Johan Huizinga (December 7, 1872 – February 1, 1945) was a Dutch historian, a philosopher of culture, and one of the founders of modern cultural history. Succeeding his predecessor, Jacob Burckhardt of the nineteenth century, Huizinga approached history not only from a political perspective, but from a cultural one. He conceived history as the totality of comprehensive cultural activities including religion, philosophy, language, customs, arts, literatures, myths, superstitions, and others. He rejected philological methodology for the study of history, and tried to depict the lives, feelings, beliefs, imaginations, tastes, moral and aesthetic senses embedded in their cultural manifestations of the past. He attempted to write a history that invites readers to experience the way people in the past lived, felt, and thought by using visual and literal descriptions to achieve this purpose.
The Autumn of the Middle Ages (1919), a masterpiece of cultural history which fused images and concepts, literature and history, and religion and philosophy; it established Huizinga as the major cultural historian of the twentieth century, comparable with Burckhardt. Later in his life, Huizinga published Home Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture (1938). The work was the culmination of his studies as a cultural historian and a philosopher. In this work, he identified the essence of human beings with “playfulness,” exhibited it as the primordial drive of human existence, and showed it as the archetype of diverse cultural forms. He presented how all forms of human cultures emerged and developed as a modification and manifestation of playfulness.
Born in Groningen, Huizinga started out as a student of Sanskrit and did a doctoral thesis on the role of the jester in Indian drama in 1897. It was only in 1902 when he turned his interest towards medieval and Renaissance history. He continued teaching as an orientalist until becoming the professor of general and Dutch history at Groningen University in 1905. In 1915 he was made professor of general history at Leiden University, a post he held until 1942. From this point until his death in 1945, Huizinga was held in detention by the Nazis. He died in De Steeg in Gelderland near Arnhem, and is buried in the cemetery of the Reformed Church in Oegstgeest.
Thought and works
Prior to Huizinga, in the nineteenth century Jacob Burckhardt pioneered and established the cultural approach to history. Burckhardt was critical to modern philological and politics-centered approaches, and pioneered the cultural approach to history. Huizinga continued and developed Burckhardt’s approach and contributed to establish the genre of cultural history.
He conceived history as the totality of diverse aspects of human life, including religious faith and superstitious beliefs, customs, constraints, the sense of morality and beauty, and other elements that constituted culture. Huizinga refused conceptual schematization and patterning of history. Rather, he tried to depict the states of human spirit and thought imbedded in dreams, hopes, fears, and anxieties. He particularly focused on the sense of beauty and its artistic expressions and images.
With his literary skills, Huizinga succeeded in depicting how people in the past lived, experienced, and interpreted their cultural lives. History, for him, was not a series of political events that lacked the vivid feelings and experiences with which one lives. His monumental work, The Autumn of the Middle Ages (1919) was written from this perspective.
The work is primarily a study of history, yet it goes beyond the narrow disciplinary genre of history in the sense of the analytical, philological study of a series of events, and deals with interdisciplinary cultural realms where anthropology, aesthetics, philosophy, mythology, religious studies, art history, and literature are intertwined. While Huizinga paid attention to irrational aspects of human history, he was critical to the irrationalism of “philosophy of life.”
At the age of sixty-five, Huizinga published another masterpiece, Home Ludens (1938). This was the culmination of his work as a historian of culture and a philosopher of culture. Other major works include Erasmus (1924), and In de schaduwen van Morge (“In the Shadows of Tomorrow,” 1935).
The Autumn of the Middle Ages
The Autumn of the Middle Ages or The Waning of the Middle Ages (published in 1919 as Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen and translated into English in 1924) is the best-known work by Huizinga. Jacob Burckhardt and other historians interpreted the Middle Ages as the precursor of Renaissance and described it as the cradle of realism. Burckhardt’s works focused on the Italian Renaissance, and did not sufficiently deal with the cultures of France, the Netherlands, and other parts of Europe north of the Alps.
Huizinga challenged the interpretation of Middle Ages from the perspective of and in continuity with the Renaissance. He believed that the medieval cultures flourished and reached its maturity in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and reached their end in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Like a living thing in nature, Huizinga believed that history has its birth and death, and the late Middle Ages was the period that saw its death and subsequent rebirth. For example, in the chapter “Image of Death,” Huizinga depicted the fifteenth century as the period when thought of death occupied people’s mind and the “dance of death” became a frequent motif in paintings. He saw pessimism, weariness, and nostalgia for the past—a symptom of dying culture—rather than of rebirth and optimism, a precursor of Renaissance.
The merit of this work lies not only on his unique perspective, but also on his literary skills and his approach. Huizinga described and depicted the ways people lived, felt, and thought, and interpreted their experiences. He tried to give readers a sense of what it was like to live in the period described. In this work, images and concepts, values and facts, feelings and thoughts are fused in a literary prose. It is a work on history, but also a literature and a philosophical work at the same time. One of the unique qualities of the work lies in its unique fusion and transcendence of and traditional categories of knowledge.
Huizinga's work, however, has later come under criticism, especially for relying too heavily on evidence from the rather exceptional case of the Burgundian court. In spite of its limitations, this work remains as one of the classic works in cultural history together with works by Jacob Burckhardt. A new English translation of the book has been made because of perceived deficiencies in the original translation.
Homo Ludens: A Study of the play Element in Culture (1938) is another major work written at the maturity of Huizinga's scholarly life as the culmination of his studies of cultural history. As the title suggests, Huizinga identified the essence of human beings with playfulness. He presented his philosophical conviction for the essence of man against various previous characterizations of human beings such as homo sapiens (a being with intelligence), homo fabel (a being who uses tools), homo erectus (a being who stands on feet), and others.
Huizinga presented the thesis that all forms of human cultures emerged out of playfulness, which was the fundamental drive of human existence. He first attempted to establish an autonomous category of “play” and tried to describe cultural history from the perspective of “play.” Employing his broad knowledge of mythology, anthropology, classics, religions, philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and literature, he attempted to show how cultural activities such as rituals, languages, religions, technologies, love affairs, arts, sports, competitions, and even wars are rooted in and inseparable from “play” as the archetype of human culture. From Huizinga’s perspective, human cultural history emerged and developed out of the element of "play."
- Play (activity) for further studies of play
- Flow (psychology) — Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's Flow Theory of Optimal Experience
- Jacob Burckhardt
- Huizinga, Johan. The Autumn of the Middle Ages. Translated by Rodney J. Payton. Paperback edition, 1997. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226359948
- Huizinga, Johan. Erasmus and the Age of Reformation. New edition, 2002. Troy, MI: Phoenix Press. ISBN 1842124137
- Huizinga, Johan. Homo Ludens. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1971. ISBN 0807046817
- Huizinga, Johan. Dutch Civilization in the Seventeenth Century and Other Essays. Edited by P. Geyl and F. W. N. Hugenholtz, 1968.
- Kelley, Donald R. Fortunes of History: Historical Inquiry from Herder to Huizinga. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003. ISBN 0300095783
- Biographical notes
- The Waning of the Middle Ages
- Johan Huizinga's works in Dutch at Project Gutenberg
General Philosophy Sources
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Philosophy Sources on Internet EpistemeLinks
- Guide to Philosophy on the Internet
- Paideia Project Online
- Project Gutenberg
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