|Location||Bridgeport, Connecticut USA|
The University of Bridgeport is a private, independent, non-sectarian, coeducational university located on the Long Island Sound in the South End neighborhood of Bridgeport, Connecticut. The University is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC-CIHE). The University is known for its diverse student population, ranking as the eleventh most racially diverse national university in the country by U.S. News and World Report in 2011.
Since its founding, the University has been a strong advocate for the United Nations and education for world peace and development. Despite suffering a severe decline in the latter part of the twentieth century that threatened to close its doors, through a partnership with the Professors World Peace Academy the University was able to revive and expand its offerings in the early twenty-first century. Through its College of Public and International Affairs, the University continues to expand its activities related to the United Nations, international development, international security, peace studies, conflict resolution, and global citizenship.
The University of Bridgeport is fully accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges and the Board of Governors of the Connecticut Department of Higher Education. Many of its professional programs are also accredited by the relevant national accrediting bodies. In its 2011 rankings, University of Bridgeport placed in Tier 2 of National Universities by U.S. News and World Report.
The University of Bridgeport prides itself on offering career-oriented programs to students seeking personal growth and professional success. UB was originally founded as a junior college with the mission of developing in its students "a point of view and a habit of mind that promotes clear thinking and sound judgment in later professional and business experience." This commitment to student preparation and community service has remained central despite almost a century of changes.
The current mission of the University of Bridgeport, adopted by its Board of Trustees on April 23, 2004, states:
The University of Bridgeport offers career-oriented undergraduate, graduate and professional degrees and programs for people seeking personal and professional growth. The University promotes academic excellence, personal responsibility, and commitment to service. Distinctive curricula in an international, culturally diverse supportive learning environment prepare graduates for life and leadership in an increasingly interconnected world. The University is independent and non-sectarian.
The University of Bridgeport was founded in 1927 as the Junior College of Connecticut. This was the first junior college chartered by any legislature in the northeastern states. In 1947 it became the University of Bridgeport, when the governor of Connecticut chartered the institution as a four-year university with authority to grant undergraduate (baccalaureate) degrees.
Growth in students, faculty, programs, and buildings was rapid. The College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Business were added immediately, and the colleges of Nursing, Education, and Engineering soon after. The Fones School of Dental Hygiene was established in 1949, the only such school in Connecticut and the second in New England.
By 1950, the University had moved from the original Fairfield Avenue location to its present Seaside Park campus. The University had purchased the former Seaside Park estate of Phineas T. Barnum, the famous founder of the circus that became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. Barnum, who had served as mayor of Bridgeport from 1875 to 1876, had played a crucial role in the city's cultural and economic development, donating land by the water to develop Seaside Park in 1865. He also built four mansions: Iranistan, Lindencroft, Waldemere, and Marina. Waldemere remains on the UB campus, and the entrance to what is now Marina Dining Hall was originally the entrance arch to this estate.
Under the leadership of Dr. James Halsey as president and Dr. Henry Littlefield as vice-president, UB developed rapidly. Enrollment increased quickly to almost 3,500 students, including a number of international students, and the faculty consisted of 183 men and women. In 1951 the University awarded its first Master's degree. In 1953 the University merged with and incorporated Arnold College, the oldest coeducational school of physical education in the United States, into the College of Education.
The Frank Jacoby lectures were established at the University in 1952 by philanthropist Frank Jacoby "to further the brotherhood of man and the equality of man regardless of race, color, or creed." Each year an outstanding national figure is brought to the University campus to deliver a public lecture on the "Brotherhood of Man." Ralph Bunche, holder of the Nobel Peace Prize Award, initiated the series in 1952. Other notable speakers include Eleanor Roosevelt, Norman Vincent Peale, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Barry Goldwater.
Under Halsey's presidency the University was able to capitalize on the increased number of people seeking to attend a U.S. college resulting from the baby boom, Vietnam War veterans eligible for a higher education under the G.I. Bill. Strong growth continued throughout the 1960s and 1970s under the leadership of Henry Littlefield, who was appointed president in 1962. He focused on academic excellence, hiring faculty with national reputations, and targeting high quality students. Enrollment peaked 8,886 students in 1970.
During this period both academic programs and facilities also expanded. Funding for the new buildings came from donations by Charles A. Dana, a philanthropist who was good friends with Littlefield.
Dr. Leland Miles, who served as president from 1974 to 1987, represented the International Association of University Presidents (IAUP) at the United Nations. He inspired the establishment of courses in peace studies at the University of Bridgeport, and encouraged other university presidents to do the same.
In January 1979, the University was licensed to offer the doctoral degree in Educational Leadership (Ed.D.). In 1990 the College of Chiropractic was established, representing the first affiliation of a chiropractic school with a university in the United States.
However, enrollment began to decline after the waves of baby boom and Vietnam era veterans eligible for the G.I. Bill decreased. By 1990, more than a third of the 50 campus buildings were empty. The University cut tuition and room and board fees to $18,000 per year, but enrollment did not improve.
During this period the city of Bridgeport also suffered from decline. Like other northeastern cities affected by post World War II industrial decline, Bridgeport suffered during the deindustrialization of the United States in the 1970s and 1980s. Suburban flight as well as overall mismanagement, for which several city officials were convicted, contributed to the decline. With jobs lost and businesses closed, the once thriving downtown became crime-ridden despite several attempts at revitalization. In 1991, the city filed for bankruptcy protection but was declared solvent by a federal court. The case attracted national attention as Bridgeport portrayed itself as a city abandoned by industry, left to bear alone the poverty and social problems of Fairfield County that its suburbs turned their backs on.
With the city in such a state, the campus unsafe due to crime, and enrollment dangerously low, UB faced its own bankruptcy. In 1990, to cut costs the university decided to terminate 50 tenured faculty members, and asked the other faculty to accept a 30 percent wage cut. Instead, the faculty chose to strike, which led to over 1,000 students leaving and the resignation of the president, Janet Greenwood. In fall 1991, interim president Edwin Eigel announced that the Liberal Arts College would be eliminated the following year. After the spring semester undergraduate and graduate degrees would no longer be awarded in 30 subjects, including core offerings such as history, sociology, psychology, chemistry, and mathematics, and the University planned to focus on business and engineering.
In December 1991, serious discussions were held regarding affiliating or possibly merging the University with either the University of New Haven or Sacred Heart University. However, these failed, in part due to the Law school's decision to affiliate with Quinnipiac University to preserve its accreditation, while Sacred Heart insisted that the Law School be included in any takeover.
The University had been approached by the Professors World Peace Academy (PWPA), an affiliate of the Unification Church founded by Reverend Sun Myung Moon. The PWPA was founded to support the academic community’s role in the pursuit of world peace, a vision that resonates with the University of Bridgeport's advocacy of education for world peace and development. However, their offer to bail out the University was initially spurned by the trustees who were concerned that such an affiliation would damage the University's reputation. According to Secretary general of the PWPA Gordon L. Anderson, PWPA wanted to "affiliate with an existing university and help improve it." The PWPA was willing to take over UB's debt, which was by that time $22 million, invest additional money, and recruit students, in return for control of the board of trustees. Lacking other options, the UB trustees finally approved the offer, giving the PWPA sixteen spots as trustees, constituting a majority, and allowing the University to survive:
The irony is that, of all the plans considered, only the World Peace Academy's had the goal of preserving the University of Bridgeport. Other plans might have reduced it to a landlord, renting out its campus. Now, the city, which lost a succession of banks, hotels, stores and industries in the last couple of years, will not lose its educational namesake. As many as 500 people will not lose their jobs.
The PWPA began its investment of $50.5 million in the University of Bridgeport over five years on May 30, 1992, enabling the university to keep its accreditation. This funding enabled the University to increase enrollment and develop its international programs, which became the foundation for its College of Public and International Affairs. UB continued to receive funding from the PWPA from 1992 until 2002, becoming financially independent in 2003.
The trustees retained the president at the time, Dr. Edwin G. Eigel, Jr. (1932–2008), who served as president until 1995. He was succeeded by distinguished professor and former PWPA president Dr. Richard Rubenstein, who served from 1995–1999. Neil Albert Salonen, a Unification Church member who served as President of the Unification Church of America from 1973 to 1980, was the Chairman of the University's Board of Trustees when he was chosen to serve as ninth University president in 1999.
Since 1992, UB has expanded its programs, both undergraduate and graduate, including doctoral degrees in addition to those in Educational Leadership and Chiropractic. The College of Naturopathic Medicine, which grants the Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (N.D.), was established in 1996. In fall 2006, the University began enrolling students in a Ph.D. program in Computer Science and Engineering.
The Shintaro Akatso School of Design was established in 2010 with the generous support of alumni. It offers undergraduate degrees in Graphic Design, Industrial Design, and Interior Design.
The University began enrolling in its Master of Science Physician Assistant program in January 2011. This twenty eight month program begins with fourteen months of classroom experiences, followed by the second fourteen months focused on experiential clinical rotations in hospital and various outpatient settings.
Since 1992, enrollment has grown dramatically from 1,383 total students to 5,103 total students in Fall 2009, of which 2,248 were undergraduate and 2,855 were graduate students. Students are racially and ethnically diverse: In 2011 UB was the eleventh most racially diverse national university in the country, with students from more than 36 states and nearly half the countries in the world.
The University of Bridgeport's 50 acre campus is located fifty-five miles from New York City. Seaside Park and Long Island Sound mark the southern boundary of the campus. The Sound provides opportunities for practical studies in marine biology, as well as enjoyment of the beaches for recreation.
The campus buildings are a mixture of older architecture and modern designs. The entrance to Marina Dining Hall, was once the entrance arch to the estate of Phineas Taylor Barnum. Bryant Hall, with its inlaid mosaic entryway and ornately carved banisters and ceilings, was built in 1895 for inventor Waldo C. Bryant. The Carstensen Hall, a facsimile of a pavilion at the 1893 Columbian Exposition, was designed in 1899 for the chemist George Edwards. Across the street from the modern Wahlstrom Library is the Wheeler House, originally owned by George Wheeler, a former Chief Justice of the Connecticut State Supreme Court.
The Bridgeport International Academy, a high school, is also on the University's grounds and has use of some of the UB facilities.
Known as the ABC building, the Arnold Bernhard Art Center consists of a "pancake and tower" design. The "pancake" is the two-story horizontal core, which includes the Mertens Theatre, the Carlson Gallery, Austin W. Mather Theatre, Littlefield Recital Hall, sculpture studios and rehearsal rooms. The "tower" is the nine-story vertical structure that houses professors’ offices and studios. The building was designed as a center for all significant events, such as convocations, concerts, meetings, and receptions. Opened in 1972, construction of the ABC building was made possible by the support of Arnold Bernhard, former trustee of the university who was an avid patron of the arts who expressed his vision for the building:
This building stands for the University’s devotion to the God-given insights humankind has been able to prove out in ages of experience. It is hoped that new generations will embark here on limitless exploration of the ideas stored in this treasure-house of philosophy, literature, history and the arts, and that their search will extend the boundaries of understanding.
The University Library began in a single room in Fairfield Hall, site of the newly-chartered Junior College of Connecticut. After several moves, the library was installed in a new building in 1974 - the Magnus Wahlstrom Library. Named after the Swedish founder of Bridgeport Machines who served as a UB trustee, the building occupies four floors overlooking the Long Island Sound. With an attractive Learning Commons on the first floor and extensive resources and services, the library supports students in all programs.
In 2007, the Wahlstrom Library was one of the first five libraries in the world to go live with the ∑ureka! searching interface. This allows students instant access to full text electronic collections, the online catalog, web based tutorials, and real time research assistance anytime, anywhere across the globe, an essential feature of UB's virtual university community.
The Wheeler Recreation Center provides students, faculty, staff, and the greater Bridgeport community with recreational and fitness opportunities. The first building on campus to be named after a UB graduate, the Wheeler Recreation Center is named after Edith S. Wheeler, who graduated from UB in 1936.
The center was designed in 1975 to include an Olympic swimming pool, steambath, saunas, three multipurpose courts for activities such as volleyball, tennis, soccer, cricket, and basketball, a racquetball court, jogging track, and weight room. With the vision of providing "recreational needs and lifetime sports activities for UB students and to develop a sense of community on campus," the center also offers a variety of wellness programs.
In 2002 a Martial Arts Studio opened, offering a wide variety of classes in Martial Arts,including Tae Kwon Do, Karate, and self defense. A variety of clubs also make use of the Dojo.
The Health Sciences Center houses the UB Clinics—the clinical teaching facilities for the College of Naturopathic Medicine, College of Chiropractic, Acupuncture Institute, and Fones School of Dental Hygiene. Each of these specialty clinics are open to the public.
The University campus is located in a high crime area in the South End of Bridgeport. Students were at risk of attack even while walking from building to building on campus. To ameliorate this, the University has instituted a Personal Alarm Locator (PAL) system whereby students were issued portable alarm units that pinpoint their position and enable campus security to reach them in under two minutes, earning the school the Jeanne Clery Campus Safety Award. according to April Vournelis, Director of Campus Security, crime on campus has decreased dramatically since the system was installed.
The University is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC-CIHE). Through its seven undergraduate schools and six graduate schools, UB offers a wide range of academic and professional programs. These include traditional academic undergraduate degrees, part-time and online programs leading to certificates and associate degrees, as well as specialized undergraduate and graduate degrees.
The English Language Institute offers intensive pre-academic ESL for non-native English speaking students planning to attend the University of Bridgeport. English Language Institute students have access to university resources—Wahlstrom Library, Wheeler Recreation Center, all student services departments—and activities such as the annual International Festival, movie nights, clubs, and trips.
The campus community at the University of Bridgeport is diverse, international, and celebrates the uniqueness of each student. Student involvement and leadership in extracurricular activities is encouraged and there are more than 50 active student clubs and organizations, providing numerous opportunities to participate in social, educational, and cultural activities.
Approximately half of the students at UB live in university housing. The campus has five residence halls, offering a variety of single, double, and triple housing options. There is also an apartment complex restricted to full-time graduate and professional students.
Intramural sports, recreation, fitness, and wellness activities are offered to the UB community through the Wheeler Recreation Center.
Bridgeport's seal combines four core elements of its traditions and distinct character. In the upper left quadrant is the lamp of learning, which has been an element of the official Bridgeport's seal since 1931. In the upper right quadrant of the seal is the tree of life, symbolizing personal and institutional growth. The lower left shows Bridgeport's seascape, illustrating the university’s campus on Long Island Sound. The lower right quadrant shows the Perry Arch, representing tradition, solid foundations, and performance.
All links retrieved January 11, 2016.