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Codex Claromontanus in Latin. The practice of separating words with spaces was not universal when this manuscript was written.

A word is a basic element of language that carries an objective or practical meaning. Despite the fact that language speakers often have an intuitive grasp of what a word is, there is no consensus among linguists on its definition.

The concept of "word" is distinguished from that of a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of language that has a meaning, even if it cannot stand on its own. Words are made out of at least one morpheme. Morphemes can also be joined to create other words in a process of morphological derivation. In English and many other languages, the morphemes that make up a word generally include at least one root (such as "rock", "god", "type", "writ", "can", "not") and possibly some affixes ("-s", "un-", "-ly", "-ness"). Words with more than one root ("[type][writ]er", "[cow][boy]s", "[tele][graph]ically") are called compound words. In turn, words are combined to form other elements of language, such as phrases ("a red rock," "put up with"), clauses ("I threw a rock"), and sentences ("I threw a rock, but missed").

Definitions and meanings

A word can be used on its own, and is uninterruptible.[1] In many languages, the notion of what constitutes a "word" may be learned as part of learning the writing system.[2] This is the case for the English language, and for most languages that are written with alphabets derived from the ancient Latin or Greek alphabets. In English orthography, the letter sequences "rock," "god," "write," "with," "the," and "not" are considered to be single-morpheme words, whereas "rocks," "ungodliness," "typewriter," and "cannot" are words composed of two or more morphemes ("rock"+"s," "un"+"god"+"li"+"ness," "type"+"writ"+"er," and "can"+"not").

Since the beginning of the study of linguistics, numerous attempts at defining what a word is have been made, with many different criteria.[2] However, no satisfying definition has yet been found to apply to all languages and at all levels of linguistic analysis and numerous attempts to find specific criteria of the concept remain controversial.[3]. Different standards have been proposed, depending on the theoretical background and descriptive context, but these do not converge on a single definition.[4] Some specific definitions of the term "word" are employed to convey its different meanings at different levels of description, for example based on a phonological, a grammatical or an orthographic basis. Others suggest that the concept is simply a convention used in everyday situations.[5] It is possible, however, to find consistent definitions of "word" at different levels of description. These include definitions on the phonetic and phonological level, that it is the smallest segment of sound that can be theoretically isolated by word accent and boundary markers. On the orthographic level it is a segment indicated by blank spaces in writing or print. On the basis of morphology it is the basic element of grammatical paradigms like inflection, different from word-forms. Within semantics it is the smallest and relatively independent carrier of meaning in a lexicon.Syntactically, it is the smallest permutable and substitutable unit of a sentence.[3]

In some languages, these different types of words coincide and one can analyze, for example, a "phonological word" as essentially the same as "grammatical word." However, in other languages they may correspond to elements of different size.[5] Much of the difficulty stems from the eurocentric perspective of European scholars, as languages from outside of Europe may not follow the same patterns. Some of the criteria for "word" developed can only be applicable to languages of broadly European synthetic structure.[5] Because of this unclear status, some linguists propose avoiding the term "word" altogether, instead focusing on better defined terms such as morphemes.[6]

Dictionaries categorize a language's lexicon into individually listed forms called lemmas. These can be taken as an indication of what constitutes a "word" in the opinion of the writers of that language. This written form of a word constitutes a lexeme.[3] The most appropriate means of measuring the length of a word is by counting its syllables or morphemes.[7] When a word has multiple definitions or multiple senses, it may result in confusion in a debate or discussion.[8]


One distinguishable meaning of the term "word" can be defined on phonological grounds. It is a unit larger or equal to a syllable, which can be distinguished based on segmental or prosodic features, or through its interactions with phonological rules. In Walmatjari, an Australian language, roots or suffixes may have only one syllable but a phonologic word must have at least two syllables. A disyllabic verb root may take a zero suffix, e.g. luwa-ø 'hit!', but a monosyllabic root must take a suffix, e.g. ya-nta 'go!', thus conforming to a segmental pattern of Walmatjari words. In the Pitjantjatjara dialect of the Wati language, another language form Australia, a word-medial syllable can end with a consonant but a word-final syllable must end with a vowel.[5]

In most languages, stress may serve as a criterion for a phonological word. In languages with a fixed stress, it is possible to ascertain word boundaries from its location. Although it is impossible to predict word boundaries from stress alone in languages with phonemic stress, there will be just one syllable with primary stress per word, which allows for determining the total number of words in an utterance.[5]

Many phonological rules operate only within a phonological word or specifically across word boundaries. In Hungarian, dental consonants /d/, /t/, /l/ or /n/ assimilate to a following semi-vowel /j/, yielding the corresponding palatal sound, but only within one word. Conversely, external sandhi rules act across word boundaries. The prototypical example of this rule comes from Sanskrit; however, initial consonant mutation in contemporary Celtic languages or the linking r phenomenon in some non-rhotic English dialects can also be used to illustrate word boundaries.[5]

It is often the case that a phonological word does not correspond to our intuitive conception of a word. The Finnish compound word pääkaupunki 'capital' is phonologically two words (pää 'head' and kaupunki 'city') because it does not conform to Finnish patterns of vowel harmony within words. Conversely, a single phonological word may be made up of more than one syntactical elements, such as in the English phrase I'll come, where I'll forms one phonological word.[4]


A word can be thought of as an item in a speaker's internal lexicon. This is called a lexeme. Nevertheless, it is considered different from a word used in everyday speech, since it is assumed to also include inflected forms. Therefore, the lexeme teapot refers to the singular teapot as well as the plural, teapots. There is also the question to what extent should inflected or compounded words be included in a lexeme, especially in agglutinative languages. For example, there is little doubt that in Turkish the lexeme for house should include nominative singular ev or plural evler. However, it is not clear if it should also encompass the word evlerinizden 'from your houses', formed through regular suffixation. There are also lexemes such as "black and white" or "do-it-yourself", which, although consist of multiple words, still form a single collocation with a set meaning.[4]


Grammatical words are proposed to consist of a number of grammatical elements which occur together (not in separate places within a clause) in a fixed order and have a set meaning. However, there are exceptions to all of these criteria.

Single grammatical words have a fixed internal structure; when the structure is changed, the meaning of the word also changes. In Dyirbal, which can use many derivational affixes with its nouns, there are the dual suffix -jarran and the suffix -gabun meaning "another". With the noun yibi they can be arranged into yibi-jarran-gabun ("another two women") or yibi-gabun-jarran ("two other women") but changing the suffix order also changes their meaning. Speakers of a language also usually associate a specific meaning with a word and not a single morpheme. For example, when asked to talk about untruthfulness they rarely focus on the meaning of morphemes such as -th or -ness.[5]


Leonard Bloomfield introduced the concept of "Minimal Free Forms" in 1928. Words are thought of as the smallest meaningful unit of speech that can stand by themselves.[9] This correlates phonemes (units of sound) to lexemes (units of meaning). However, some written words are not minimal free forms as they make no sense by themselves (for example, the and of).[10] Some semanticists have put forward a theory of so-called semantic primitives or semantic primes, indefinable words representing fundamental concepts that are intuitively meaningful. According to this theory, semantic primes serve as the basis for describing the meaning, without circularity, of other words and their associated conceptual denotations.[11][12]


In the Minimalist school of theoretical syntax, words (also called lexical items in the literature) are construed as "bundles" of linguistic features that are united into a structure with form and meaning.[13] The word "koalas" has semantic features (it denotes real-world objects, koalas), category features (it is a noun), number features (it is plural and must agree with verbs, pronouns, and demonstratives in its domain), phonological features (it is pronounced a certain way). Each of these features defines one aspect of the word.


Words made out of letters, divided by spaces

In languages with a literary tradition, the question of what is considered a single word is influenced by orthography. Word separators, typically spaces and punctuation marks are common in modern orthography of languages using alphabetic scripts, but these are a relatively modern development in the history of writing. In character encoding, word segmentation depends on which characters are defined as word dividers. In English orthography, compound expressions may contain spaces. For example, ice cream, air raid shelter and get up each are generally considered to consist of more than one word (as each of the components are free forms, with the possible exception of get), and so is no one, but the similarly compounded someone and nobody are considered single words.

Sometimes, languages which are close grammatically will consider the same order of words in different ways. For example, reflexive verbs in the French infinitive are separate from their respective particle, e.g. se laver ("to wash oneself"), whereas in Portuguese they are hyphenated, e.g. lavar-se, and in Spanish they are joined, e.g. lavarse.[14]

Not all languages delimit words expressly. Mandarin Chinese is a highly analytic language with few inflectional affixes, making it unnecessary to delimit words orthographically. However, there are many multiple-morpheme compounds in Mandarin, as well as a variety of bound morphemes that make it difficult to clearly determine what constitutes a word.[15] Japanese uses orthographic cues to delimit words, such as switching between kanji (characters borrowed from Chinese writing) and the two kana syllabaries. This is a fairly soft rule, because content words can also be written in hiragana for effect, though if done extensively spaces are typically added to maintain legibility. Vietnamese orthography, although using the Latin alphabet, delimits monosyllabic morphemes rather than words.

Usage and meaning

When studying the way in which words and signs are used, it is often the case that words have different meanings, depending on the social context of use. An important example of this is the process called deixis, which describes the way in which certain words refer to entities through their relation between a specific point in time and space when the word is uttered. Such words are, for example, the word, "I" (which designates the person speaking), "now" (which designates the moment of speaking), and "here" (which designates the position of speaking). Signs also change their meanings over time, as the conventions governing their usage gradually change. The study of how the meaning of linguistic expressions changes depending on context is called pragmatics. Deixis is an important part of the way that we use language to point out entities in the world.[16] Pragmatics is concerned with the ways in which language use is patterned and how these patterns contribute to meaning. For example, in all languages, linguistic expressions can be used not just to transmit information, but to perform actions. Certain actions are made only through language, but nonetheless have tangible effects. The act of "naming" creates a new name for some entity, or the act of "pronouncing someone man and wife," which creates a social contract of marriage. These types of acts are called speech acts, although they can also be carried out through writing or hand signing.[16]

The form of linguistic expression often does not correspond to the meaning that it actually has in a social context. For example, if at a dinner table a person asks, "Can you reach the salt?", that is, in fact, not a question about the length of the arms of the one being addressed, but a request to pass the salt across the table. This meaning is implied by the context in which it is spoken; these kinds of effects of meaning are called conversational implicatures. These social rules for which ways of using language are considered appropriate in certain situations and how utterances are to be understood in relation to their context vary between communities, and learning them is a large part of acquiring communicative competence in a language.[16]

Word boundaries

The task of defining what constitutes a "word" involves determining where one word ends and another word begins, that is identifying word boundaries. There are several ways to determine where the word boundaries of spoken language should be placed:[2]

  • Potential pause: A speaker is told to repeat a given sentence slowly, allowing for pauses. The speaker will tend to insert pauses at the word boundaries. However, this method is not foolproof: the speaker could easily break up polysyllabic words, or fail to separate two or more closely linked words (e.g. "to a" in "He went to a house").
  • Indivisibility: A speaker is told to say a sentence out loud, and then is told to say the sentence again with extra words added to it. Thus, I have lived in this village for ten years might become My family and I have lived in this little village for about ten or so years. These extra words will tend to be added in the word boundaries of the original sentence. However, some languages have infixes, which are put inside a word. Similarly, some have separable affixes: in the German sentence "Ich komme gut zu Hause an", the verb ankommen is separated.
  • Phonetic boundaries: Some languages have particular rules of pronunciation that make it easy to spot where a word boundary should be. For example, in a language that regularly stresses the last syllable of a word, a word boundary is likely to fall after each stressed syllable. Another example can be seen in a language that has vowel harmony (like Turkish):[17] the vowels within a given word share the same quality, so a word boundary is likely to occur whenever the vowel quality changes. Nevertheless, not all languages have such convenient phonetic rules, and even those that do present the occasional exceptions.
  • Orthographic boundaries: Word separators, such as spaces and punctuation marks can be used to distinguish single words. However, this depends on a specific language. East Asian writing systems often do not separate their characters. This is the case with Chinese and Japanese writing, which use logographic characters, as well as Thai and Lao, which are abugidas.


A morphology tree of the English word "independently"

Morphology is the study of word formation and structure. Words may undergo different morphological processes which are traditionally classified into two broad groups: derivation and inflection. Derivation is a process in which a new word is created from existing ones, often with a change of meaning. For example, in English the verb to convert may be modified into the noun a convert through stress shift and into the adjective convertible through affixation. Inflection adds grammatical information to a word, such as indicating case, tense, or gender.[15]

In synthetic languages, a single word stem (for example, love) may inflect to have a number of different forms (for example, loves, loving, and loved). However, for some purposes these are not usually considered to be different words, but rather different forms of the same word. In these languages, words may be considered to be constructed from a number of morphemes.

In Indo-European languages in particular, the morphemes distinguished are:

  • The root.
  • Optional suffixes.
  • A inflectional suffix.

Thus, the Proto-Indo-European *wr̥dhom would be analyzed as consisting of

  1. *wr̥-, the zero grade of the root *wer-.
  2. A root-extension *-dh- (diachronically a suffix), resulting in a complex root *wr̥dh-.
  3. The thematic suffix *-o-.
  4. The neuter gender nominative or accusative singular suffix *-m.


Philosophers have found words to be objects of fascination since at least the 5th century B.C.E., with the foundation of the philosophy of language. Plato analyzed words focusing on their origins and the sounds making them up, concluding that there was some connection between sound and meaning, though words change a great deal over time. John Locke wrote that the use of words "is to be sensible marks of ideas," though they are chosen "not by any natural connection that there is between particular articulate sounds and certain ideas, for then there would be but one language amongst all men; but by a voluntary imposition, whereby such a word is made arbitrarily the mark of such an idea."[18] Wittgenstein's thought transitioned from a word as representation of meaning to "the meaning of a word is its use in the language."[19]


Each word belongs to a category, based on shared grammatical properties. Typically, a language's lexicon may be classified into several such groups of words. The total number of categories as well as their types are not universal and vary among languages. For example, English has a group of words called articles, such as the (the definite article) or a (the indefinite article), which mark definiteness or identifiability. This class is not present in Japanese, which depends on context to indicate this difference. On the other hand, Japanese has a class of words called particles which are used to mark noun phrases according to their grammatical function or thematic relation, which English marks using word order or prosody.[20]

It is not clear if any categories other than interjection are universal parts of human language. The basic bipartite division that is ubiquitous in natural languages is that of nouns vs verbs. However, in some Wakashan and Salish languages, all content words may be understood as verbal in nature. In Lushootseed, a Salish language, all words with 'noun-like' meanings can be used predicatively, where they function like verb. For example, the word sbiaw can be understood as '(is a) coyote' rather than simply 'coyote'.[21][4] On the other hand, in Eskimo–Aleut languages all content words can be analyzed as nominal, with agentive nouns serving the role closest to verbs. Finally, in some Austronesian languages it is not clear whether the distinction is applicable and all words can be best described as interjections which can perform the roles of other categories.[4]

The current classification of words into classes is based on the work of Dionysius Thrax, who, in the 1st century B.C.E., distinguished eight categories of Ancient Greek words: noun, verb, participle, article, pronoun, preposition, adverb, and conjunction. Later Latin authors, Apollonius Dyscolus and Priscian, applied his framework to their own language. Since Latin has no articles, they replaced this class with interjection. Adjectives ('happy'), quantifiers ('few'), and numerals ('eleven') were not made separate in those classifications due to their morphological similarity to nouns in Latin and Ancient Greek. They were recognized as distinct categories only when scholars started studying later European languages.[4]

In Indian grammatical tradition, Pāṇini introduced a similar fundamental classification into a nominal (nāma, suP) and a verbal (ākhyāta, tiN) class, based on the set of suffixes taken by the word. Some words can be controversial, such as slang in formal contexts; misnomers, since they do not mean what they would imply; or polysemous words, due to the potential confusion between their various senses.[22]


In ancient Greek and Roman grammatical tradition, the word was the basic unit of analysis. Different grammatical forms of a given lexeme were studied; however, there was no attempt to decompose them into morphemes. [23] This may have been the result of the synthetic nature of these languages, in which the internal structure of words may be harder to decode than in analytic languages. There was also no concept of different kinds of words, such as grammatical or phonological – the word was considered a unitary construct.[5] The word (dictiō) was defined as the minimal unit of an utterance (ōrātiō), the expression of a complete thought.


  1. E. K. Brown and J. E. Miller, The Cambridge Dictionary of Linguistics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0521766753), 473.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Martin Haspelmath, "The indeterminacy of word segmentation and the nature of morphology and syntax," Folia Linguistica 45(1) (2011). Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Hadumod Bussman, Gregory Trauth, and Kerstin Kazzazi, Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (London, UK: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0415022258), 670-671, 768, 1285.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Keith Brown, Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics: Volumes 1-14, 2nd. ed. (Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier Publications, 2005, ISBN 978-0080442990), 13:618, 629, 631.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Robert M. W. Dixon and A. Y. Aikhenvald, Word: A cross-linguistic typology (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0511061498), 1-6, 14-20, 269.
  6. Zellig S. Harris, "From morpheme to utterance," Language 22(3) (1946): 161–183.
  7. John R. Taylor, The Oxford Handbook of the Word (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2015, ISBN 978-0191756696).
  8. Martin S. Chodorow, Roy J. Byrd, and George E. Heidorn, "Extracting semantic hierarchies from a large on-line dictionary," Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics (1985): 299–304. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  9. Francis Katamba, English Words: Structure, history, usage, 2nd. ed. (London, UK: Routledge, 2005, ISBN 041529892X), 11.
  10. Michael Fleming, Frank Hardman, David Stevens, and John Williamson, Meeting the Standards in Secondary English (London, UK: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 978-1134568512), 77. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  11. Anna Wierzbicka, Semantics: Primes and universals (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0198700024).
  12. Cliff Goddard and Anna Wierzbicka, "The search for the shared semantic core of all languages," in Meaning and universal grammar. Volume II: theory and empirical findings (Amsterdam, NL: John Benjamins Pub. Co., 2002, ISBN 1588112640).
  13. David Adger, Core Syntax: A minimalist approach (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0199243700), 36-37.
  14. Note that the convention also depends on the tense or mood—the examples given here are in the infinitive, whereas French imperatives, for example, are hyphenated, e.g. lavez-vous, whereas the Spanish present tense is completely separate, e.g. me lavo.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Ralph W. Fasold and Jeff Connor-Linton, An Introduction to Language and Linguistics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0521847681), 56, 73.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Stephen C. Levinson, Pragmatics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983, ISBN 978-0521222358).
  17. Laurie Bauer, English Word-formation (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983, ISBN 0521241677), 9.
  18. John Locke, "Chapter II: Of the Signification of Words," in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, volume III (London, UK: Thomas Basset, 1690). Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  19. Anar Biletzki and Anat Matar, "Ludwig Wittgenstein," in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, Winter 2021). Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  20. Adrian Akmajian, Linguistics: An introduction to language and communication, 6th ed. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0262013758), 21-24.
  21. David Beck, "Unidirectional flexibility and the noun–verb distinction in Lushootseed," Flexible Word Classes ed. Jan Rijkhoff and Eva van Lier (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0199668441), 185-220. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  22. Clinton B. De Soto, Margaret M. Hamilton, and Ralph B. Taylor, "Words, People, and Implicit Personality Theory," Social Cognition 3(4) (December 1985): 369–382. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  23. R. H. Robins, A Short History of Linguistics, 4th. ed. (London, UK: Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0582249945), 70.

ISBN links support NWE through referral fees

  • Adger, David. Core Syntax: A minimalist approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0199243700
  • Akmajian, Adrian. Linguistics: An introduction to language and communication, 6th ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0262013758
  • Bauer, Laurie. English Word-formation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 0521241677
  • Beck, David. "Unidirectional flexibility and the noun–verb distinction in Lushootseed," Flexible Word Classes edited by Jan Rijkhoff and Eva van Lier. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0199668441
  • Biletzki, Anar, and Anat Matar. "Ludwig Wittgenstein," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, Winter 2021. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  • Brown, E. K., and Anne Anderson. The Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, 2nd. ed. Amsterdam, N.L.: Elsevier, 2006. ISBN 978-0080442990
  • Brown, E. K. and J. E. Miller. The Cambridge Dictionary of Linguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0521766753
  • Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics: Volumes 1-14, 2nd. ed. Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier Publications, 2005. ISBN 978-0080442990
  • Bussman, Hadumod, Gregory Trauth, and Kerstin Kazzazi. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. London, UK: Routledge, 1998. ISBN 0415022258
  • Chodorow, Martin S., Roy J. Byrd and George E. Heidorn. "Extracting semantic hierarchies from a large on-line dictionary," Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics (1985): 299–304. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  • De Soto, Clinton B., Margaret M. Hamilton, and Ralph B. Taylor. "Words, People, and Implicit Personality Theory," Social Cognition 3(4) (December 1985): 369–382. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  • Dixon Robert M. W., and A. Y. Aikhenvald. Word: A cross-linguistic typology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0511061498
  • Fasold, Ralph W., and Jeff Connor-Linton. An Introduction to Language and Linguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0521847681
  • Fleming, Michael, Frank Hardman, David Stevens, and John Williamson. Meeting the Standards in Secondary English. London, UK: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 978-1134568512
  • Goddard, Cliff, and Anna Wierzbicka. "The search for the shared semantic core of all languages," in Meaning and Universal Grammar. Volume II: Theory and empirical findings. Amsterdam, NL: John Benjamins Pub. Co., 2002. ISBN 1588112640
  • Harris, Zellig S. "From morpheme to utterance," Language 22(3) (1946): 161–183.
  • Haspelmath, Martin. "The indeterminacy of word segmentation and the nature of morphology and syntax," Folia Linguistica 45(1) (2011). Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  • Katamba, Francis. English Words: Structure, history, usage, 2nd. ed. London, UK: Routledge, 2005. ISBN 041529892X
  • Levinson, Stephen C. Pragmatics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0521222358
  • Locke, John. "Chapter II: Of the Signification of Words," in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. HardPress Publishing, 2019 (original 1690). ISBN 978-0461142044
  • Robins, R. H. A Short History of Linguistics, 4th. ed. London, UK: Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0582249945
  • Taylor, John R. The Oxford Handbook of the Word. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0191756696
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. Semantics: Primes and universals. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 0198700024

Further Reading

  • Barton, David. Literacy: An introduction to the ecology of written language. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1994. ISBN 0631190899
  • Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 0521401798
  • Plag, Ingo. Word-formation in English. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0511078439
  • Simpson, J. A., and E. S. C. Weiner. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd. ed. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1989. ISBN 0198611862


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