In an effort to make documentation style more consistent project-wide, this page has been created to make it easier to find information on how to document sources in your articles.
You may want to bookmark it for easy reference in the future.
Note that the Chicago Manual of Style lists both a Humanities style and an Author-Date style of footnote and reference. The New World Encyclopedia prefers the Humanities style of reference because of its emphasis on values, philosophy and religion. However, it will also accept the Author-Date style. The reference style of an article must be consistent throughout the entire article and conform to the basic style outlined below. See the Chicago Manual of Style (sect. 17 in the 15th edition) for additional information for more specific cases.
Humanities style uses numbers in the text that indicate an endnote. A bibliography should also be included. When multiple references are made to a particular source, use the <ref name> system. If different page numbers are necessary, simply create a new <ref> tag using author's name and page number after citing the entire work on first reference:
On subsequent references:
Adding the ISBN number of the book is preferable, using this format:
This will automatically generate wiki links to online book sellers (Amazon.com, Barnes and Noble) and make it easier for the reader to locate books and provide referral fees to the New World Encyclopedia.
In both footnotes and reference lists:
Corporate Scandals: The Many Faces of Greed, 2nd ed.
In Humanities style, use the following format to indicate multiple dates of publication:
Note: If the work is available online, the hyperlink is included in the title of the article.
Links to the web are sometimes difficult to document. Please make an effort to include all information in a citation:
In wiki code, the above would look like this (with <ref> tags added):
Note: No named author is given.
In wiki code, the above would look like this:
Author-Date style uses an author-date citation in parentheses in running text or at the end of a quotation. These citations correspond to the author, date listed in the references at the end of the article. This style is less desirable for the project than the above humanities (Chicago) style, but is acceptable.
All references, no matter what kind of source (book, journal article, etc.) will look the same in the text of the article:
They are placed inside the period of the sentence they support:
If no named author is given, list the publisher as the author:
Assign a lowercase letter of the alphabet (usually corresponding to titles in alphabetical order) to each work.
When no date is available for a source in the author-date style, it is generally recommended that the notation "n.d." follow the author's name in the citation, as below:
However, for this project, "n.d." can be omitted unless there are multiple works by one author that need to be distinguished from one another. For example:
Otherwise, if only one source is cited by a particular author, the following is sufficient:
Typically in author-date style, multiple works by the same author are listed chronologically, with three emdashes in place of the repeated name:
The listing for each work is preceded by a bullet point in reference lists for this project, so the three-emdash style does not lend itself well to our purposes. It is better, in this case, to simply repeat the author's name to make it more readable.
In the Author-Date style, when a reference contains multiple dates of publication—such as an original date and a current date—it is our style to place the original date in brackets which precede the current date:
The reference list would then be arranged according to the original date, so a different reference by Henry George that was dated 1888 would come after the reference above.
If no date of publication is given, date can be omitted unless there are multiple works for one author. In this case, use the "n.d." abbreviation as above.
Organizations can be listed as both the author and the publisher in author-date style.
Note that article titles are not placed in quotation marks and that all words are lower-case except the first word in a title, the first word after a colon, a proper noun, or an abbreviation.
In wiki code the above looks like this:
* McNeill, William H. 2006. [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19435 "Secrets of the Cave Paintings."] ''The New York Review of Books''. Retrieved March 20, 2007.
In cases where the author name is not known, omit the name and alphabetize by publisher:
When the date of publication is not given, it can be omitted.
External links is a reference section in some articles that is less formal than a citation. This section points the reader to other websites that contain information relevant to the article.
When preparing an article for submission, a check of external links to evaluate their validity, relevance and reliability is recommended. Websites with questionable credibility or too narrow of a scope should be deleted. Only established, reliable websites should be linked—collections of essays written by students at a middle school, for example, should not be included in this project.
Please include the general page title, the author and the publisher. Use the following format from this sample "external links" section (with wiki code visible):
All links retrieved September 10, 2007.
* [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19435 Secrets of the Cave Paintings] – ''New York Review of Books''
* [http://www.mindat.org/min-2062.html Jadeite] – Mindat.org.
* [http://www.architectureweek.com/2000/0524/culture_1-1.html What is the Culture of Building?] by Howard Davis, ''Agriculture Week''
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5165342 Kurt Vonnegut Judges Modern Society] – Interview on NPR (January 23, 2006)
* [http://www.vonnegut.com/ Vonnegut.com] – Official website
* [http://www.truthout.org/issues_05/042905WC.shtml “Kyrgyzstan: The Bridal 'Grab and Run'”] by Craig S. Smith, ''[[International Herald Tribune]]''
* [http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/psychology/child_abduction/index.htm “Child Abduction: Etan Patz”] by Mark Gado, CourtTV Crime Library
* [http://www.colonialhall.com/adamss/adamss.php Biography of Samuel Adams] – Colonial Hall
* [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=A000045 Samuel Adams] – Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
In an article, the above would be displayed like this:
All links retrieved September 10, 2007.
This page does not list every possible kind of source you may encounter. Therefore, it is highly recommended that authors and editors have a copy of the Chicago Manual of Style at their side when documenting sources for this project to assure accuracy. A renewed effort to be more thorough in documenting sources will ultimately speed up the process of completing articles.