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Cybercrime refers to crime that involves a computer and a network either used in the commission of the crime or as the target (read more)

Values Forum

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The Values Forum is an interactive, journal-style forum in which you can write articles and commentary and engage in debate and discussion with other NWE thinkers and contributors. Please visit the page to participate.

Featured Article: Foot binding

A shoe for bound feet
Footbinding was a custom practiced on young females for approximately one thousand years in China, from the tenth century until the early twentieth century. The practice originated among entertainers and members of the Chinese court during the Song Dynasty (960–1279). By the end of the Song dynasty, the practice had spread among the families of the scholarly class which governed China. Initially, foot binding was common only in the wealthiest parts of China, particularly in northern China. However, by the late Qing Dynasty, foot binding had become popular among people of all social classes except the poorest, who needed able-bodied women to work the fields. Women with bound feet wore special, tiny shoes decorated with beautiful embroidery. Since they were unable to do labor, the tiny feet were a symbol of privilege and wealth. Girls with small, bound feet had a better chance of getting a higher bride price.

When a girl was between the ages of three and eight years old, the four small toes on each foot were folded over and bound tightly with long bandages, which were re-wrapped every one or two days. The pressure of the bandages caused the bones to break and force the arch upward into a form referred to as “lotus foot.” The feet would not grow any longer than 3-6 inches (10-15 cm), leaving the adult woman with small and dysfunctional feet. Foot binding finally ended during the twentieth century, when Chinese and Western missionaries campaigned against it, and it was prohibited by the nationalist and Communist governments.

Popular Article: Music

Passage from Beethoven's 9th.
Music is an auditory art comprised of meaningful arrangements of sounds with a relation to pitch, rhythm, and tonality. Another definition of music is "a natural and intuitive phenomenon operating in the spheres of time, pitch, and energy, and under three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody." Since music is natural, it can be produced in nature by various creatures; and since it is intuitive, humans can recognize their sounds as musical. Moreover, as music is intuitive, people can virtually perform and even hear music in their mind.

Generally, music is known through the cognition of specific arrangements of sounds and the emotional reaction that it engenders. Whether the music is a complex and intellectually demanding orchestral composition or a plaintive folk song, the range of responses can encompass the full range of human emotions.

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