Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. Some additives have been used for centuries—for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), or salting, as with bacon, or using sulfur dioxide, in the case of some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the twentieth century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. There is, however, an ongoing debate about the health effects of a number of these additives. 
To regulate these additives, and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number. Initially, these were the "E numbers" used in Europe for all approved additives. This numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Committee to internationally identify all additives, regardless of whether they are approved for use.
E numbers are all prefixed by "E," but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is simply known as additive 260 in some countries. Additive 103, alkanet, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) listed these items as "Generally recognized as safe" or GRAS, and these are listed under both their Chemical Abstract Services number and FDA regulation listed under the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations.
Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them.
All links retrieved November 6, 2013.
|Carbohydrates • Colors • Enzymes • Fatty acids * Flavors • Food additives • Lipids • Minerals • Proteins • Vitamins • Water|
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