List of sovereign states by formation date

Below is a list of countries by formation dates, sorted by continent.

Nation-building is a long evolutionary process. It is therefore practically impossible to come up with a single date for a nation's "birth." However, most nations have accepted some dates in their respective histories as their symbolic starting points. The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed desription of a country's formation and history please see the main article for each country.

Contents

List

Africa

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
Flag of Algeria Algeria 1962-07-03 French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days previous
Flag of Angola Angola 1975-11-11 Independence from Portugal.
Flag of Benin Benin 1960-08-01 Independence from France 1894-01-15 Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War
Flag of Botswana Botswana 1885-03-31 Establishment of the Bechuanaland Protectorate by the United Kingdom 1894 Extended north into Ngamiland
1966-09-30 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 1958-12-11 Self-government achieved and republic within Franco-African Community 1947-09-04 Restoration of colonial boundaries used from 1919-1932
1960-08-05 Independence from France
Flag of Burundi Burundi 1966-11-28 Monarchy replaced by republic 1962-07-01 Independence from Belgium
Flag of Cameroon Cameroon 1960-01-01 Independence from France 1961-10-01 Merger of British Cameroons with Cameroon
Flag of Cape Verde Cape Verde 1975-07-05 Independence from Portugal
Flag of Central African Republic Central African Republic 1958-12-01 Central African Republic becomes autonomous territory in French Republic
1960-08-13 Independence from France
Flag of Chad Chad 1960-08-11 Independence from France 1984-02-13 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
Flag of Comoros Comoros 1975-07-06 Independence from France declared
Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1884-04-22 Congo Free State recognized as an independent state
1960-06-30 Independence from Belgium
Flag of Republic of the Congo Congo, Republic of the 1960-08-15 Independence from France
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 1958-12-04 Autonomous republic within French Community
1960-08-07 Independence from France
Flag of Djibouti Djibouti 1977-06-27 Independence from France
Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 1968-10-12 Independence from Spain
Flag of Eritrea Eritrea 1993-05-24 Independence from Ethiopia declared. 2002-04-01 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. Contested by Ethiopia.
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia 1975-03-21 Monarchy abolished and replaced by republic 1941-05-05 Haile Selassie restored as Emperor of Ethiopia, ending Italian occupation. 2002-04-01 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. Contested by Ethiopia.
Flag of Gabon Gabon 1960-08-17 Independence from France
Flag of The Gambia Gambia 1965-02-18 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Ghana Ghana 1957-03-06 Independence from United Kingdom 1956-12-13 Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast
Flag of Guinea Guinea 1958-10-02 Independence from France
Flag of Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 1973-09-24 Independence from Portugal declared
1974-09-10 Independence from Portugal recognized
Flag of Kenya Kenya 1963-12-12 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Lesotho Lesotho 1966-10-04 Independence from United Kingdom 1868-03-12 Area that is now present-day Lesotho placed under British rule
Flag of Liberia Liberia 1847-07-26 Independence from the United States
Flag of Libya Libya 1969-09-01 Monarchy replaced by republic 1951-12-24 Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947) 1984-02-13 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
Flag of Madagascar Madagascar 1958-10-14 The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community
1960-06-26 France recognizes Madagascar's independence
Flag of Malawi Malawi 1964-07-06 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Mali Mali 1958-11-25 French Sudan gains autonomy 1960-08-20 Senegal secedes from Mali Federation
1960-09-22 Independence from France
Flag of Mauritania Mauritania 1960-11-28 Independence from France 1979-08-11 Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara)
Flag of Mauritius Mauritius 1968-03-12 Independence from United Kingdom 1965 Separation of Chagos Archipelago
Flag of Morocco Morocco 1956-03-02 Independence from France 1969-01-04 Return of Ifni to Morocco
1956-04-07 French protectorate formally relinquished
Flag of Mozambique Mozambique 1975-06-25 Independence from Portugal
Flag of Namibia Namibia 1990-03-21 Independence from South African rule 1994-03-01 Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia
Flag of Niger Niger 1958-12-04 Autonomy within French Community
1960-08-03 Independence from France
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria 1960-10-01 Independence from United Kingdom 1970-01-15 Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria
1961-06-01 Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria
Flag of Rwanda Rwanda 1962-07-01 Independence from Belgium
Flag of São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-07-12 Independence from Portugal
Flag of Senegal Senegal 1960-08-20 Independence from France
Flag of Seychelles Seychelles 1976-06-29 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 1961-04-27 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Somalia Somalia 1960-07-01 Merger of former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland
Flag of South Africa South Africa 1910-05-31 Creation of the Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River 1931-12-11 Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK 1994-04-27 Reincorporation of the nominally independent bantustans into post-Apartheid South Africa
1961-05-31 Republic declared (South Africa no longer a Commonwealth realm)
Flag of Sudan Sudan 1956-01-01 Independence from Egyptian and British rule
Flag of Swaziland Swaziland 1968-09-06 Independence from the United Kingdom
Flag of Tanzania Tanzania 1961-12-09 Independence of Tanganyika from United Kingdom 1964-04-26 Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania
Flag of Togo Togo 1958-08-30 Autonomy within French Union
1960-04-27 Independence from France
Flag of Tunisia Tunisia 1957-07-25 Declaration of Republic 1956-03-20 Independence from France
Flag of Uganda Uganda 1962-03-01 Self-government granted
1962-10-09 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Zambia Zambia 1964-10-24 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 1965-11-11 Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia 1901 BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia
1980-04-18 Recognized independence from United Kingdom as Zimbabwe.

Americas

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 1981-11-01 Independence from the United Kingdom.
Flag of Argentina Argentina 1810-05-25 May Revolution installs first local government
1816-07-09 Argentine Declaration of Independence
1821 Independence recognized by Spain
Flag of The Bahamas Bahamas 1964-01-07 Internal self-governance granted
1973-07-10 Independence from the United Kingdom
Flag of Barbados Barbados 1966-11-30 Independence from the United Kingdom
Flag of Belize Belize 1981-09-21 Independence from United Kingdom 1859 Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala
1964-01-01 Self governing colony
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia 1825-08-06 Bolivian War of Independence 1903-11-11 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre
Flag of Brazil Brazil 1822-09-07 Independence from Portugal declared 1903-11-11 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil is given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso
1825-08-29 Independence recognized by Portugal
Flag of Canada Canada 1867-07-01 Canadian Confederation 1931-12-11 Statute of Westminster 1949-03-31 Newfoundland and Labrador join Confederation
1982-04-17 Patriation of Constitution
Flag of Chile Chile 1810-09-18 First Government Junta declares Chile an autonomous republic within Spain 1818-02-12 Independence declared from Spain 1929-07-03 Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima
1844-04-25 Independence recognized by Spain
Flag of Colombia Colombia 1810-07-10 Independence declared from Spain 1903-11-03 Separation of Panama from Colombia
1819-08-07 Independence recognized by Spain
Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica 1821-09-15 Costa Rica declared independence from Spain 1824-07-25 Partido de Nicoya
1838-11-15 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
Flag of Cuba Cuba 1868-10-10 Independence from Spain declared
Flag of Dominica Dominica 1967-02-27 Became an associated state of the United Kingdom
1978-11-03 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 1865-03-03 Independence regained from Spain following the Dominican Restoration War
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador 1809-08-10 First call of Independence. Influenced the rest of the Americas. 1822-05-24 Independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part 1942-02-26 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru
1830-05-13 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
Flag of El Salvador El Salvador 1821-09-15 El Salvador becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
1841-02-02 El Salvador declares itself an independent republic, ending the Federal Republic of Central America
Flag of Grenada Grenada 1967-02-27 Associated state of United Kingdom
1974-02-07 Full independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala 1821-09-15 Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
1839-04-17 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared
Flag of Guyana Guyana 1966-05-26 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Haiti Haiti 1801-01-01 The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti. 1844-02-27 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
Flag of Honduras Honduras 1821-09-15 Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain 1972-09-01 Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation
1838-10-26 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica 1962-08-06 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Mexico Mexico 1810-09-16 Independence from Spain declared 1853-12-30 Gadsden Purchase
1821-08-24 Independence recognized by Spain in Treaty of Córdoba
Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua 1821-09-15 Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
1838-11-05 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
Flag of Panama Panama 1903-11-03 Separation of Panama from Colombia
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay 1811-05-14 Independence from Spain declared 1938 Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War
Flag of Peru Peru 1821-07-28 Independence from Spain declared 1942-02-26 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador
1879 Independence from Spain recognized
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 1967-02-27 Associated state of United Kingdom 1980-12-19 Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
1983-09-19 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 1967-02-27 Associated statehood
1979-02-22 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1969-10-27 Associated statehood
1979-10-27 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Suriname Suriname 1954-12-15 Self government granted
1975-11-25 Independence from Netherlands
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 1962-08-31 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of United States United States 1787-09-17 Ratification of the United States Constitution replaced the previous Articles of Confederation creating a new system of government 1776-07-04 Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain declared Various + 1959-08-21 Incremental increases of territory + Admission of Hawaii to the Union
1783-09-03 Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain recognized
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay 1825-08-25 Independence declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (current Argentina)
1828-08-27 Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela 1811-07-05 independence from Spain declared
1830-01-13 President José Antonio Páez declares Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia

Asia

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
Flag of Abkhazia Abkhazia 1992-07-23 2008-08-26 Russian recognition of independence.[2]
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan 1919-08-20 Treaty of Rawalpindi gives Afghanistan control from the United Kingdom over its own affairs
Flag of Armenia Armenia 1990-08-23 Independence from Soviet Union declared 1936-12-05 Establishment of Armenian SSR
1991-09-21 Independence recognized by Soviet Union
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1918-05-28 Establishment of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1991-10-18 Declaration of independence from Soviet Union 1920-04-28 Establishment of Azerbaijan SSR
Flag of Bahrain Bahrain 1971-08-15 Independence from the United Kingdom 1521-07-01 Portuguese conquest of current territory
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 1971-03-26 Independence from Pakistan declared.
Flag of Bhutan Bhutan 1885 Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan 1865-11-11 Treaty of Sinchula
Flag of Brunei Brunei 1984-01-01 Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on January 4, 1979
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia 1989-09-26 Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of People's Republic of Kampuchea
Flag of People's Republic of China China 1949-10-01 Establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the Chinese Civil War nears its end 1999-12-20 Transfer of the sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the PRC
1997-06-30 Transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from United Kingdom to the PRC
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia 1918-05-26 Establishment of Democratic Republic of Georgia 1991-04-09 Independence from Soviet Union declared 1992-07-23 Abkhazia declared independence from Georgia
1991-11-28 South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia
Flag of India India 1947-08-15 Independence from the United Kingdom 1948 + 1975-05-16 Accession of Jammu and Kashmir, Hyderabad, and Junagudh + Accession of Sikkim to India
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 1945-08-18 Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence 1945-08-17 Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Japan 2002-05-20 Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia
1949-12-27 Independence from the Netherlands recognized
Flag of Iran Iran March 6, 1975 Algiers Accord establishes border with Iraq
Flag of Iraq Iraq 1932-10-03 Kingdom of Iraq
Flag of Israel Israel 1948-05-14 Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel before the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine at midnight 1994-10-26 Signing of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah is handed back to Jordan
Flag of Japan
Japan
1947-05-03 Coming into force of the current Constitution of Japan, whereby the emperor is deprived of his powers and a liberal democracy is established 1952-04-28 Coming into force of the Treaty of San Francisco, whereby World War II is officially ended and Japan's independence is reinstated 1972-05-14 Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands
Flag of Jordan Jordan 1946-05-25 End of British League of Nations mandate 1994-10-26 Signing of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah is handed back to Jordan
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1991-12-16 Independence declared from Soviet Union
Flag of North Korea Korea, North 1948-09-09 Declaration of creation of North Korea 1953-07-27 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the southern border along the Military Demarcation Line
Flag of South Korea Korea, South 1948-08-15 First Republic of South Korea established 1953-07-27 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait 1991-02-28 End of Iraqi occupation (Gulf War) 1969-12-18 Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone
Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 1991-08-31 Independence from Soviet Union
Flag of Laos Laos 1949-07-19 Independence from France
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 1926-05-23 Lebanese Republic formed 1941-11-26 Independence from France declared 1920-09-01 France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries
1943-11-22 Independence from France recognized
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 1957-08-31 Malayan Independence from the United Kingdom is declared in Independence Square. 1965-08-09 Singapore secedes from the federation after the 1964 Race Riots.
1963-09-16 Malaysia is formed after the merging Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore into one independent state.
Flag of Maldives Maldives 1965-07-26 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Mongolia Mongolia 1911-12-29 Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Qing Dynasty China
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar 1948-01-04 Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire. 1956 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China.
Flag of Nepal Nepal 2008-05-28 Formation_of_Republic 1768-12-21 Nepali unification 1815-12-02 Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War
Flag of Oman Oman 1650-01-26 Expulsion of the Portuguese
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 1947-08-14 Independence from the UK and the Partition of India, creation of the Dominion of Pakistan 1971-12-16 De facto : Province of East Pakistan dissolved following the surrender of the Pakistani Army at the end of the Bangladesh Liberation War
1974-02-22 De jure : Recognition by Pakistan of Bangladesh as an independent country, whereby Pakistan definitely surrenders claims over the former province of East Pakistan
Flag of Philippines Philippines 1935-03-24 The Commonwealth of the Philippines is established through the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Act and the Jones Law. 1928-01-23 | The island of Palmas or Miangas is awarded to the Netherlands on behalf of the Netherlands East Indies through an international case under the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
1946-07-04 The United States awards independence on July 4 under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Philippine constitution remains in effect.
Flag of Qatar Qatar 1971-09-03 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 1932-09-23 Regions of Al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia 1927-05-20 Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz recognized as independent in Treaty of Jeddah 2000-06-12 Border with Yemen finalized by Treaty of Jeddah
Flag of Singapore Singapore 1959-06-03 Self government under United Kingdom
1965-08-09 Separation from Malaysia
Flag of South Ossetia South Ossetia 1991-11-28 2008-08-26 Russian recognition of independence.[2]
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1948-02-04 Independence from the United Kingdom
Flag of Syria Syria 1961-09-28 End of United Arab Republic
Flag of Republic of China Taiwan 1911-10-10 After the Xinhai Revolution the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty. 1949-12-07[3] Republic of China government moved to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War[4] 1955-02-25 Withdrawal of the Republic of China from the Dachen Archipelago.
Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan 1991-09-09 Independence from the Soviet Union
Flag of Thailand Thailand 1776 Expulsion of Burmese and reunification of Thailand 1909-03-10 Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Flag of East Timor Timor-Leste 1975-11-28 East Timor declares its independence but is suppressed by the Indonesian invasion.
2002-05-20 Independence is recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999.
Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 1991-10-27 Independence from Soviet Union
Flag of United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1971-12-02 End of treaty relationship with United Kingdom 1972-02-11 Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE
Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1991-08-31 Independence from Soviet Union declared
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 1976-07-02 Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam
Flag of Yemen Yemen 1990-05-22 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen 1990-05-22 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen

Europe

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
Flag of Albania Albania 1912-11-28 Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire
1913-07-29 Recognition of independence in Treaty of London
Flag of Andorra Andorra 1813 Reversal of annexation of Andorra and Catalonia by the Napoleonic Empire, through the Peninsular war
Flag of Austria Austria 1955-05-15 Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state 1921-12-14 City of Sopron moved to Hungary after plebiscite
Flag of Belarus Belarus 1990-07-27 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945 Curzon Line
1991-08-25 Independence recognized by Soviet Union
Flag of Belgium Belgium 1831-07-21 King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy 1830-10-04 Independence is proclaimed by the provisonial government 1919-06-28 Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-03-05 Independence declared 1943-11-25 Establishment of Bosnia in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 1908-08-05 Bulgaria declares independence from the Ottoman Empire. 1940-09-07 Under the Vienna Awards, Southern Dobruja is returned to Bulgaria.
Flag of Croatia Croatia 1991-06-25 Declared independence from Yugoslavia
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 1960-08-16 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic 1993-01-01 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia
Flag of Denmark Denmark 1849-06-05 King Frederik VII signs the first free constitution, making Denmark a constitutional monarchy. 1945-05-04 German occupying forces surrender. 1920-06-15 Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany
Flag of Estonia Estonia 1918-02-24 Independence declared from the Russian Empire. 1945 Eastern coast of Narva river and Petseri County are transferred to Russian SFSR.
1991-08-20 Independence re-declared from the Soviet Union.
Flag of Finland Finland 1917-12-06 Independence from Russian Empire declared 1956 Porkkala returned from Soviet control.
1918-01-03 Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body - VTsIK.
Flag of France
France
1870-09-04 Establishment of a lasting republican form of government, considered uninterrupted in French law 1944-08-09 Ordinance issued by the Provisional Government of the French Republic reinstating Republican legality and nullifying all Vichy legislation 1947-02-10 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy
1958-10-05 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 1962-07-05 Overseas France:
Loss of the French departments in Algeria following the latter's independence
Flag of Germany Germany 1955-05-05 Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign 1990-10-03 Reunification of West Germany and East Germany
Flag of Greece Greece 1944-10-13 End of Axis occupation of Greece during World War II 1947-02-10 Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece
Flag of Hungary Hungary 1989-10-23 Proclamation of the Republic of Hungary 1947-02-10 The Treaty of Peace with Hungary returns Hungary to 1920 borders, with small changes
Flag of Iceland Iceland 930 The Icelandic Commonwealth established. 1944-06-17 Secedes from a Union with Denmark formally as an independent republic. 1972-09-01 No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that in merits a special inclusion here.
1946 Departure of last US occupation troops
Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland 1922-12-06 Irish Free State recognized as independent from the United Kingdom. 1920-12-23 Division into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
Flag of Italy
Italy
1946-06-02 Birth of the Italian Republic 1945-04-25 Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state is restored 1954-10-26 Official annexation of the city of Trieste to Italy
1975-11-10 Signing of the Treaty of Osimo which definitely divides the Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania 1918-02-16 Independence declared from Germany and Russia 1939-10-27 and 1940-08-03 Eastern Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania
1990-03-11 Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania declaring independence from the Soviet Union
Flag of Latvia Latvia 1918-11-18 Independence declared from Germany and Russia 1944 Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)
1990-05-04 Independence declared from Soviet Union
Flag of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 1813-10-19 Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine 1719-01-23 Purchase of Vaduz
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 1945 End of German occupation during World War II 1839-04-19 Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London
Flag of Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 1991-09-08 After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia
Flag of Malta Malta 1964-09-21 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Moldova Moldova 1991-08-27 Independence from Soviet Union 1940-08-02 Moldavian SSR formed
Flag of Monaco Monaco 1861 Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia)
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro 2006-06-03 Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 1945-05-05 German occupying forces surrender. 1839-04-19 The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839).
Flag of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus 1963 De Facto independence from Republic of Cyprus
Flag of Norway Norway 1945-05-08 German occupying forces surrender. 1930-02-27 Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway.
Flag of Poland Poland 1989-06-04 The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-years long Soviet domination 1918-11-11 Józef Piłsudski was appointed Commandier in Chief of Polish Army, the day is celebrated as Independence Day. 1951-02-15 Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty
Flag of Portugal Portugal 1974-04-25 Carnation Revolution ends the authoritarian Estado Novo 1139-07-26 County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of León after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by León in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179. 1801-06-06 Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.
Flag of Romania Romania 1877-05-21 Independence declared from the Ottoman Empire
1878-07-13 Independence recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin
Flag of San Marino San Marino 1243 Formation of republican government 0301-09-03 Traditional founding 1463 Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano
Flag of Serbia Serbia 2006-06-05 Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia 1945-03-08 Government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia formed after end of German occupation during World War II 1804 Karadjordje First Serbian Uprisal
2008-02-17 Republic of Kosovo declares independence from Serbia.[5]
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia 1993-01-01 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 1991-06-25 Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia
Flag of Spain Spain January 21, 1479 Dynastic union of Castile and Aragon into the Catholic Monarchy under Ferdinand and Isabella.[6] 1801-06-06 Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.
Flag of Sweden Sweden 1523-06-06 Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union. 1809-03-29 Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia.
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 1291-08-01 Establishment of the Swiss Confederacy. 1815-08-07 Restauration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 1991-08-24 Independence from Soviet Union declared 1954-02-19 Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine
Flag of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
1922-12-06 Loss of Southern Ireland following the creation of the Irish Free State agreed upon in the Anglo-Irish Treaty [7]
Flag of Vatican City Vatican City 1274 Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274 1929-06-07 Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign State 1929-02-11 Signing of the Lateran Treaty

Oceania

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
Flag of Australia Australia 1901-01-01 Commonwealth of Australia established as a Dominion of the British Empire. 1942-10-09 Statute of Westminster is adopted by Australia 1975-09-16 Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia
1986-03-03 Australia Act 1986 eliminated the remaining ties between the legislature and judiciary of Australia and their counterparts in the United Kingdom.
Flag of Fiji Fiji 1970-10-10 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Kiribati Kiribati 1979-07-12 Independence from United Kingdom 1975-10-01 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)
Flag of Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 1979-05-01 Constitution and local government established 1986-10-21 Compact of Free Association with the United States
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia 1979-05-10 Constitution ratified 1986-11-03 Compact of Free Association with the United States 1979-05-10 Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia
Flag of Nauru Nauru 1968-01-31 Independence from UN Trusteeship
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 1840-02-06 Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the indigenous Māori tribes cedes kawanatanga of New Zealand to Queen Victoria. De facto:
from 1856-05-07
Formation of first responsible ministry in 1856. 1840-02-06 Treaty of Waitangi effectively unites the New Zealand archipelago as a single territory.The Kermadec Islands were incorporated in 1887.
De jure:
1947-12-10
New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947 receives royal assent.
Flag of Palau Palau 1981-01-01 Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution 1994-10-01 Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States).
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 1973-12-01 Self governing colony
1975-09-16 Independence from Australia
Flag of Samoa Samoa 1962-01-01 Independence from New Zealand
Flag of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 1976-01-02 Self government granted by United Kingdom
1978-07-07 Independence from United Kingdom
Flag of Tonga Tonga 1970-07-04 Independence from United Kingdom 1845-12-04 Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga
Flag of Tuvalu Tuvalu 1975-10-01 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) 1978-10-01 Independence from United Kingdom 1979-02-07 Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls
Flag of Vanuatu Vanuatu 1980-07-30 Independence from joint British-French condominium

Transcontinental countries

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
Flag of Egypt
Egypt
1952-07-23 Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1922-02-28 Recognition of formal independence by the United Kingdom but continued British military occupation 1982-04-25 Withdrawal of last Israeli troops and settlers from Sinai as agreed upon in the peace treaty with Israel
1953-06-18 Republic proclaimed 1956-06-18 Withdrawal of last British troops from the Suez Canal Zone
1961-09-28 De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus
Flag of Russia Russia 1990-06-12 Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory 1954-02-19 Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine
Flag of Turkey Turkey 1923-07-24 Treaty of Lausanne recognizes Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire 1923-10-29 Republic of Turkey established after fall of Ottoman Empire 1939-06-29 Syrian province of Iskanderun transferred by French Mandatory Government to Turkey. Annexed by Turkey as Hatay State

Notes

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 Please use the Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers) for dates
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Russia Recognizes Independence of Georgian Regions (Update2)", Bloomberg, 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
  3. The government of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan, was the generally recognized sovereign power over Mainland China beginning in January 1, 1912. Sovereign control of Taiwan by this government began on October 25, 1945 (Retrocession Day).
  4. The PRC acquired de facto control in Mainland China on October 1, 1949. The Republic of China continued to be generally recognized as the legitimate government of China until October 25, 1971, when the PRC was admitted to the United Nations. Currently, due to the PRC's One-China policy, only 25 states recognize the Republic of China, although many more retain unofficial relations.
  5. International recognition of Kosovo's independence is still limited, although growing.
  6. [1]
  7. In order to reflect the loss of Southern Ireland, the full name of the United Kingdom was changed from United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland through the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927.


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