Abu Nuwas

From New World Encyclopedia

Abu Nuwas
Abu Nuwas.jpg
Abu Nuwas drawn by Khalil Gibran in 1916
Born: c. 756
Ahvaz, Abbasid Caliphate
Died: c. 814 (aged 57–58)
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate
Occupation(s): Poet

Abū Nuwās al-Ḥasan ibn Hānī al-Ḥakamī (variant: Al-Ḥasan ibn Hānī 'Abd al-Awal al-Ṣabāḥ, Abū 'Alī ( الحسن بن هانئ بن عبد الأول بن الصباح ،ِابو علي), known as Abū Nuwās al-Salamī (أبو نواس السلمي)[1] or just Abū Nuwās (أبو نواس Abū Nuwās); c. 756 – c. 814) was a classical Arabic poet, and the foremost representative of the modern (muhdath) poetry that developed during the first years of Abbasid Caliphate. He also entered the folkloric tradition, appearing several times in One Thousand and One Nights.

Early life

Abu Nuwas was born in the province of Ahvaz (modern Khuzestan Province) of the Abbasid Caliphate, either in the city of Ahvaz or one of its adjacent districts. His date of birth is uncertain. He was born sometime between 756 and 758 C.E. His father was Hani, a Syrian or Persian who had served in the army of the last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750 C.E.). His mother was a Persian named Gulban, whom Hani had met while serving in the police force of Ahvaz. When Abu Nuwas was 10 years old, his father died.[2]. His mother was a Persian seamstress from Ahwāz, called Gulbān or Gulnāz (Abū Hiffān, 108; Ibn al-Muʿtazz, 194; Ibn Qutayba, al-Shiʿr, 2/692; Ibn ʿAsākir, 4/279). His father Hānī was either Persian (according to al-Aṣmaʿī) or from al-Shām, and had served in the army of the last Umayyad caliph, Marwān II.

In his early childhood Abu Nuwas followed his mother to Basra in lower Iraq where he attended Qur’an school and became a Hafiz at a young age. His youthful good looks and innate charisma attracted the attention of the Kufan poet, Abu Usama Waliba ibn al-Hubab al-Asadi, who took Abu Nuwas to Kufa as a young apprentice. Waliba recognized in Abu Nuwas his talent as a poet and encouraged him toward this vocation, but was also attracted sexually to the young man and may have had erotic relations with him. Abu Nuwas' relationships with adolescent boys when he had matured as a man seem to mirror his own experience with Waliba.[3]


Abu Nuwas wrote poetry in multiple genres. His great talent was most recognized in his wine poems and in his hunting poems.[3] Abu Nuwas' diwan, his poetry collection, was divided by genre: panegyric poems, elegies, invective, courtly love poems on men and women, poems of penitence, hunting poems, and wine poems.[4] His erotic lyric poetry, which is often homoerotic, is known from over 500 poems and fragments. He also participated in the well-established Arabic tradition of satirical poetry, which included duels between poets involving vicious exchanges of poetic lampoons and insults.[3]

Ismail bin Nubakht, one of Nuwas' contemporaries, said:

I never saw a man of more extensive learning than Abu Nuwas, nor one who, with a memory so richly furnished, possessed so few books. After his death we searched his house, and could only find one book-cover containing a quire of paper, in which was a collection of rare expressions and grammatical observations.[5]


The spirit of a new age was reflected in wine poetry after the change in dynasties to the Abbasids.[6] Abu Nuwas was a major influence on the development of wine poetry. His poems were likely written to entertain the Baghdad elite.[4] The centerpiece of wine poetry lays the vivid description of the wine, exalted descriptions of its taste, appearance, fragrance, and effects on the body and mind.[7] Abu Nuwas draws on many philosophical ideas and imagery in his poetry that glorify the Persians and mock Arab classicism. He used wine poetry as a medium to echo the themes of Abbasid relevance in the Islamic world. An example of this is a piece he wrote in his Khamriyyat:

Wine is passed round among us in a silver jug, adorned by a Persian craftsman with a variety of designs, Chosroes on its base, and round its side oryxes which horsemen hunt with bows. Wine's place is where tunics are buttoned; water's place is where the Persian cap (qalansuwah) is worn.[6]

This passage exemplifies Persian imagery corresponding to the Persian language used in this period. Abu Nuwas was known to have both a poetic and political tone in his poetry. Along with other Abbasid poets, Nuwas "atones" for his openness to drinking wine and disregarding religion.[6] He wrote satirical strikes at Islam using wine as both an excuse and liberator.[7] A specific line of poetry in his Khamiryyat exemplifies his facetious relationship with religion; this line compares the religious prohibition of wine to God's forgiveness.[8] Nuwas wrote his literature as if his sins were vindicated within a religious framework. Abu Nuwas' poetry also reflected his love for wine and sexuality. The poems were written to celebrate both the physical and metaphysical experience of drinking wine that did not conform to the norms of poetry in the Islamic world.[4] A continuing theme in Abbasid wine poetry was its affiliation with pederasty due to the fact that wine shops usually employed boys as servers. These poems were often salacious and rebellious. In the erotic section of his Diwan, his poems describe young servant girls dressed up as young boys drinking wine.[3] His affection for young boys was displayed through his poetry and social life. Nuwas explores an intriguing incongruity: that homosexuality was imported to Abbasid Iraq from the province in which the revolution originated. He states in his writing that during the Umayyad caliphate, poets only indulged in female lovers. Nuwas' seductive poems use wine as a central theme for blame and scapegoating,[6] exemplified in an excerpt from his al-muharramah:

Boasting myriad colors when it spreads out in glass, silencing all tongues,

Showing off her body, golden, like a peal on a tailor's strong, in the hand of a lithe young man who speaks beautifully in response to a lover's request,

With a curl on each temple and a look in his eye that spells disaster.

He is a Christian, he wears clothes from Khurasan and his tunic bares his upper chest and neck.

Were you to speak to this elegant beauty, you would fling Islam from the top of a tall mountain.

If I were not afraid of the depredation of He who leads all sinners into transgression,

I would convert to his religion, entering it knowingly with love,

For I know that the Lord would not have distinguished this youth so unless his was the true religion. [4]

This poem celebrates various sins of Nuwas: being served by a Christian, glorifying a boy's beauty, and finding testimony in Christianity. Nuwas' writing ridicules heterosexual propriety, the condemnation of homosexuality, the alcohol ban, and Islam itself.[4] He uses his literature to testify against the religious and cultural norms during the Abbasid caliphate. Though many of his poems describe his affection for boys, relating the taste and pleasure of wine to women is a signature technique of his.[3] Nuwas' preference was not uncommon among heterosexual men of his time as homoerotic lyrics and poetry were popular among Muslim mystics.[4]

The earliest anthologies of his poetry and his biography were produced by:[9]

  • Yaḥyā ibn al-Faḍl and Ya‘qūb ibn al-Sikkīt arranged his poetry under ten subject categories, rather than in alphabetical order. Al-Sikkīt wrote an 800-page commentary.[10]
  • Abū Sa’īd al-Sukkarī[11] edited his poetry, providing commentary and linguistic notes. He completed editing approximately two thirds of the corpus of one thousand folios.[12]
  • Abū Bakr ibn Yaḥyā aI-Ṣūlī edited his work, organizing poems alphabetically, and corrected some false attributions.
  • ‘Alī ibn Ḥamzah al-Iṣbahānī also edited his writings, compiling works alphabetically. [13]
  • Yūsuf ibn al-Dāyah [14]
  • Abū Hiffān [15]
  • Ibn al-Washshā’ Abū Ṭayyib, scholar of Baghdād[16][17][18]
  • Ibn ‘Ammār[19] wrote a critique of Nuwas' work, including citing instances of alleged plagiarism.[20][21]
  • Al-Munajjim family: Abū Manṣūr; Yaḥyā ibn Abī Manṣūr; Muḥammad ibn Yaḥyā; ‘Alī ibn Yaḥyā; Yaḥyā ibn ‘Alī; Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyā; Hārūn ibn ‘Alī; ‘Alī ibn Hārūn; Aḥmad ibn ‘Alī; Hārūn ibn ‘Alī ibn Hārūn.[22][23][24][25][26]
  • Abū al-Ḥasan al-Sumaysāṭī also wrote in praise of Nuwas. [27]

Imprisonment and death

Abu Nuwas died during the Great Abbasid Civil War before al-Ma’mūn advanced from Khurāsān in either 199 or 200 AH (814–816 C.E.). Because he frequently indulged in drunken exploits, Nuwas was imprisoned during the reign of Al-Amin, shortly before his death.[28]

The cause of his death is disputed:[29] four different accounts of Abu Nuwas’ death survive: 1. He was poisoned by the Nawbakht family for satirizing them with a poem. 2. He died in a tavern drinking right up to his death. 3. He was beaten by the Nawbakht for the satire falsely attributed to him; wine appears to have had a role in the flailing emotions of his final hours. This seems to be a combination of accounts one and two. 4. He died in prison, a version which contradicts the many anecdotes stating that in the advent of his death he suffered illness and was visited by friends (though not in prison).

He most probably died of ill health, and equally probably in the house of the Nawbakht family, from whom came the myth that they poisoned him.[3] Nuwas was buried in Shunizi cemetery in Baghdad.[30]


Manuscript of Abu Nawas' verses. Copied by Mirza Kuchik Visal, Qajar Iran, dated 10 May 1824


Nuwas is one of a number of writers credited with inventing the literary form of the mu‘ammā (literally "blinded" or "obscured"), a riddle which is solved "by combining the constituent letters of the word or name to be found.".[31][32] He also perfected two Arabic genres: Khamriyya (wine poetry) and Tardiyya (hunting poetry). Ibn Quzman, who was writing in Al-Andalus in the 12th century, admired him deeply and has been compared to him.[33]


The city of Baghdad has several places named for the poet. Abū Nuwās Street runs along the east bank of the Tigris River, in a neighborhood that was once the city's showpiece. Abu Nuwas Park is located on the 2.5-kilometer stretch between the Jumhouriya Bridge and a park that extends out to the river in Karada near the 14th of July Bridge.[34]

In 1976, a crater on the planet Mercury was named in honor of Abu Nuwas.[35]

The Abu Nawas Association, founded in 2007 in Algeria, was named after the poet. The primary aim of the organization is to decriminalize homosexuality in Algeria, seeking the abolition of article 333 and 338 of the Algerian penal code which still considers homosexuality a crime punishable by imprisonment and accompanied by a fine.[36][37]


While his works were in circulation freely until the early years of the twentieth century, the first modern censored edition of his works was published in Cairo in 1932. In January 2001, the Egyptian Ministry of Culture ordered the burning of some 6,000 copies of books of Nuwas' homoerotic poetry.[38] In the Saudi Global Arabic Encyclopedia entry for Abu Nuwas, all mentions of pederasty were omitted.[39]

In popular culture

He is featured as a character in a number of stories in One Thousand and One Nights, where he is cast as a boon companion of Harun al-Rashid.

A heavily fictionalized Abu Nuwas is the protagonist of the novels The Father of Locks[40] and The Khalifah's Mirror by Andrew Killeen,[41] in which he is depicted as a spy working for Ja'far al-Barmaki.

In the Sudanese novel Season of Migration to the North (1966) by Tayeb Salih, Abu Nuwas' love poetry is cited extensively by one of the novel's protagonists, the Sudanese Mustafa Sa'eed, as a means of seducing a young English woman in London: "Does it not please you that the earth is awaking,/ That old virgin wine is there for the taking?"[42]

The Tanzanian artist Godfrey Mwampembwa (Gado) created a Swahili comic book called Abunuwasi which was published in 1996.[43] It features a trickster figure named Abunuwasi as the protagonist in three stories, drawing inspiration from East African folklore as well as the fictional Abu Nuwasi of One Thousand and One Nights.[44]

In Pasolini's Arabian Nights, the Sium story is based on Abu Nuwas' erotic poetry. The original poems are used throughout the scene.[45]

Editions and translations

  • Dīwān Abū Nu’ās, khamriyyāt Abū Nu’ās, ed. ‘Alī Najīb ‘Aṭwi (Beirut, LB, 1986).
  • Abu Nuwas, O Tribe That Loves Boys: The Poetry of Abu Nuwas ed. Hakim Bey, (Amsterdam, NL: Entimos Press / Abu Nuwas Society, 1993, ISBN 978-9080085732). With a scholarly biographical essay on Abu Nuwas, largely taken from Ewald Wagner's biographical entry in The Encyclopedia of Islam.
  • Geoff Puterbaugh, Carousing with Gazelles, Homoerotic Songs of Old Baghdad, Seventeen poems by Abu Nuwas translated by Jaafar Abu Tarab (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, Inc., 2005, ISBN 978-0595376919).
  • Jim Colville, Poems of Wine and Revelry: The Khamriyyat of Abu Nuwas, Kegan Paul Arabian Library (London, UK: Routledge, 2005, ISBN 978-0710309570).
  • The Khamriyyāt of Abū Nuwās: Medieval Bacchic Poetry, trans. Fuad Matthew Caswell (Leicester, UK: Matador, 2015, ISBN ‎ 978-1784623166). Trans. from ‘Aṭwi 1986.


  1. Aḥmad Ibn-Muḥammad Ibn-Hallikān, Wafayat al-a'yan wa anbã' abna' al-zamãn (The Obituaries of Eminent Men) (Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Historical Society, 1961), 546.
  2. Ewald Wagner, "Abū Nuwās," Brill, 2007. Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Philip F. Kennedy, Abu Nuwas: A Genius of Poetry (New York, NY: One World Press, 2005, ISBN 1851683607).
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "The Diwan of Abu Nuwas," Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  5. F.F. Arbuthnot, Arabic Authors: A Manual of Arabian History and Literature (London, UK: W. Heinemann, 1890, ISBN 978-1465510808), 81.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Julia Ashtiany (ed.), Abbasid belles lettres (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0521240161).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Alex Rowell, Vintage Humour: the Islamic Wine Poetry of Abu Nuwas (London, U: Hurst, 2018, ISBN 978-1849048972).
  8. Philip F. Kennedy, The Wine Song in Classical Arabic Poetry: Abu Nuwas and the Literary Tradition (New York, NY: Open University Press, 1997, ISBN 0198263929).
  9. Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq Ibn al-Nadīm, The Fihrist of al-Nadīm: A tenth-century survey of Muslim culture, ed. Bayard Dodge (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1970, ISBN 023102925X), 312–316, 353, 382, 1062.
  10. Ibn al-Nadīm, 352.
  11. Abū Sa’īd al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Sukkarī (d. 888/ 889), scholar of linguistics, ancient history, genealogy, poetry, geology, zoology and botany.
  12. Gustav Leberecht Flügel, Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber (The Grammatical Schools of the Arabs) (Leipzig, DE: Brockhaus, 1862), 89.
  13. Ibn al-Nadīm, 353, 954.
  14. Ibn al-Nadīm, 353, 1129.
  15. Abū Hiffān Abd Allāh ibn Aḥmad ibn Ḥarb al-Mihzamī (d. 871), secretary and poet of al-Baṣrah who lived in Baghdād.
  16. Jalāl al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān Al-Suyuti, Bughyat al-Wuʻāh fī Ṭabaqāt al-Lughawīyīn wa-al-Nuḥāh, Volume 1 (Cairo|al-Qāhirah: Ṭubiʻa bi-mạṭbaʻat ʻĪsa al-Bābī al-Halabī, 1965), 18 (§ 27). Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  17. Shihāb al-Dīn ibn ‘Abd al-Ḥamawī Yaqut al-Hamawi, Irshād al-Arīb alā Ma'rifat al-Adīb, ed. Ihsan Abbās (Beruit, LB: Dār Gharib al-Islām i, 1993), 953.
  18. Shihāb al-Dīn ibn ‘Abd al-Ḥamawī Yaqut al-Hamawi, Irshād al-Arīb alā Ma'rifat al-Adīb Volume VII, ed. David Samuel Margoliouth, (Leiden, NE: Brill, 1913), 277-278. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  19. Ibn ‘Ammār is possibly Aḥmad ibn ‘Ubayd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ‘Ammār al-Thaqafī (d. 926), Shī’ah secretary and vizier to many caliphs.
  20. Abū al-Faraj Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, Kitab al-Aghānī, Volume IV (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1888), 157. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  21. Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, Volume XVIII, 2-29.
  22. Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn Khallikan, Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, Volume III, tr. of Wafayāt al-A'yān wa-al-Anbā Abnā' al-Zamān, tr. William McGuckin de Slane. (London, UK: W.H. Allen, 1868), 604–605. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  23. Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn Khallikan, Wafayāt al-A'yān wa-Anbā' Abnā' al-Zamān (The Obituaries of Eminent Men), Volume VI (Beirut, LB: Dār Ṣādar, 1972), 78–79. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  24. ‘Abd al-Mālik, Abū Manṣūr Al-Tha'alibi, "Nāqidan fī Yatīmat al-dahr fī Shu'arā' Ahl al-Aṣr," in Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume II (Calcutta, India: Baptist Mission Press, 1915), 283.
  25. Al-Tha'alibi, "Nāqidan fī Yatīmat al-dahr fī Shu'arā' Ahl al-Aṣr," in Asiatic Society of Bengal Volume III, 207–208.
  26. ‘Abd al-Mālik, Abū Manṣūr Al-Tha'alibi, Index: Farīdatu'l-'Aṣr (Damascus, SY: Al-Maṭba’ah al-Ḥanifīyah, 1885).
  27. Ibn al-Nadīm, 353.
  28. Abu Nuwas," Rainbow Sudan. October 16, 2012. Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  29. "Abu Nuwas Biography," Poemhunter. Received January 16, 2023.
  30. Ibn Khallikān, Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary – Internet Archive (Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1842), 394. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  31. Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey (eds.), "mu'ammā," in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature (London, UK: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 978-0415571135).
  32. Gudrun Kramer, et. al. (eds.), "Lughz," in Encyclopedia of Islam, 3rd. ed. {Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2009, ISBN 978-9004181311).
  33. James T. Monroe, "Why was Ibn Quzmān Not Awarded the Title of "Abū Nuwās of the West?" Journal of Arabic Literature 44(3) (2013): 293–334. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  34. Sgt. Susan German, "DVIDS – News – A Walk in the Park," Dvidshub.net, August 10, 2004. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  35. T. J. Mahoney, Mercury (New York, NY: Springer, 2013, ISBN 978-1461479512), 49. Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  36. "Gay people are reclaiming an Islamic heritage," The Economist. May 27, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  37. Divine-Léna Tchuisseu, "LGBTQIA+ activism in Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries: between repression and determination," Institut du Genre en Géopolitique November 28, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  38. "Middle East Report," (219) (Summer 2001). Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  39. Peri Bearman, "Global Arabic Encyclopedia," in Encyclopedias about Muslim Civilisations ed. Aprin Khanbaghi (Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0748639700), 16–17.
  40. Andrew Killeen, The Father of Locks (Sawtry Cambs, UK: Dedalus, 2009, ISBN 978-1903517765).
  41. Andrew Killeen, The Khalifah's mirror (New York, NY: Dedalus, 2012, ISBN 978-1909232358).
  42. al-Ṭayyib Ṣāliḥ, Season of Migration to the North, trans. Denys Johnson-Davies (London, UK: Heinemann, 1991, ISBN 978-0435909741), 119-120.
  43. Gado, Abunuwasi (1995; Nairobi, Kenya: Sasa Sema Publications, 1998, ISBN 9966960902.
  44. Tim Pilcher, The Essential Guide to World Comics (London, UK: Collins & Brown, 2005, ISBN 1843403005), 297.
  45. Michael Moon, Arabian Nights: A Queer Film Classic (Vancouver, Canada: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2016, ISBN 978-1551526669).

ISBN links support NWE through referral fees

  • al-Isfahani, Abū al-Faraj Abu al-Faraj. Kitab al-Aghānī, Volume IV. Leiden, NE: Brill, 1888. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  • Al-Suyuti, Jalāl al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān. Bughyat al-Wuʻāh fī Ṭabaqāt al-Lughawīyīn wa-al-Nuḥāh, Volume 1. Cairo|al-Qāhirah: Ṭubiʻa bi-mạṭbaʻat ʻĪsa al-Bābī al-Halabī, 1965), 18 (§ 27). Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  • Al-Tha'alibi, Abd al-Mālik and Abū Manṣūr. "Nāqidan fī Yatīmat al-dahr fī Shu'arā' Ahl al-Aṣr," in Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume II. Calcutta, India: Baptist Mission Press, 1915, 283.
  • Arbuthnot, F.F. Arabic Authors: A Manual of Arabian History and Literature. London, UK: W. Heinemann, 1890. ISBN 978-1465510808
  • Ashtiany, Julia (ed.). Abbasid belles lettres. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0521240161
  • Bearman, Peri. "Global Arabic Encyclopedia," in Encyclopedias about Muslim Civilisations edited by Aprin Khanbaghi. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0748639700
  • Fatehi-Nezhad, Enayatollah, Azarnoosh, Azartash and Negahban, Farzin, "Abū Nuwās," Encyclopaedia Islamica, 2008. Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  • Flügel, Gustav Leberecht. Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber (The Grammatical Schools of the Arabs). Leipzig, Germany: Brockhaus, 1862.
  • Gado, Abunuwasi. Nairobi, Kenya: Sasa Sema Publications, 1998. ISBN 9966960902
  • Ibn-Hallikān, Aḥmad Ibn-Muḥammad. Wafayat al-a'yan wa anbã' abna' al-zamãn (The Obituaries of Eminent Men). Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Historical Society, 1961.
  • Ibn al-Nadīm, Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq. The Fihrist of al-Nadīm : A tenth-century survey of Muslim culture. edited by Bayard Dodge. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1970. ISBN 023102925X
  • Ibn Khallikan, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad. Wafayāt al-A'yān wa-Anbā' Abnā' al-Zamān (The Obituaries of Eminent Men), Volume VI. Beirut, Lebanon: Dār Ṣādar, 1972, 78–79. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  • Kennedy, Philip F. The Wine Song in Classical Arabic Poetry: Abu Nuwas and the Literary Tradition. New York, NY: Open University Press, 1997. ISBN 0198263929
  • Kennedy, Philip F. Abu Nuwas: A Genius of Poetry. New York, NY: One World Press, 2005. ISBN 1851683607
  • Killeen, Andrew. The Father of Locks. Sawtry Cambs, UK: Dedalus, 2009. ISBN 978-1903517765
  • Killeen, Andrew. The Khalifah's mirror. New York, NY: Dedalus, 2012. ISBN 978-1909232358
  • Kramer, Gudrun, et. al. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Islam, 3rd. ed. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2009. ISBN 978-9004181311
  • Mahoney, T.J. Mercury. New York, NY: Springer, 2013. ISBN 978-1461479512
  • Melsami, Julie Scott, and Paul Starkey (eds.). Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature. London, UK: Routledge, 1998. ISBN 978-0415571135
  • Monroe, James T. "Why was Ibn Quzmān Not Awarded the Title of "Abū Nuwās of the West?". Journal of Arabic Literature 44(3) (2013): 293–334. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  • Moon, Michael. Arabian Nights: A Queer Film Classic. Vancouver, Canada: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2016. ISBN 978-1551526669
  • Pilcher, Tim. The Essential Guide to World Comics. London, UK: Collins & Brown, 2005. ISBN 1843403005
  • Rowell, Alex. Vintage Humour: The Islamic Wine Poetry of Abu Nawas. London, UK: C. Hurst & Co., 2018. ISBN 978-1849048972
  • Ṣāliḥ, al-Ṭayyib. Season of Migration to the North, translated by Denys Johnson-Davies. London, UK: Heinemann, 1991. ISBN 978-0435909741
  • Straley, Dona S. The undergraduate's companion to Arab writers and their web sites. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. ISBN 978-1591581185
  • Tchuisseu, Divine-Léna. "LGBTQIA+ activism in Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries: between repression and determination," Institut du Genre en Géopolitique November 28, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  • Wagner, Ewald. "Abū Nuwās," 2007. Retrieved December 31, 2022.

Further reading

  • Lacy, Norris J. Poetics of Love in the Middle Ages, edited by Moshe Lazar. George Mason University Press, 1989. ISBN 0913969257, 95–118. "The Care and Feeding of Gazelles – Medieval Arabic and Hebrew love poetry"
  • Frye, Richard N. The Golden Age of Persia. New York, NY: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975. ISBN 006492288X
  • Ibn Khallikan and Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad. Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, Volume i, translated by William McGuckin de Slane. London, UK: W.H. Allen, 1843, 391–395. Retrieved January 22, 2023.

External links

All links retrieved June 14, 2023.


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