As with other taxa, mandrills provide a larger function for the ecosystem and humans while also advancing their own individual function of survival, self-maintenance, and reproduction. Ecologically, they play a role in food chains in their rainforest environment, consuming vegetative materials (fruits, seeds, roots, etc.) and various invertebrates (insects, snails, worms) and vertebrates (snakes, frogs, etc.), while being consumed by leopards and other large predators. It is likely that they also play a role in seed dispersal (Ingmarsson 1999). For humans, they serve as a source of bushmeat, but also are popular attractions in zoos or on ecotours, given their colorful appearance, long lifespan, and unique behaviors. Remarkably, they also are very adept at removing articles from visitors of zoos, such as glasses or pipes.