawsuits between Apple and HTC up to that date, in favor of a ten-year license agreement for current and future patents between the two companies.[76] It is predicted that Apple will make $280 million a year from this deal with HTC.[77]

Apple Inc. reported that the company sold 51 million iPhones in the Q1 of 2014 (an all-time quarterly record), compared to 47.8 million in the year-ago quarter. Apple also sold 26 million iPads during the quarter, also an all-time quarterly record, compared to 22.9 million in the year-ago quarter. The Company sold 4.8 million Macs, compared to 4.1 million in the year-ago quarter.[78]

Products

Mac and accessories

The Mac mini, low-cost desktop computer.
  • Mac mini, consumer sub-desktop computer introduced in January 2005.
  • iMac, consumer all-in-one desktop computer that was first introduced by Apple in 1998. Its popularity helped revive the company's fortunes.[37]
  • Mac Pro, workstation-class desktop computer introduced in August 2006.
  • MacBook, consumer notebook introduced in 2006, available in white and aluminum variants.
  • MacBook Air, ultra-thin, ultra-portable notebook, introduced in January 2008.
  • MacBook Pro, professional portable computer alternative to the MacBook, introduced in January 2006.
  • Xserve, rack mounted, dual core, dual processor 1U server.

Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Mac computers including the AirPort wireless networking products, Time Capsule, Cinema Display, Mighty Mouse, the Apple Wireless Keyboard computer keyboard, and the Apple USB Modem.

iPod

On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. It evolved to include various models targeting the needs of different users. In 2007, the iPod was the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin, with more than 100 million units shipped as of April 9, 2007.[79] Apple has partnered with Nike to introduce the Nike+iPod Sports Kit enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website. In 2008 Apple sold four variants of the iPod.

  • iPod classic (Previously named iPod from 2001 to 2007), portable media player first introduced in 2001, with a 120 GB capacity.
  • iPod nano, portable media player first introduced in 2005, available in 8 and 16 GB models.
  • iPod shuffle, digital audio player first introduced in 2005, available in 1 and 2 GB models.
  • iPod touch, portable media player first introduced in September 2007, available in 8, 16, and 32 GB models.

iPhone

The iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod.[80] went on sale in June 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB).[81] The original iPhone combined a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices, running a scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X (dubbed iPhone OS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also included web-based and Dashboard applications such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone featured a 3.5-inch (89 mm) touch screen display, 8 or 16 GB of memory, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g").[80] In 2008, the iPhone 3G added support for 3G networking and assisted-GPS navigation, with the price cut to $199 for the 8 GB version, and $299 for the 16 GB version.[82] Along with the release of the new iPhone Apple launched an App Store, providing applications for download that were compatible with the iPhone; it has since surpassed one billion downloads.

Apple TV

At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV, (previously known as the iTV),[83] a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions. The device linked up to a user's TV and synchronized, either via Wi-Fi or a wired network, with one computer's iTunes library and streams from an additional four computers. The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, included outputs for HDMI and component video, and played video at a maximum resolution of 720p.[84] In May 2007, a 160 GB drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model[85] and in January 2008 a software update was released, which allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV.[86]

Software

Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs, Mac OS X (the current version is Mac OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard,". Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its Mac OS X operating system. Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers. An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package which includes iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, GarageBand, and iWeb. Its productivity suite, iWork is available, which includes the Keynote presentation software, Pages word processing software, and Numbers spreadsheet software. iTunes, QuickTime media player, and the Safari web browser are available as free downloads for both Mac OS X and Windows.

Apple offerers a range of professional software titles. Their range of server software included the operating system Mac OS X Server; Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application; WebObjects, Java EE Web application server; and Xsan, a Storage Area Network file system. For the professional creative market, there was Aperture for professional RAW-format photo processing; Final Cut Studio, a video production suite; Logic, a comprehensive music toolkit and Shake, an advanced effects composition program.

Apple also offers online services with MobileMe (formerly .Mac) which incorporates personal web pages, email, Groups, iDisk, backup, iSync, and Learning Center online tutorials. MobileMe is a subscription-based Internet suite that capitalizes on the ability to store personal data on an online server and thereby keep all web-connected devices in sync.[87] iWork.com, announced at MacWorld Expo 2009, allows iWork users to upload documents for sharing and collaboration.

Culture

Business

Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that challenged the traditional notions of corporate culture, implementing a horizontal rather than a vertical (flat versus tall) organizational hierarchy and requiring employees to wear casual rather than formal attire. Other highly successful firms with similar cultural aspects from the same time period include Southwest Airlines and Microsoft. Apple seemed to be in direct contrast to staid competitors like IBM; Steve Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune 500 company. By the time of the "1984" TV ad, this trait had become a key way in which the company attempts differentiated itself from its competitors.

Apple has a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that attracts talented people into its employ. To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program. Apple Fellows are those who have made extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to a few individuals including Bill Atkinson, Steve Capps, Rod Holt, Alan Kay, Andy Hertzfeld, Guy Kawasaki, Al Alcorn, Don Norman, and Steve Wozniak.

Users

According to surveys by J. D. Power, Apple has the highest brand and repurchase loyalty of any computer manufacturer. While this brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product, Apple appears not to have gone out of its way to create it. After Apple discovered the extent of brand loyalty among its customers, it actively engaged “Apple evangelists,” employees whose job was to convince software developers to write software products for the Macintosh. “Apple evangelists” promote Apple products primarily by working with third-party developers and helping them to get the assistance they need from Apple staff. [88]

Apple supports the continuing existence of a network of Mac User Groups in most major and many minor centers of population where Mac computers are available. Mac users meet at the European Apple Expo and the San Francisco Macworld Conference & Expo trade shows, where Apple has traditionally introduced new products each year to the industry and public. Mac developers gather at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference.

Apple Store openings have drawn crowds of thousands, with some waiting in line as long as a day before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event.[89] The opening of the New York City Fifth Avenue "Cube" store had a line almost half a mile long; a few Mac fans even used the event as a setting to propose marriage. The line for the opening of the Ginza store in Tokyo exceeded eight city blocks and was estimated in the thousands.[90]

Market research indicates that Apple’s customer base is unusually artistic, creative, and well-educated, which may explain the platform’s popularity with certain youthful, avant-garde subcultures.[91]

Industry standards

Apple is vertically integrated, manufacturing the hardware on which they pre-install their software. During the Mac's early history Apple did not adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, creating their own instead.[92] This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s, beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. Apple has since adopted USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, and other industry standards in its computers and was in some cases a leader in the adoption of such standards such as USB.[93] FireWire, an Apple-originated standard, was widely adopted after it was standardized as IEEE 1394.[94]

Ever since the first Apple Store opened, Apple has sold third party accessories.[95], allowing, for example, Nikon and Canon to sell their Mac-compatible digital cameras and camcorders inside the store. Adobe, one of Apple's oldest software partners,[96] also sells its Mac-compatible software, as does Microsoft, who sells Microsoft Office for the Mac.

Headquarters

Apple Inc.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. This Apple campus has six buildings which total 850,000 square feet (79,000 m²) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos.[97]

In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus on 50 acres (200,000 m²) assembled from various contiguous plots. The new campus, also in Cupertino, will be about one mile (1.6 km) east of the current campus.[98]

Logos

Apple’s first logo, designed by Jobs and Wayne, depicted Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. Almost immediately this was replaced by Rob Janoff’s “rainbow Apple,” the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it, possibly as a tribute to Isaac Newton's discoveries of gravity (the apple), and the separation of light by prisms (the colors). This was one of several designs Janoff presented to Jobs in 1976.[99]

In 1998, with the launch of the new iMac, Apple began to use a monochromatic logo —supposedly at the insistence of recently returned Jobs —nearly identical in shape to its previous rainbow incarnation. No specific color is prescribed for the logo throughout Apple's software and hardware line. The logo's shape is one of the most recognized brand symbols in the world, identifies all Apple products and retail stores (the name "Apple" is not even present) and has been included as label stickers in nearly all Macintosh and iPod packages through the years.

Slogans

Apple's first slogan, "Byte into an Apple," was coined in the late 1970s.[100] From 1997–2002, Apple used the slogan "Think Different" in advertising campaigns. The slogan had a lasting impact on their image and revived their popularity with the media and customers. Although the slogan has been retired, it is still closely associated with Apple.[101] Apple also has slogans for specific product lines —for example, "iThink, therefore iMac," was used in 1998 to promote the iMac, and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements. "Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, iMac ("hello (again)"), and iPod when they were announced by Steve Jobs.

Environmental record

Greenpeace, an environmentalist organization, has confronted Apple on various environmental issues, including the need to develop a global end-of-life take-back plan, non-recyclable hardware components, and toxins within the iPhone hardware.[102][103] Since 2003 they have campaigned against Apple regarding their chemical policies, in particular the inclusion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in their products.[102] In May 2007, Steve Jobs released a report announcing plans to completely eliminate PVC and BFRs by the end of 2008.[104] Greenpeace’s "Guide to Greener Electronics" rates companies on chemical-disposal waste-reduction practices. In the first edition, released in August 2006, Apple scored 2.7/10.[105][106] Apple has since improved its score to a 4.1/10, placing it 10th in the rankings.[107]

In May 2008, Climate Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple 11 points out of a possible 100 which placed the company last among electronics companies. Climate Counts also labeled Apple with a "stuck icon," adding that Apple was "a choice to avoid for the climate conscious consumer."[108]

The Environmental Protection Agency rates Apple highest amongst producers of notebook computers, and fairly high compared to producers of desktop computers and LCD displays.[109]

In June 2007 Apple upgraded the MacBook Pro, replacing cold cathode lamps with mercury-free LEDs and arsenic-free LCD glass,[110] and has since done this for all notebooks. Apple has also phased out BFRs and PVCs from various internal components.[111] Apple also offers detailed information about the emissions, materials, and electrical usage of each product.[112] Apple has also begun to advertise how environmentally friendly their new laptops are including television spots and magazine ads, in addition to touting these facts on their website.

Unibody aluminum MacBooks and MacBook Pros, announced in October 2008, made major improvements in being more environmentally friendly in Apple's notebook line.

Criticism

  • The Danish Consumer Complaints Board reported a fault with Apple's iBook line and criticized Apple's lackluster response to the issue, indicating customer support problems at Apple. A solder joint between two components fractured after a certain number of computer restarts causing the computer to break down, usually outside Apple's warranty period. Websites such as AppleDefects.com have been set up detailing issues on Apple’s product portfolio.[113][114]
  • Apple was criticized for lowering the price of the iPhone by $200 just two months after its release, resulting in a flood of complaints[115][116] Apple attempted to address the complaints by offering $100 store credit to early iPhone customers.[117][118]
  • Apple has been accused of pressuring journalists to release their sources of leaked information about new Apple products, even filing lawsuits against "John Does".[119] In particular, Apple fought a protracted battle against the Think Secret website which resulted in a "positive solution for both sides." No sources were revealed.[120]
  • There has been criticism of the iPhone and the iPod being locked into iTunes and creating a iTunes store monopoly for these devices.[121] Similarly, Apple has not licensed its FairPlay DRM system to any other company, preventing iPod and iPhone users from listening to DRM-protected music bought from sources other than the iTunes Store. DRM-free music from competing services can be purchased and used on Apple devices. However, Apple has transitioned the majority of its iTunes catalog to DRM-free, and will see the rest of the catalog go DRM-free by April 2009.
  • In 2006, the Mail on Sunday alleged possible sweatshop conditions existed in factories in China where contract manufacturers make the iPod.[122] Immediately after the allegations, Apple launched an extensive investigation and worked with their manufacturers to remove all unacceptable conditions[123] but did not find any instances of sweatshop conditions.[124]
  • The batteries in the iPod,[125] iPhone,[126] MacBook Air[127] and, as of June 2009, MacBook Pro line of notebooks are not easily replaced by users. See also: Neistat Brothers.
  • Apple was caught up in controversy regarding the online sales of music in the European Union where, as a single market, customers should be free to purchase goods and services from any member state. iTunes Stores there restricted users to only allow the purchase of content from the country to which their payment details originate, which also forced users in some countries to pay higher prices. On December 3, 2004 the British Office of Fair Trading referred the iTunes Music Store to the European Commission for violation of EU free-trade legislation. Apple commented that they did not believe they violated EU law, but were restricted by legal limits to the rights granted to them by the music labels and publishers. PC World commented that it appeared "the Commission's main target is not Apple but the music companies and music rights agencies, which work on a national basis and give Apple very little choice but to offer national stores".[128]

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References

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External links

All links retrieved March 4, 2016.

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