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Some of the first formalized adult education institutions were correspondence schools. (read more)

Values Forum

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The Values Forum is an interactive, journal-style forum in which you can write articles and commentary and engage in debate and discussion with other NWE thinkers and contributors. Please visit the page to participate.

Featured Article: Aid

Aid (or "international aid," "overseas aid," or "foreign aid," especially in the United States, European Union, and Australia) is a transfer of resources from one country to another. This help, primarily economic, may be provided to communities or countries in the event of a humanitarian crisis or to achieve a socioeconomic objective. Humanitarian aid is primarily used for emergency or disaster relief, while development aid aims to create long-term sustainable economic growth.

Wealthier countries typically act as donors in providing aid to economically developing countries, and generally their intention is good. However, for a variety of reasons, some attributable to self-interest on the part of the donors and others due to problems with the recipients, aid has often been ineffective or even detrimental. Also, donor countries failed to achieve quantitative goals set by the United Nations General Assembly in 1970. Efforts have been undertaken to improve both the quantity and efficacy of aid given to countries in need. One of the most hopeful of these may be the emergence of aid from successful developing countries who have gained knowledge and expertise which they can use in the process of aiding less developed nations, much as older children may help their younger siblings understand and succeed in challenges and tasks in which they have recently become adept.

Popular Article: Nation-state

A map of countries of Europe, where the ideal of the "nation-state" arose
In general discussion, a nation-state is variously called a "country," a "nation," or a "state." But technically, it is a specific form of sovereign state (a political entity on a territory) that is guided by a nation (a cultural entity), and which derives its legitimacy from successfully serving all its citizens. The nation-state implies that a state and a nation coincide.

The modern state is relatively new to human history, emerging after the Renaissance and Reformation. It was given impetus by the throwing off of kings (for example, in the Netherlands and the United States) and the rise of efficient state bureaucracies that could govern large groups of people impersonally. Frederick the Great (Frederick II of Prussia 1740 - 1786) is frequently cited as one of the originators of modern state bureaucracy. It is based on the idea that the state can treat large numbers of people equally by efficient application of the law through the bureaucratic machinery of the state.

The League of Nations (1919) and the United Nations are predicated on the concept of a community of nation-states. However, the concept of a modern nation-state is more an ideal than a reality. There are very few geographic territories in which a single ethnic, religious, or other culturally homogeneous group resides. This has been increasingly true as a result of globalization and the dispersion of people of countless national cultures all over the world displaced as refugees from national conflicts within states.

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