A grinding machine is a machine tool equipped with an abrasive wheel used for producing fine finishes or making light cuts on metals and other materials. There are various types of grinding machines. Their wheels, which differ in size and grain, are made up of a variety of stones, diamonds, and other inorganic materials. These machines are useful for roughing and finishing operations on tools and other equipment.
The grinding machine consists of a power-driven grinding wheel and a bed with a fixture to guide and hold the workpiece. The wheel is made to spin at the desired speed, based on the wheel’s diameter and manufacturer’s rating, usually by a formula. The grinding head can be controlled to travel across a fixed workpiece, or the workpiece can be moved whilst the grinding head stays in a fixed position. Very fine control of the grinding head or table position is feasible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel, or using the features of numerical control (NC) or computer numerical control (CNC).
Grinding machines remove material from the workpiece by abrasion, which can generate substantial amounts of heat. They therefore incorporate a coolant to cool the workpiece so that it does not overheat and exceed its tolerance range. The coolant also benefits the machinist, as the heat generated may cause burns in some cases. In very high-precision grinding machines (such as most cylindrical and surface grinders), the final grinding stages are usually set up to remove about 2/10000 millimeter (less than 1/100000 inch) of the workpiece surface per pass. This process generates such little heat that the temperature rise is negligible even without a coolant.
There are various types of grinding machines. They include:
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