Thank you for your comment. Particle physics is certainly a developing field, and therefore what have been understood to be the elementary particles have changed as additional data were obtained, and may well change in the future. This is the nature of science. Indeed, mathematics is an important aspect of this development.

]]>In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is not composed of other particles. Dirac equation predicted every elementary particle in the universe has an antiparticle – its identical twin but with opposite charge.

That is to say, elementary particles have the following physical characteristics:

1. It is not composed of other particles.

2. It is a pair by particles and its identical anti-particles.

However, there are no evidences that the particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), must be the elementary particles undoubtedly. If they are composed of other particles, they will only be microscopic particles, not the elementary particles.

According to the modern discoveries in physics, fundamental forces and elementary particles can be written in terms of a pair of physical and virtual fields.

In physics, topological vortex and anti-vortex fields always appear in pairs. They perfectly reflect the exact symmetry under the simultaneous transformation of parity conservation (P), charge conjugation (C) and time reversal (T).

Topological vortex and anti-vortex field pairs can generate or annihilate at the limit points, and encounter, split or merge at the bifurcation points of the 3-dimensional vector order parameter, and form topological bifurcations by unstable point defects system. This means that the topological bifurcations can be the fundamental understructure of various microscopic particles. Topological vortex and anti-vortex field pairs had all the physical characteristics of elementary particles.

Elementary particles are the foundation of all things. In the presence of dissipation they can form microscopic particles in many forms. Parity conservation (P), charge conjugation (C) and time reversal (T) are the nature feature of elementary particles. As one of the microscopic particles, ? and ? are composed of elementary particles. The parity conservation of ? and ? only allows each of them respond to external forces as an independent whole, is not whether they are symmetric. There are no evidences to support that ? and ? are the same particle or mirror images of each other in nature.

Mathematics is the language in which humans write the universe. Mathematics does not tell humans that elementary particles must be spherical, but can be unipolar. This suggests that elementary particles can be a rotating two-dimensional matter.

Any guess, assumption, speculation or conjecture that deviates from and distorts mathematics, no matter what person or institution it comes from, is pseudoscience.

What, pray, if physical science deviates from mathematics seriously, can it still be called science? What else does such science deserve public respect? ]]>