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The name "Emma" was introduced to England by Emma of Normandy, who was the wife of King Ethelred the Unready of England and then of King Canute the Great of Denmark (read more)

Featured Article: Klamath

Elderly Klamath woman by Edward S. Curtis, 1924
The Klamath are a Native American tribe of the Plateau culture area in Southern Oregon. Together with the Modoc, and Yahooskin they now form the Klamath Tribes, a federally recognized confederation of three Native American tribes who traditionally inhabited Southern Oregon and Northern California in the United States. The tribal government is based in Chiloquin, Oregon.

An industrious, although warlike people, the Klamath quickly made trading partners with the European explorers in the early nineteenth century. They were then forced to live on a Reservation with their former rivals, the Modoc, and Yahooshkin, which led them to drastically change their lifestyle. Despite these challenges, the Klamath prospered, so much so that their federal recognition was "terminated" under a Federal policy to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream culture, and their reservation lands sold.

With the loss of their resources and federal support services, as well as their identity as a federally recognized tribe, the Klamath faced the collapse of their economy and society. Yet, they persevered, and in 1986 were able to regain federal recognition as the Klamath Tribes. Today they are working to revive and maintain the spiritual, cultural, and physical values and resources of their ancestors, and through this contribute to human society as a whole.

Popular Article: Bacteria

Escherichia coli
Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a group of microscopic, single-celled prokaryotes—that is, organisms characterized by a lack of a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles.

Although among the most primitive organisms, bacteria reflect many universal features of life, including that they are composed of cells, transmit genetic information via DNA, and need energy from the environment to exist, grow, and reproduce; even sexual reproduction has been exhibited in some species of bacteria. Bacteria are often viewed negatively, given this group's connection to diseases. However, bacteria perform invaluable, beneficial functions in ecosystems, and also reflect harmony between living organisms in a number of ways. These include conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to forms that plants can use, exhibiting mutualism (a type of symbiosis in which both organisms in two interacting species receive benefit), and recycling nutrients through bacterial decomposition of dead plants and animals. Bacteria also provide an aid in digestion for many organisms, and are helpful in yogurt production, sewage treatment, and as sources of medicinal drugs.